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Non-Monotonic Reasoning and Story Comprehension [article]

Irene-Anna Diakidoy, Antonis Kakas, Loizos Michael, Rob Miller
2014 arXiv   pre-print
This paper develops a Reasoning about Actions and Change framework integrated with Default Reasoning, suitable as a Knowledge Representation and Reasoning framework for Story Comprehension.  ...  It uses argumentation to capture appropriate solutions to the frame, ramification and qualification problems and generalizations of these problems required for text comprehension.  ...  This priority amongst these basic units of knowledge gives a form of non-monotonic reasoning (NMR) for deriving new properties that hold in the story.  ... 
arXiv:1407.3832v1 fatcat:zs6a5clfb5apfedqsqexpuk7f4

Brain 'talks over' boring quotes: Top-down activation of voice-selective areas while listening to monotonous direct speech quotations

Bo Yao, Pascal Belin, Christoph Scheepers
2012 NeuroImage  
Here we show that listening to monotonously spoken direct versus indirect speech quotations also engenders differential TVA activity.  ...  This suggests that individuals engage in top-down simulations or imagery of enriched supra-segmental acoustic representations while listening to monotonous direct speech.  ...  The study was supported by the Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology and the Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, University of Glasgow.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.111 pmid:22306805 fatcat:yblcvfi44jfonnps4yhdrgpaxy

Comprehensible classification models

Alex A. Freitas
2014 SIGKDD Explorations  
the comprehensibility of a model, and the use of monotonicity constraints to improve the comprehensibility and acceptance of classification models by users.  ...  This paper reviews the case for considering also the comprehensibility (interpretability) of classification models, and discusses the interpretability of five types of classification models, namely decision  ...  It has been argued that, even when there are monotonic constraints in the application domain, real-world datasets usually have some non-monotonic noise, with purely monotonic datasets being rare [7] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2594473.2594475 fatcat:4w5frwv2zzd6thoevypzjdgtra

Effects of oral reading rate and inflection on intraverbal responding

Henry A. Tenenbaum, William D. Wolking
1989 The Analysis of Verbal Behavior  
Reading comprehension may be defined as a type of intraverbal responding.  ...  The results indicated that the combination of high oral reading rate with inflection, a condition approximating conversational speech, increased both the accuracy and speed of intraverbal responding (comprehension  ...  , and (c) the experimenter read the passage at between 150 and 200 words per minute in a monotone.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf03392839 pmid:22477588 pmcid:PMC2748509 fatcat:lsbkbzpuh5ea5lhstnluj7yzqm

Introduction

Erik Weber, Dietlinde Wouters, Joke Meheus
2012 Foundations of Science  
In the 'old history of science' success stories were told, usually on the basis of published papers and even textbooks, and only theories that had survived were considered (Galileo's law of free fall,  ...  played a crucial role in the construction of new theories, but that are today considered as non-rational-examples are Kepler's work on astrology and on the harmony of the spheres, and Newton's work on  ...  In Non-monotonic set theory as a pragmatic foundation of mathematics Peter Verdée proposes a new approach to the foundation of mathematics: non-monotonic set theory.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10699-012-9291-x fatcat:4o5ijq4sefcmdbcsa3cccfbimu

Applying CHC Models to Reasoning in Fictions [chapter]

Luis A. Urtubey, Alba Massolo
2014 Communications in Computer and Information Science  
CHCs), extensively developed during the last years by Enric Trillas and some collaborators, with which deduction in this setting becomes more comprehensive.  ...  This paper aims to explore an alternative approach to reasoning with the content of fictional works, based on the application of a mathematical model for conjectures, hypotheses and consequences (abbr.  ...  Especially, anti-monotonicity is very appealing. As noted also in [7] , Conj C is anti-monotonic if and only if C is monotonic.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-08855-6_53 fatcat:zw4xi7qhbveznb6jyhp3g3fm4u

THE USE OF HORROR STORY IN IMPROVING STUDENTS' READING COMPREHENSION FOR ELEVENTH GRADE OF SMAN 3 SINJAI

Muthaharah Basri, Mardianah Mardianah, M. Rusdi T
2020 English Language Teaching for EFL Learners  
The variables of this research were Horror Story as an independent variable and Reading Comprehension as a dependent variable. The method used in this research was Quasi Experimental research.  ...  This story makes the students learn with fun and directly involve in classroom activities.  ...  For the students to learn English by using horror story is not monotonous and this kind of the story is something new for them.  ... 
doi:10.24252/elties.v2i2.11394 fatcat:4dkam5duqvesbhlcez7jjgpw6m

