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Schizophrenia and Brain Networks

Jorge A Ure, Ricardo Corral, Eric Wainwright
2018 Neurology and Neurosurgery  
hallucinations and (iii) inefficiency of salience networks linked to diminished population of Von Economo spindle neurons in anterior cingulate cortex and reduction of gray matter in anterior insula which  ...  We did a review of current data of research emphasizing on white matter abnormalities mainly punctual axonal disorganization in many pathways and reduction of total number of neurons in different parts  ...  In addition, right prefrontal gray matter volume alterations were significantly correlated with reduced right hippocampal volume in the SZ patients but not in the control group.  ... 
doi:10.15761/nns.1000102 fatcat:swdkehwudfe55im7koovsibnxa

Meditation Experience Associated with Structural Neuroplasticity

Mir Saleem, Pallavi Samudrala
2017 Annals of International medical and Dental Research  
The study of neurofunctional structure associated with the practice of meditation along with its neural, cognitive and emotional implications, has increased exponentially in recent years, forming a regular  ...  Thus, our results establish the existence of significant changes in brain plasticity correlated with the time devoted to their practice, and regardless of the specific style or tradition, manifested primarily  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The heading of the Acknowledgment section and the References section must not be numbered.  ... 
doi:10.21276/aimdr.2017.3.4.mc1 fatcat:ozjl5uyv2jfwrmnt2tv5v4tl5q

Intelligence and Cognitive Control [chapter]

Adam Chuderski, Edward Nęcka
2010 Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition  
An intriguing review of research concerning the effects of mind wandering on cognitive function performance (see McVay & Kane, this volume) points to one potentially fruitful  ...  We suggest that a functional framework of this kind may benefit from the consideration of an additional "integration" function .  ...  In reviewing 37 neuroimaging studies, mostly on structural correlates of intelligence, they tried to answer the question of how the anatomical aspects of gray matter and white matter relate topographically  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1210-7_16 fatcat:itedvhvceratlgg74gnnweasbm

The human endogenous attentional control network includes a ventro-temporal cortical node

Ilaria Sani, Heiko Stemmann, Bradley Caron, Daniel Bullock, Torsten Stemmler, Manfred Fahle, Franco Pestilli, Winrich A. Freiwald
2021 Nature Communications  
AbstractEndogenous attention is the cognitive function that selects the relevant pieces of sensory information to achieve goals and it is known to be controlled by dorsal fronto-parietal brain areas.  ...  These results show that attentional control spans three cortical lobes and overarches large distances through fiber pathways that run orthogonally to the dominant anterior-posterior axes of sensory processing  ...  Jiang for support with statistical analysis, Sofia Landi for data discussion, and Ben Deen for discussion on a previous version of the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20583-5 pmid:33452252 pmcid:PMC7810878 fatcat:sci65o6qdvdqnft5z3ksrk6w5q

Structural Cerebral Variations as Useful Endophenotypes in Schizophrenia: Do They Help Construct "Extended Endophenotypes"?

K. M. Prasad, M. S. Keshavan
2007 Schizophrenia Bulletin  
Brain morphometric measures meet many of the criteria set by different investigators, such as being robustly associated with schizophrenia, heritable, quantifiable, and present in unaffected family members  ...  Neurocognitive and neurophysiological impairments that suggest functional impairments associated with schizophrenia have been proposed as endophenotypes.  ...  For example, there is an association between reduced prefrontal gray matter volume and the polymorphisms of the gene encoding the regula-tor of G-protein signaling, subtype 4 (RGS4). 149, 150 Polymorphisms  ... 
doi:10.1093/schbul/sbn017 pmid:18408230 pmcid:PMC2632444 fatcat:x3wbupivtreghhzg55ahmxytti

Neurobiological Underpinnings of Math and Reading Learning Disabilities

Sarit Ashkenazi, Jessica M. Black, Daniel A. Abrams, Fumiko Hoeft, Vinod Menon
2013 Journal of Learning Disabilities  
We then review recent research on the anatomical correlates of MD and RD.  ...  Converging evidence from morphometry and tractography studies are presented to highlight distinct patterns of white matter pathways which are disrupted in MD and RD.  ...  Funding The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: Supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (  ... 
doi:10.1177/0022219413483174 pmid:23572008 pmcid:PMC3795983 fatcat:o3e5cfnuebcbxb2zzl2p4mw2ai

The Neurobiology of Panic: A Chronic Stress Disorder

Andrew W. Goddard
2017 Chronic Stress  
The potential impact of the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria constructs of acute and chronic threats responses and their implications for the neurobiology of panic disorder  ...  Panic disorder is an often chronic and impairing human anxiety syndrome, which frequently results in serious psychiatric and medical comorbidities.  ...  right orbito-frontal cortex white matter volumes.  ... 
doi:10.1177/2470547017736038 pmid:32440580 pmcid:PMC7219873 fatcat:5algphszl5cj7d6bbpfjw5v44e

Voxel-based morphometry and cortical thickness in combat veterans suffering from impulsive aggression

