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Sex Differences in Response to Visual Sexual Stimuli: A Review

Heather A. Rupp, Kim Wallen
2007 Archives of Sexual Behavior  
The divergence between men and women is proposed to occur at this time, reflected in differences in neural activation, and contribute to previously reported sex differences in downstream peripheral physiological  ...  Based on the literature reviewed, we conclude that content characteristics may differentially produce higher levels of sexual arousal in men and women.  ...  An investigation of the EEG response to same and opposite sex stimuli in men and women supports imaging findings and suggests that the women distinguish less between same and opposite sex stimuli than  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10508-007-9217-9 pmid:17668311 pmcid:PMC2739403 fatcat:fjjo7ongyba7la7sawv6kzfwky

Neural Correlates of Sexual Orientation in Heterosexual, Bisexual and Homosexual Men

Adam Safron, David Sylva, Victoria Klimaj, A. M. Rosenthal, Meng Li, Martin Walter, J. Michael Bailey
2017 Scientific Reports  
All of these studies found the VS to be included among brain regions with greater activity in response to erotic stimuli featuring participants' preferred sexes (i.e. women for heterosexual males and men  ...  for homosexual males) relative to their non-preferred sexes (i.e. men for heterosexual males and women for homosexual males).  ...  Joan Linsenmeier for providing invaluable feedback on previous versions of this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1038/srep41314 pmid:28145518 pmcid:PMC5286516 fatcat:l4indfiiynhitbek554naqujoq

Assessing facial attractiveness: individual decisions and evolutionary constraints

Ferenc Kocsor, Adam Feldmann, Tamas Bereczkei, János Kállai
2013 Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology  
Results: Statistical analysis of all subjects showed elevated brain activation for attractive opposite-sex faces in contrast to less attractive ones in regions that previously have been reported to show  ...  Conclusions: From these data, we speculate that because of the risks involving mate choice faced by women during evolutionary times, selection might have preferred the development of an elaborated neural  ...  Conflict of interest and funding The research was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Foundation (OTKA K101762).  ... 
doi:10.3402/snp.v3i0.21432 pmid:24693356 pmcid:PMC3960024 fatcat:pounjiepq5d6hku45kmbdraroq

Are Attractive People Rewarding? Sex Differences in the Neural Substrates of Facial Attractiveness

Jasmin Cloutier, Todd F. Heatherton, Paul J. Whalen, William M. Kelley
2008 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience  
However, further analysis also revealed sex differences in the recruitment of OFC, which distinguished attractive and unattractive faces only for male participants. & D  ...  To test this hypothesis, we conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment during which participants provided explicit attractiveness judgments for faces of the opposite sex  ...  This research was supported in part by a grant from the National Institute of Drug Abuse (DA022582).  ... 
doi:10.1162/jocn.2008.20062 pmid:18211242 pmcid:PMC3848031 fatcat:22btztlkljfmpprvlvmkhhbwye

Sex differences in viewing sexual stimuli: An eye-tracking study in men and women

Heather A. Rupp, Kim Wallen
2007 Hormones and Behavior  
Our finding that men and women attend to different aspects of the same visual sexual stimuli could reflect pre-existing cognitive biases that possibly contribute to sex differences in neural, subjective  ...  Men and women exhibit different neural, genital, and subjective arousal responses to visual sexual stimuli. The source of these sex differences is unknown.  ...  Kay Beck and the Department of Communications at Georgia State University for the generous use of the eye-tracking equipment and Bob Wilson at Applied Science Laboratories for the technical support.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.01.008 pmid:17362952 fatcat:mxxlyerw45bdxm36e74cpa3vsm

Explaining financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive people: Interdisciplinary perspectives from economics, social psychology, and evolutionary psychology

Dario Maestripieri, Andrea Henry, Nora Nickels
2016 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
in interactions between opposite-sex than same-sex individuals.  ...  Consistent with evolutionary explanations, biases in favor of attractive women appear to be more consistent or stronger than those in favor of attractive men, and biases are more consistently reported  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Sian Beilock, Anna Dreber, Emir Kamenica, and James Roney for helpful discussions and comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x16000340 pmid:27283466 fatcat:w4gkhace3rctjlqxdvrmq5s7ei

Social and Non-social Reward Processing and Depressive Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Adolescents

Kristen L. Eckstrand, Luis E. Flores Jr., Marissa Cross, Jennifer S. Silk, Nicholas B. Allen, Kati L. Healey, Michael P. Marshal, Erika E. Forbes
2019 Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience  
Alterations in neural reward networks, which develop during adolescence, confer risk for the development of depression.  ...  Eight SMA and 38 heterosexual typically developing adolescents completed self-report measures of depression and victimization, and underwent fMRI during monetary and peer social reward tasks in which they  ...  and EF drafted and revised the work for important intellectual content. All authors gave final approval for publication of the work and agree to accountable for the accuracy and integrity of the work.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00209 pmid:31572141 pmcid:PMC6753189 fatcat:ptmsokhey5dd5iymgiyefbzbt4

Gender differences in response to pictures of nudes: a magnetoencephalographic study