Argumentation: Reconciling Human and Automated Reasoning

Antonis C. Kakas, Loizos Michael, Francesca Toni
2016 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
We analyse this reconciliation between human and automated reasoning at three levels: (1) at the level of classical, strict reasoning on which, till today, automated reasoning and computing are based,  ...  (2) at the level of natural or ordinary human level reasoning as studied in cognitive psychology and which artificial intelligence, albeit in its early stages, is endeavouring to automate, and (3) at the  ...  two areas of AI were established for this: (1) Non-monotonic Reasoning and (2) Belief Revision.  ... 
dblp:conf/ijcai/KakasMT16 fatcat:pd7cusvwszdxpf5gdz4wjib574

Page 5420 of Psychological Abstracts Vol. 81, Issue 12 [page]

1994 Psychological Abstracts  
—Examined strategy use of biliterate 3rd and 4th graders when reading stories in Spanish and in English. 26 students read 2 stories, | in each language, presented 1 sentence at a time on a computer that  ...  time, velocity, and distance) and non- kinematics (relations between duration, beginning times, and ending times).  ... 

Page 5 of Classical Bulletin Vol. 14, Issue 2 [page]

1937 Classical Bulletin  
of comprehension and not a little pleasure. 4.  ...  The reason for both reactions, a new method, consisting of three main points: 1) the importance attached to intelligent vocal reading in thought-units; 2) comprehension of these units in the order presented  ... 

Cognitive Programming

Loizos Michael, Antonis C. Kakas, Rob Miller, György Turán
2015 International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Cognition  
guided by the user in a natural and continual manner, and able to acquire and employ common sense to help the user in the completion of everyday tasks.  ...  We argue that despite the many challenges that the proposed paradigm presents, recent advances in several key areas of Artificial Intelligence, along with lessons learned from work in Psychology, give reasons  ...  Acknowledgements We are grateful to our colleague Irene-Anna Diakidoy (Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus) for her collaboration in our joint work on story comprehension, and the invaluable  ... 
dblp:conf/aic/MichaelK0T15 fatcat:r5l4d5axqbc7ngrwmhwktnfrg4

Reasoning Biases, Non-Monotonic Logics and Belief Revision

Catarina Dutilh Novaes, Herman Veluwenkamp
2016 Theoria  
The upshot is thus that, while it may offer valuable insights into the nature of human reasoning, preferential logic (and non-monotonic logics in general) is ultimately inadequate as a formal model of  ...  The present investigation provides an illustration of the second kind of empirical testing by comparing two formal models for reasoningnamely the non-monotonic logic known as preferential logic; and a  ...  Indeed, the difference between monotonic reasoning and (non-monotonic) preferential reasoning is that the former requires that the reasoner takes into account each and every model of the premises, whereas  ... 
doi:10.1111/theo.12108 fatcat:5y6zj4nggvgpxa2k36xkpx5rzi

Simulating Non-Deductive Reasoning

James W. Hearne
1983 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
This paper is intended to draw attention to a literature in Philosophy that would be of great use and interest to researchers attempting to simulate non-deductive reasoning.  ...  Two models of such reasoning are discussed, and the kernel role of the concept of explanation common to them both is revealed.  ...  Attempts to simulate such reasoning typically devolve to attempts to reconstruct non-deductive reasoning as a deductive system with exotic properties such as probabilistic truth values or non-monotonicity  ... 
dblp:conf/ijcai/Hearne83 fatcat:4sbcbrpvxbamdhvxnpp6edzfue

A longitudinal study in atypical Cri-du chat profile: A single case report

Maria Rosa Pizzamiglio, Cristino Volpe, Laura Piccardi
2013 Case Reports in Clinical Medicine  
FS showed good lexical competence in both comprehension and production. Differently, her grammatical skills (i.e. comprehension and production) were somewhat defective.  ...  The first assessment was made at 2.3 years and second at 6.5 years. Results: Her cognitive profile was characterized by a discrepancy between social-communicative and visual-motor skills.  ...  Indeed, FS's syntactical performance seemed to be influenced by semantic and reasoning factors.  ... 
doi:10.4236/crcm.2013.22027 fatcat:hf4ik2m2hbggfkf4tpfmm5hh3a

Enhancing Idiom Competence of Iranian EFL Learners: Idiom Etymology and Short Story in Focus

Omid Tabatabaei, Parisa Hajizadeh
2015 Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences  
This is mainly because such expressions display non-conventional and figurative senses.  ...  To this end, short stories, as an important component of literature, and etymological elaboration, as a crucial aspect of language, were used to present the meaning of such expressions to L2 learners.  ...  They also explained that language learners utilize different strategies; while absence of implicit knowledge of idioms is regarded as the main reason of their failure in comprehension and retention of  ... 
doi:10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n1s1p465 fatcat:4lgg3khcubcplkqulj5oa4obwi
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