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Empathy: Autism and Psychopathy [chapter]

Michael Fitzgerald
2019 Empathy Study [Working Title]  
This is described in two school shootings with many deaths; Columbine and Sandy Hook. Neurobiology plays a major role in understanding empathy, autism and psychopathy.  ...  The definition of empathy is extremely complex, and multifaceted. It is necessary to be aware of the massive variability and heterogeneity in considering empathy, autism and psychopathy.  ...  The autism diagnosis interview misses out three quarters of persons with autism spectrum disorders.  ... 
doi:10.5772/intechopen.82886 fatcat:6q6ueihsyjalvjexl6lvltxcfi

Aberrant Neural Activation Underlying Idiom Comprehension in Korean Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

Namwook Kim, Uk-Su Choi, Sungji Ha, Seul Bee Lee, Seung Ha Song, Dong Ho Song, Keun-Ah Cheon
2018 Yonsei medical journal  
Purpose: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication impairments and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests.  ...  Children with ASD also showed different patterns of neural activity than TDC in all three conditions (neutral, matched, and mismatched).  ...  INTRODUCTION Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by qualitative impairment in social communi-cation, as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests. 1  ... 
doi:10.3349/ymj.2018.59.7.897 pmid:30091324 pmcid:PMC6082980 fatcat:gxujj4tzgzgy7p2tekuhzfatau

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) : Definition, Contexts, Neural Correlates and Clinical Strategies

Perrotta G
2019 Neurology & Neurotherapy Open Access Journal  
to behavioral disorders related to autism spectrum disorders.  ...  Starting from the general concept of "autism spectrum disorders", as contained in the manual of psychiatric disorders DSM, version V, we proceeded to contextualize the definition distinguishing it from  ...  The percentage of autism was in fact 66% higher in children born to fathers "over 50" compared to those born to fathers in their twenties and 18% higher in children with adolescent mothers than mothers  ... 
doi:10.23880/nnoaj-16000136 fatcat:abowmpacs5a57djvsql4gscakq

The Broad Autism (Endo)Phenotype: Neurostructural and Neurofunctional Correlates in Parents of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Lucia Billeci, Sara Calderoni, Eugenia Conti, Camilla Gesi, Claudia Carmassi, Liliana Dell'Osso, Giovanni Cioni, Filippo Muratori, Andrea Guzzetta
2016 Frontiers in Neuroscience  
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders with an early-onset and a strong genetic component in their pathogenesis.  ...  In addition, the pattern of neural correlates in pASD resembles that of adult individuals with ASD, or it is specific, possibly due to a compensatory mechanism.  ...  SC was supported by the Ministry of Health, Italy and by Tuscany Region with the grant "GR-2010-2317873, " and by Bando FAS Salute Sviluppo Toscana -ARIANNA Project.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnins.2016.00346 pmid:27499732 pmcid:PMC4956643 fatcat:oweooxn3wrhk3no5vdwv7k6er4

Functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism spectrum disorders

Gabriel S Dichter
2012 Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience  
This review presents an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASDS), although there is considerable heterogeneity with respect to results across studies  ...  , common themes have emerged, including: (i) hypoactivation in nodes of the "social brain" during social processing tasks, including regions within the prefrontal cortex, the posterior superior temporal  ...  Acknowledgments: Preparation of this manuscript was supported by  ... 
pmid:23226956 pmcid:PMC3513685 fatcat:6lwiebwpanaidckmbspbdvnrje

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a Developing country. A Clinical and Descriptive Study of 75 Infant and Young Patients

Orlando J Castejón
2019 Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research  
Seventy five (75) infant patients, from 3-15 years old, clinically diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder exhibited disconnected brain with social isolation (80%), hyperconnected children (5%), creative  ...  A consensus has emerged that genetic and environmental causes of ASD are likely et al. (2018) Functional connection between the stereotyped behavior and the motor front area in children with autism.  ...  Alexithymia is a personality trait frequently found in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and has been linked to impairments in emotion recognition and empathy [50].  ... 
doi:10.26717/bjstr.2019.19.003321 fatcat:xl6d6olas5halbaegzt353iq7m

Decision making processes based on social conventional rules in early adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders

Hidetsugu Komeda, Hidekazu Osanai, Kaichi Yanaoka, Yuko Okamoto, Toru Fujioka, Sumiyoshi Arai, Keisuke Inohara, Masuo Koyasu, Takashi Kusumi, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Masao Kawatani, Hirokazu Kumazaki (+3 others)
2016 Scientific Reports  
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by problems with reciprocal social interaction, repetitive behaviours/narrow interests, and impairments in the social cognition and emotional processing  ...  The aim of this study was to examine the information used by early adolescents with and without ASD when they judge story protagonists as good or bad.  ...  Acknowledgements We express our sincere appreciation to the participants and their families, who generously contributed their time and had the courage to participate in this research.  ... 
doi:10.1038/srep37875 pmid:27897213 pmcid:PMC5126659 fatcat:hrthalgbafhzpjgqr2aaw6vkce

