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A New Variant Of Rc4 Stream Cipher

Lae Lae Khine
2009 Zenodo  
A few attacks followed, indicating certain weakness in the design. In this paper, we proposed a new variant of RC4 stream cipher.  ...  RC4 was used as an encryption algorithm in WEP(Wired Equivalent Privacy) protocol that is a standardized for 802.11 wireless network.  ...  Initialization Vector (IV) weakness constitutes an interesting class of key schedule weaknesses that, in the case of RC4, lead to practical attacks.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1071019 fatcat:q4h3ez62bvg77lkumgezngi7ra

Design and Implementation of Secure Stream Cipher Algorithm

Ali M. Sagheer et. al.
2018 International Journal of Computing and Digital Systems  
It is symmetric encryption, fast, and simple algorithm. It has different weaknesses such as the bias that occurs in the key stream bytes. Key scheduling phase is more intricate.  ...  the problem of weak keys.  ...  THE PROPOSED ALGORITHM (DOUBLE RC4 KEY GENERATION ALGORITHM) There are many weaknesses were detected in RC4, they are in the KSA phases and in PRGA phase.  ... 
doi:10.12785/ijcds/070301 fatcat:xtzj3zthcjabxhyzmaup564r7m

Towards a General RC4-Like Keystream Generator [chapter]

Guang Gong, Kishan Chand Gupta, Martin Hell, Yassir Nawaz
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Today, most processors use 32-bit or 64bit words but using original RC4 with 32/64 bits is infeasible due to the large memory constraints and the number of operations in the key scheduling algorithm.  ...  In this paper we propose a new 32/64-bit RC4like keystream generator.  ...  Acknowledgements: We wish to thank Palash Sarkar who motivated the problem and Alfred Menezes who gave momentum to it.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11599548_14 fatcat:6siiumd6vbgsjfzls45ew6h7oi

RC4 stream cipher and possible attacks on WEP

Lazar Stošic, Milena Bogdanovic
2012 International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications  
Also, we analyze the Key Scheduling Algorithm (KSA) which derives the initial state from a variable size key, and strengths and weaknesses of the RCS stream cipher.  ...  In this paper we analyze and present some weaknesses and possible attacks on the RC4 stream cipher which were published in many journals.  ...  RC4 Weaknesses: Some of RC4 weaknesses [17] and [16] : 1) The RC4 algorithm is vulnerable to analytic attacks of the state table [6] and [15] . 2) WEAK KEYS: these are keys identified by cryptanalysis  ... 
doi:10.14569/ijacsa.2012.030319 fatcat:h4qwl7bohzbejc32nr4b3qdxaq

EA Based Dynamic Key Generation in RC4 Ciphering Applied to CMS

Ashraf Aboshosha, Kamal A. ElDahshan, Eman K. Elsayed, Ahmed A. Elngar
2015 International Journal of Network Security  
The proposed RC4-EA method tends to enhance the RC4 encryption algorithm with a high degree of a seed key randomness.  ...  The main advantage of the proposed RC4-EA method is that the generation of this secret key is done dynamically and randomly; this adds more strength of the RC4 encryption algorithm against breaking this  ...  The Key Scheduling Algorithm (KSA) is given in Algorithm 1.  ... 
dblp:journals/ijnsec/AboshoshaEEE15 fatcat:zjfflnvevza2fiyyai72wdh744

Increasing Robustness of RC4 Family for Automated Selection of Ciphersuites

Arun Kumar Singh, Shefalika Ghosh Samaddar, Swagat Ranjan Sahoo, Glitto Mathew
2012 Procedia Engineering  
In order enhance the degree of security robustness, two new algorithm S-RC4 1 and S-RC4 2 are proposed.  ...  The encryption process also needs to be dynamic in order to face new hazards and advance methods used by cryptanalysts. RC4 is one of the most popular and efficient stream ciphers [1] .  ...  Analysis of the modified cipher (RC4+) shows that this new strategy avoids existing weaknesses of RC4 [8] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.01.832 fatcat:l4s67iwlizfqfplwi5fd6w275i

Attacks on the RC4 stream cipher

Andreas Klein
2008 Designs, Codes and Cryptography  
Especially we improve the attack described in [2] in such a way, that it will work, if the weak keys described in that paper are avoided.  ...  In this article we present some weaknesses in the RC4 cipher and their cryptographic applications.  ...  We distinguish two subcases: We may count the number of possibilities for both S-boxes separately. As in Theorem 1 or in the two cases above we find (n!) 2 possibilities in this case.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10623-008-9206-6 fatcat:4iq2v7pf35dzpbtjreyfaqk3ae

Developing RC4 Algorithm Using S-Box of Advanced Encryption Standard Cipher

Ali M. Sagheer et. al.
2018 International Journal of Computing and Digital Systems  
This paper obtains a new algorithm that combines the efficiency of the RC4 and robustness of AES.  ...  It has many weaknesses, such as the tendency in the generated key stream that some key bytes are biased toward different values.  ...  THE PROPOSED ALGORITHM (RC4 WITH S-BOX OF AES) This section presents a new development of the RC4 algorithm by using S-box of the AES algorithm.  ... 
doi:10.12785/ijcds/070404 fatcat:qlpdlh6pmzecpcfcpwdxb54pse