Tim Varkevisser, Remko van Lutterveld, Lieke Heesink, Jack van Honk, Elbert Geuze
2020 Psychological Medicine  
The present study sought to examine the neuroanatomical correlates of combat-related impulsive aggression.  ...  Results No significant group differences in cortical thickness or subcortical grey matter volumes were observed for any of the ROIs.  ...  We thank Peter Zuithoff for his help with the statistical analysis of the data.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0033291720000033 pmid:32029023 fatcat:ei52uwdxjnf2lg5styc2fvorgq

Wired to be connected? Links between mobile technology engagement, intertemporal preference and frontostriatal white matter connectivity

2019 Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience  
In an initial study conducted with healthy young adults, we utilized behavioral and self-report measures to demonstrate associations between smartphone usage habits (assessed both subjectively and objectively  ...  In a follow-up neuroimaging study, we used probabilistic tractography of diffusion-weighted images to determine how these individual difference characteristics might relate to variation in white matter  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to recognize Julia DiFrancesco, Taylor Moylan and Luke Shaffer for their important contributions in gathering data for this research.  ... 
doi:10.1093/scan/nsz024 pmid:31086992 pmcid:PMC6523422 fatcat:uovqxapedfcnzmi7lnvyf76tuu

Brain changes in depression

Simona Corina Trifu, Arina Cipriana Trifu, Ecaterina Aluaş, Mihai Alexandru Tătaru, Radu Virgil Costea
2020 Romanian journal of morphology and embryology  
Neurons have a high potential to adapt to the influences of internal and external factors.  ...  The present review addresses major depressive disorder (MDD) and the implications of antidepressant treatment in the field of brain neuroplasticity, an effect initially considered adjacent but currently  ...  Conflict of interests The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.  ... 
doi:10.47162/rjme.61.2.06 pmid:33544788 pmcid:PMC7864313 fatcat:onffc4vecba4vp3tj4rh67irly

MRI Correlates of Parkinson's Disease Progression: A Voxel Based Morphometry Study

Valentina Fioravanti, Francesca Benuzzi, Luca Codeluppi, Sara Contardi, Francesco Cavallieri, Paolo Nichelli, Franco Valzania
2015 Parkinson's Disease  
With respect to controls, PD patients exhibited decreased GM volumes in right putamen and right parietal cortex.  ...  VBM is a fully automated technique, which allows the identification of regional differences in the gray matter enabling an objective analysis of the whole brain between groups of subjects.  ...  Acknowledgment The authors thank all study participants and their families, as without their long-term commitment, this study could not have occurred.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2015/378032 pmid:25628916 pmcid:PMC4299788 fatcat:ezn7noj4cndtlnwdzi3rm7267q

Experience with the Cardinal Coordinate System Contributes to the Precision of Cognitive Maps

Xin Hao, Yi Huang, Yiying Song, Xiangzhen Kong, Jia Liu
2017 Frontiers in Psychology  
Neurally, the extent to which individuals relied on the cardinal coordinate system was positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the entorhinal cortex, suggesting that the entorhinal cortex  ...  In sum, our study reveals an association between daily experience with the cardinal coordinate system and cognitive maps, and suggests that the ECA works in collaboration with hippocampal sub-regions to  ...  Finally, to exclude boundary effects between gray matter and white matter, the modulated images were masked with an absolute threshold of 0.2.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01166 pmid:28744248 pmcid:PMC5504278 fatcat:mynhnsq2bnemhfspmbadyhdp5q

Alcohol: Effects on Neurobehavioral Functions and the Brain

Marlene Oscar-Berman, Ksenija Marinković
2007 Neuropsychology Review  
Alcoholism results from an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and is linked to brain defects and associated cognitive, emotional, and behavioral impairments.  ...  An integrative approach employing a variety of neuroscientific technologies is essential for recognizing the interconnectivity of the different functional systems affected by alcoholism.  ...  Acknowledgments The writing of this paper was supported by the US Department of Health and Human Services, NIAAA (R01-AA07112, K05-AA00219, and K01-AA13402), the Medical Research Service of the US Department  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11065-007-9038-6 pmid:17874302 pmcid:PMC4040959 fatcat:fjykkecp55axtai5jzmqjl6vh4

Evolution of the Size and Functional Areas of the Human Brain

P. Thomas Schoenemann
2006 Annual Review of Anthropology  
The human brain is one of the most intricate, complicated, and impressive organs ever to have evolved.  ...  Finally, studies of brain structure/function relationships are critical for us to make behavioral sense of the evolutionary changes that occurred.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to thank Vincent Sarich, John Allen, Ralph Holloway, Dean Falk, Tim White, Thomas Budinger, Arthur Jensen, Bruce Lahn, Karen Schmidt, Janet Monge, Dan Glotzer, Michael Sheehan, and  ... 
doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.35.081705.123210 fatcat:zuro44jlerhbhjayxf3pu73kfa

Brain white matter structure andCOMTgene are linked to second-language learning in adults

Ping C. Mamiya, Todd L. Richards, Bradley P. Coe, Evan E. Eichler, Patricia K. Kuhl
2016 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
Previous studies show that gray matter volume and density are related to foreign language speech learning (1, 2), and that the degree of volumetric change in an individual predicts the level of foreign  ...  We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan.  ...  E.E.E. is an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.1606602113 pmid:27298360 pmcid:PMC4932981 fatcat:gsgootngvfej3cnqunfv4u7czy
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