Behavioral, Cognitive and Neural Markers of Asperger Syndrome

Farnaz Faridi, Reza Khosrowabadi
2017 Basic and Clinical Neuroscience  
Asperger syndrome (AS) is a subtype of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) characterized by major problems in social and nonverbal communication, together with limited and repetitive forms of behavior and interests  ...  In this paper, behavior, motor skills and language capabilities of individuals with Asperger are compared to those in healthy controls.  ...  Conflict of Interest All authors certify that this manuscript has neither been published in whole nor in part nor being considered for publication elsewhere.  ... 
doi:10.18869/ pmid:29167722 pmcid:PMC5691167 fatcat:bw2ugzg7jrhj3lehrkmbpcplpu

The Neural Circuitry of Autism

Aysenil Belger, Kimberly L. H. Carpenter, Gunes H. Yucel, Katherine M. Cleary, Franc C. L. Donkers
2011 Neurotoxicity research  
Recent studies have further supported the proposition of abnormal development along faceprocessing pathways in autism (Kleinhans et al 2010b; Scherf et al 2010).  ...  Aberrant activation in cortical and subcortical regions involved in face processing have been reported, including the left amygdala, bilateral fusiform gyrus, right pulvinar, and bilateral superior Belger  ...  Aknkowlegements Preparation of this manuscript was supported by a NIMH Grants HD40127 and U54MH66418, NC TRACS Institute Research Funds -National Center for Research Awards # UL1RR025747, NICHD 2R01-HD042168  ... 
doi:10.1007/s12640-010-9234-7 pmid:21213096 pmcid:PMC4542151 fatcat:gd5rgcccobec3ljs4i4aqffp34

Why Are Autism Spectrum Conditions More Prevalent in Males?

Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael V. Lombardo, Bonnie Auyeung, Emma Ashwin, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Rebecca Knickmeyer
2011 PLoS Biology  
Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are much more common in males, a bias that may offer clues to the etiology of this condition.  ...  Unsolved Mysteries discuss a topic of biological importance that is poorly understood and in need of research attention.  ...  One study has reported a missense variant in NLGN4Y in a single patient with autism and his father with learning difficulties [97] .  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001081 pmid:21695109 pmcid:PMC3114757 fatcat:spzgwqmn4ncflo6aqghqyqjiyy

Social Impairment and Mental Health

Julio Armijo Nunez
2017 Annals of Behavioural Science  
The purpose of current brief review is to provide an overview of the mechanisms who impacts on social relationships (social cognition) and the effects of social deprivation in people with mental illness  ...  Stress resulting from living in large cities (and alienation in certain individuals) fuels the high incidence of psychiatric illnesses in modern metropolises.  ...  In autism spectrum disorders and Asperger syndrome, qualitative difficulties in social interaction are present [31] .  ... 
doi:10.21767/2471-7975.100026 fatcat:aeonfiijynht7bwm5b7c4oswvi

The evolutionary future of psychopathology

Marco Del Giudice
2016 Current Opinion in Psychology  
In this paper, I review recent advances in the field focusing on three core themes: the role of trade-offs and conflicts in the origins mental disorders, the evolution of developmental mechanisms, and  ...  I situate these advances in the context of current research in psychopathology, and highlight their connections with other innovative approaches such as developmental psychopathology and computational  ...  Conflicts, trade-offs, and the origins of psychopathology According to the model, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and psychotic disorders (including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) are pathological  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.07.010 fatcat:jtgyjn4mp5dyzklrfi7nujuoki

"This is Your Brain on Rhetoric": Research Directions for Neurorhetorics

Jordynn Jack, L. Gregory Appelbaum
2010 Rhetoric Society Quarterly  
Acknowledgments The authors thank Scott Huettel, Nico Boehler, Debra Hawhee, and Katie Rose Guest Pryal for their valuable comments on this article.  ...  The example we consider here is an article titled ''Neural Mechanisms of Empathy in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Fathers,'' published by Ellen Greimel et al. in a 2010 issue 420  ...  One of these broader cultural trends is the position of ASD as a male disorder. The first thing to notice from the title of Griemel's study is that the study focused on adolescents and their fathers.  ... 
doi:10.1080/02773945.2010.516303 fatcat:oyai2zslabhmng7dzpsc5ojqge

Autism and Schizophrenia Are Disorders of Evolvability

C. Thomas Gualtieri
2014 Open Journal of Medical Psychology  
This, in turn, is reflected in the diversity of neurodevelopmental disorders, in particular autism and schizophrenia.  ...  , from subclinical manifestations to disorders that are gravely disabling; the genetic basis for their high heritability; and the persistence of disorders in light of their high heritability but low reproductive  ...  Gualtieri is the founder/developer of ATONC, a freely available library of computerized tests at  ... 
doi:10.4236/ojmp.2014.32019 fatcat:uwrm6jml7nghtiaioetqcvsm3q

Creativity Psychosis Autism and the Social Brain [chapter]

Michael Fitzgerald
2011 A Comprehensive Book on Autism Spectrum Disorders  
One of the major differences is that Autism Spectrum Disorders have an onset before three and schizophrenia has an onset in adolescence.  ...  Children of older fathers and mothers have more children with autism (Badcock, 2008) .  ...  Different people with autism can have very different symptoms. Autism is considered to be a â€oespectrum†disorder, a group of disorders with similar features.  ... 
doi:10.5772/17439 fatcat:plyy2eulejb73gbqos3exqlecq
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