Modification of RC4 Algorithm by using Two State Tables and Initial State Factorial

Sura M. Searan, Ali M. Sagheer
2016 International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security  
RC4 algorithm is one of the most significant stream and symmetric cryptographic algorithms, it is simple and used in various commercial products, it has many weaknesses such as a bias in the key stream  ...  In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed by using initial state factorial to solve the correlation issue between public known outputs of the internal state by using an additional state table with the  ...  first is the key scheduling algorithm (KSA).  ... 
doi:10.5815/ijcnis.2016.12.01 fatcat:xqnbsug2yvffrk4gxxqjrmtmdm

Cryptanalysis of RC4(n, m) stream cipher

Mohammad Ali Orumiehchiha, Josef Pieprzyk, Elham Shakour, Ron Steinfeld
2013 Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Security of Information and Networks - SIN '13  
The second attack exploits low diffusion of bits in the KSA and PRGA algorithms and recovers all bytes of the secret key. This attack works only if the initial value of the cipher can be manipulated.  ...  The authors of RC4(n, m) claim that the cipher resists all the attacks that are successful against the original RC4. The paper reveals cryptographic weaknesses of the RC4(n, m) stream cipher.  ...  We first describe the original key scheduling algorithm of RC4 and then we give the modified algorithm of RC4(n, m). A general illustration of RC4(n, m) is presented in Figure 1 .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2523514.2523615 dblp:conf/sin/OrumiehchihaPSS13 fatcat:w55s7sb6rbfollhadmeda4ogte

A New Weakness in the RC4 Keystream Generator and an Approach to Improve the Security of the Cipher [chapter]

Souradyuti Paul, Bart Preneel
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The paper presents a new statistical bias in the distribution of the first two output bytes of the RC4 keystream generator.  ...  It is shown that the new cipher offers increased resistance against most attacks that apply to RC4.  ...  The authors also thank Kenneth G. Paterson for pointing out the possibility of a weak distinguisher using our observation.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-25937-4_16 fatcat:aznjtl3wqzd3zhlyqpn7ivkxou

Enhancing Security of Improved RC4 Stream Cipher by Converting into Product Cipher

Nishith Sinha, Mallika Chawda, Kishore Bhamidipati
2014 International Journal of Computer Applications  
RC4 algorithm has several weaknesses. In order to overcome those weaknesses and enhance its security, numerous modifications have been suggested.  ...  These amendments destroy the basis of various cryptanalysis attacks on RC4. One such significant modification was the algorithm proposed by Jian Xie et al [1] .  ...  [4] discovered a major weakness in the RC4 algorithm i.e. it is possible to completely attack RC4 if some portion of the secret key is known.  ... 
doi:10.5120/16459-6132 fatcat:7fnszwlqkvatraadi5iztfkahu

RC4 Stream Cipher with a Random Initial State [chapter]

Maytham M. Hammood, Kenji Yoshigoe, Ali M. Sagheer
2013 Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering  
RRC4 solves the weak keys problem of the RC4 using random initialization of internal state S.  ...  Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4) is one of the modern encryption techniques utilized in many real time security applications; however, it has several weaknesses including a correlation problem in the initially generated  ...  Acknowledgments This work is based in part, upon research supported by the National Science Foundation (under Grant Nos. CNS-0855248 and EPS-0918970). Any opinions, findings and  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6996-0_42 fatcat:uehxe4s3svfrhkc22g377kigou

RC4-2S: RC4 Stream Cipher with Two State Tables [chapter]

Maytham M. Hammood, Kenji Yoshigoe, Ali M. Sagheer
2013 Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering  
One of the most important symmetric cryptographic algorithms is Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4) stream cipher which can be applied to many security applications in real time security.  ...  Furthermore, key generation time of the RC4-2S is faster than that of the original RC4 due to less number of operations per a key generation required by the former.  ...  Paul and Preneel [5] explored a new statistical weakness in the first two output bytes of the RC4 key stream generator.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6996-0_2 fatcat:suh4eixqt5fqdoh3rbf6nd37z4

Lightweight RC4 Algorithm

2019 Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Computer Science and Mathematics  
We propose new PRGA which is replaced the PRGA keystream generation algorithm of RC4. The proposed LRC4 execution is surveyed in terms of randomness test and time under an arrangement of analyses.  ...  In this paper, we suggest a lightweight variation of the well-known RC4 algorithm that is exceptionally appropriate for resources of computational compelled gadgets and energy in remote systems, when contrasted  ...  Sarab et al, 2016 [2] to overcome the weakness of the key scheduling algorithm of the original RC4, they presented a new modified key scheduling algorithm.  ... 
doi:10.29304/jqcm.2019.11.1.464 fatcat:omcag46m3bckbcbz2cxhnga6nm
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