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Non-linear robust control for inverted-pendulum 2D walking

Matthew Kelly, Andy Ruina
2015 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)  
We present an approach to high-level control for bipedal walking exemplified with a 2D point-mass inextensiblelegs inverted-pendulum model.  ...  The general form of the resulting optimized controller suggests a few simple principles for regulating walking speed: 1) The robot should take bigger steps when speeding up and should also take bigger  ...  Thanks to Petr Zaytzev for his insights about the nature of the control laws for the simplest walker, and to Anoop Grewal for his work on the simplest walker model.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icra.2015.7139800 dblp:conf/icra/KellyR15 fatcat:323enqxb6vc55gsmfebt5f7rnq

Normalized Neural Network for Energy Efficient Bipedal Walking Using Nonlinear Inverted Pendulum Model

Ruobing Wang, Samuel J. Hudson, Yao Li, Hongtao Wu, Chengxu Zhou
2019 2019 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO)  
In this paper, we present a novel approach for bipedal walking pattern generation. The proposed method is designed based on 2D inverted pendulum model.  ...  To obviate the need of solving non-linear dynamics on-line, a deep neural network is adopted for fast non-linear mapping from desired states to control variables.  ...  II. 2D INVERTED PENDULUM MODEL The walking bipedal robot model is considered to be a 2D IPM and only forward walking on a flat ground is discussed.  ... 
doi:10.1109/robio49542.2019.8961646 dblp:conf/robio/WangHL0Z19 fatcat:gw33hs3hbzfhzcyfnzjfu54ll4

Supplementary Appendix to: Walking crowds on a shaky surface: The mechanics of stable walking predict Millennium bridge oscillations with and without pedestrian synchrony from Walking crowds on a shaky surface: stable walkers discover Millennium Bridge oscillations with and without pedestrian synchrony

Varun Joshi, Manoj Srinivasan
2018 Figshare  
S10 An impulsively stabilized inverted pendulum We have used a mechanistically-motivated feedback controller for human walking to show that bridgeshaking naturally emerges from these dynamics coupled to  ...  Similarly, continuous (non-impulsive) stabilization of inverted pendulum using a traditional PD controller goes unstable at large delay in the feedback [28] .  ...  Step-length, stepwidth and push-off impulse can change in response to bridge motion Table S1 : Features of some previous articles on 3D walking or interaction with bridge surface, showing how our article  ... 
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.7228337 fatcat:k6dy6gn67nftzak7ubpw45ko2i

Estimation and Closed-Loop Control of COG/ZMP in Biped Devices Blending CoP Measures and Kinematic Information

Giuseppe Menga, Marco Ghirardi
2019 Robotics  
In order to achieve this result, we introduce a model of the linearized inverted pendulum for an extended estimation, not only of C O G and Z M P , but also of external disturbances.  ...  The zero moment point ( Z M P ) and the linearized inverted pendulum model linking the Z M P to the center of gravity ( C O G ) have an important role in the control of the postural equilibrium (balance  ...  Robustness was shown by applying the control designed for a linearized inverted pendulum to two non-linear systems: a three-DOF kinematic chain of an actual mechanical small-scale leg and the simulation  ... 
doi:10.3390/robotics8040089 fatcat:5dliqt2n2rcy7ofdqlnrrwsw5i

Computer optimization of a minimal biped model discovers walking and running

Manoj Srinivasan, Andy Ruina
2005 Nature  
At low speeds the optimization discovers the classic inverted-pendulum walk [8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13], at high speeds it discovers a bouncing run [12; 14] 1 , even without springs, and at intermediate speeds  ...  It is word-for-word the same as the published version, except where noted explicitly as footnotes.  ...  The pendular stance portions we found, withl = 0, seem to be singular arcs of the optimal control.  ... 
doi:10.1038/nature04113 pmid:16155564 fatcat:lse4bhutozeklb3qgkuxkgyfr4

Dynamic Balancing and Walking for Real-Time 3D Characters [chapter]

Ben Kenwright, Richard Davison, Graham Morgan
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
To achieve this we use an inverted pendulum as a basis for achieving a self-balancing model.  ...  We demonstrate responsiveness in stepping and posture control via a simplified biped skeletal model using our technique.  ...  Inverted Pendulum The linear inverted pendulum (IP) may generate predictive foot placement information for balancing characters in 2D and 3D (e.g., [24, 29] ).  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-25090-3_6 fatcat:q422ado2wvecdow2uhk4e7mkk4

Dynamic Walkng of Legged Machines [article]

Kendeas Theofanous
2018 arXiv   pre-print
In this project, we aim to develop a bipedal walking control system based on a simple model the Linear Inverted Pendulum model.  ...  Algorithms based on complex models and/or reinforcement learning exist to solve the walking control task.  ...  Zhibin Li, for his patience, guidance and help.  ... 
arXiv:1805.05980v1 fatcat:e4lmdku4ezeilmt6rry7iuya5q

The Rh-1 Full-Size Humanoid Robot: Control System Design and Walking Pattern Generation [chapter]

Mario Arbulu, Dmitry Kaynov, Carlos Balaguer
2010 Climbing and Walking Robots  
In this way, it is possible to use the 2D Inverted pendulum model to obtain stable and smooth walking motion.  ...  strategy allowing for the use of traditional controllers such as the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) or a simple PID controller to regulate the inverted pendulum about the upright equilibrium point.  ... 
doi:10.5772/10422 fatcat:rxwi5xwdr5gathgzzyyymqe3i4

Biologically Inspired Self-Stabilizing Control for Bipedal Robots

Woosung Yang, Hyungjoo Kim, Bum Jae You
2013 International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems  
The entrainment nature inherent to neural oscillators also achieved stable and robust walking even in the presence of unexpected disturbances, in that the centre of mass (COM) was successfully kept in  ...  Despite recent major advances in computational power and control algorithms, the stable and robust control of a bipedal robot is still a challenging issue due to the complexity and high nonlinearity of  ...  Modern robot control based on motion planning based approaches, i.e., the zero moment point criterion [1, 2] , the threedimensional linear inverted pendulum model [3] and virtual model-based control  ... 
doi:10.5772/55463 fatcat:gfg3f2m2lbafhfadhpnuufisy4

Angular Momentum about the Contact Point for Control of Bipedal Locomotion: Validation in a LIP-based Controller [article]

Yukai Gong, Jessy Grizzle
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The ubiquitous massless-legged linear inverted pendulum (LIP) model is based on it.  ...  In the control of bipedal locomotion, linear velocity of the center of mass has been widely accepted as a primary variable for summarizing a robot's state vector.  ...  LINEAR INVERTED PENDULUM MODEL This section provides the ubiquitous Linear Inverted Pendulum (LIP) model of Kajita et al. [18] .  ... 
arXiv:2008.10763v2 fatcat:ta3e4mmvgbetzishfnuvd64rzm

From 2D Design of Underactuated Bipedal Gaits to 3D Implementation: Walking With Speed Tracking

Xingye Da, Omar Harib, Ross Hartley, Brent Griffin, Jessy W. Grizzle
2016 IEEE Access  
Analysis and controller design methods abound in the literature for planar (aka 2D) bipedal models.  ...  This paper takes one of them developed for underactuated bipeds and documents the process of designing a family of controllers on the basis of a planar model and achieving stable walking on a physical  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Professor Jonathan Hurst (Oregon State University) and Mikhail Jones (Agility Robotics) are sincerely thanked for their advice on controller design for ATRIAS-series robots.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2016.2582731 fatcat:w2v64pj6azh4pf65hvekv7liyu

Stability Analysis and Control of Rigid-Body Systems With Impacts and Friction

Michael Posa, Mark Tobenkin, Russ Tedrake
2016 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control  
Kowalczyk, Robust chaos and border-collision bifurcations in non-invertible piecewise-linear maps. Nonlinearity 18 (2005), no. 2, 485-504.  X.  ...  Generating oscillations in inertia wheel pendulum via two-relay controller. Internat. J. Robust Nonlinear Control 22 (2012), no. 3, 318-330. C. Lin, Wang, Q.G. Lee, H. Tong.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tac.2015.2459151 fatcat:3agfj5ymmjdhhmulz5i2wxqmty


Prahlad Vadakkepat, Dip Goswami
2008 International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems  
A detailed survey is presented describing the various research problems and the approaches reported in the literature to analyze and control biped locomotion.  ...  The model is well-known as Linear Inverted Pendulum Model (LIPM) for its linearity [9, 10, 11] . In [9, 11] , the LIPM is used for real-time ZMP following.  ...  In [13] , two-mass inverted pendulum model is used for designing linear optimal control to track the ZMP trajectory. The technique uses ZMP as a feedback.  ... 
doi:10.21307/ijssis-2017-286 fatcat:lk45nhgmgfc7vpfdcq6n44rfsm

A new approach on human–robot collaboration with humanoid robot RH-2

C. A. Monje, P. Pierro, C. Balaguer
2011 Robotica (Cambridge. Print)  
The inner loop, called posture stability control loop, acts to guarantee the stability of humanoid for different poses determined by motion patterns.  ...  The outer loop, called collaborative control loop, is devoted to the generation of stable motion patterns for a robot, given a specific manipulation task.  ...  Humanoid gait is often modeled with various versions of inverted pendulum, such as 2D and 3D linear inverted pendulums (LIP), 14, 15 the cart-table model, 16 the variable impedance LIP, 17 the spring-loaded  ... 
doi:10.1017/s026357471100018x fatcat:asqz5axvxvbuxotvjgnn574ziq

A Computational Mechatronics Approach for the Analysis, Synthesis and Design of a Simple Active Biped Robot: Theory and Experiments

L.-I. Lugo-Villeda, V. Parra-Vega
2006 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics  
The result is an advanced computational tool that integrates advanced modeling and control as well as path planning techniques along with hardware-in-the-loop for perhaps the simplest biped robot.  ...  To this end, a computational mechatronics platform was integrated to run the scheme for the analysis, synthesis and design to achieve planar biped walking.  ...  , which achieves fast and robust control.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2006/289145 fatcat:c7sypc35gjghldfhqxtwkbift4
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