Marco Costa, Christoph Braun, Niels Birbaumer
2003 Biological Psychology  
The magnetic equivalent of the contingent negative variation (CMV) and visual evoked magnetic fields (VEF) in anticipation of pictures of opposite-sex nude, same-sex nude, and neutral photographs has been  ...  The CMV instead revealed, for both male and female participants, higher amplitudes for opposite-sex nudes. VEF in response to nudes revealed two components with mean latencies of 126 and 203 ms.  ...  In contrast, heterosexual males perceive opposite-sex nudes as pleasant and highly arousing and same-sex nudes as neutral and only slightly arousing.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0301-0511(03)00054-1 pmid:12738404 fatcat:oaf5sttjzzetxejf5ru6yxrby4

Electrophysiological evidence of perceived sexual attractiveness for human female bodies varying in waist-to-hip ratio

Marzia Del Zotto, Alan J. Pegna
2017 Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience  
; (b) an EEG paradigm, to record brain activity while participants (heterosexual men and women) viewed these same models.  ...  The dynamics of brain activation reflecting attractiveness in humans are unclear.  ...  We are grateful to Sophie Nussbaum and Chiara Chillà who provided diligent assistance with EEG recording and analysis.  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13415-017-0498-8 pmid:28315140 fatcat:4hiiau5d6rfmzmjgpshjdqmwby

Sex Differences in Sexual Arousal and Finger Length Ratio

Luke Holmes, Tuesday M. Watts-Overall, Erlend Slettevold, Dragos C. Gruia, Gerulf Rieger
2021 Journal of Sex Research  
We measured the sexual response patterns of 139 men and 179 women via genital arousal and pupil dilation to erotic videos, in addition to their 2D:4D.  ...  Most men show sexual arousal to one, preferred sex, whereas most women respond to both sexes, regardless of their sexual orientation.  ...  In contrast to heterosexual and homosexual men, heterosexual and homosexual women (and bisexual women) were expected to show smaller absolute differences, because they would respond similarly to both males  ... 
doi:10.1080/00224499.2021.1874262 pmid:33522850 fatcat:3rsy4p7c7zelxlegvtzs2iiife

Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles

Robert-Paul Juster, Catherine Raymond, Alexandra Bisson Desrochers, Olivier Bourdon, Nadia Durand, Nathalie Wan, Jens C. Pruessner, Sonia J. Lupien
2016 Psychoneuroendocrinology  
Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective  ...  And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal  ...  This project would not have been possible without the hard work of our technician Helen Findlay.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.10.012 pmid:26539966 fatcat:ok66jikbm5dj5eannn5f5oka6q

Attentional and affective biases for attractive females emerge early in development

Jennifer Lynn Rennels, Stephanie Ann Verba
2017 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
When combined with increased interest in the other sex at puberty, these early emerging biases might help explain the robust prosocial and financial biases men exhibit toward attractive women during adulthood  ...  Predominant experience with females early in development results in infants developing an attractive, female-like facial representation that guides children's attention toward and affective preferences  ...  ACKNOWLE DGMENTS We thank Sian Beilock, Anna Dreber, Emir Kamenica, and James Roney for helpful discussions and comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x16000613 pmid:28327251 fatcat:gbwzni6vtvdthksw4bxnfpl34y

The biology of human psychosexual differentiation

Louis Gooren
2006 Hormones and Behavior  
Most attempts to identify biological underpinnings of gender identity and sexual orientation in humans have investigated effects of sex steroids, so pivotal in the differentiation of the genitalia, showing  ...  Genetic studies and the fraternal birth order hypothesis provide indications of familial clustering of homosexuality but in many homosexuals these genetic patterns cannot be identified.  ...  Heterosexuals are inept to fall in love and erotosexually interact with members of the same sex, and, likewise, homosexuals not with members of the opposite sex.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2006.06.011 pmid:16870186 fatcat:atxpzjxdczggngcyruinqd7k5y

Evolution from Mammals: Heterosexual Reproductive Behavior to Human Erotic Bisexuality

Serge Wunsch
2010 Journal of Bisexuality  
In rodents, mainly sexual hormones and pheromones, and secondarily sexual reflexes and reinforcement processes, would be the main innate factors at the origin of a genuine heterosexual reproductive behavior  ...  It would seem that during evolution, owing to the modifications of the brain of rodents into that of Man's, the hormonal and pheromonal factors have become secondary, whereas the cognitive factors and  ...  When exposed to pheromones, the homosexual male brain and heterosexual female brain showed the same pattern of activation, different from the heterosexual male pattern, suggesting that homosexual men have  ... 
doi:10.1080/15299716.2010.500960 fatcat:js2n3j7eozaqllg7v2xrmccbyy

The human sexual response cycle: Brain imaging evidence linking sex to other pleasures

J.R. Georgiadis, M.L. Kringelbach
2012 Progress in Neurobiology  
Other sexual variations include sexual interest in partners of the same sex which is common in the general population, with up to 5-10% of men and about 5% of women in the USA self-reporting at least a  ...  Colours refer to gender of the groups: men (light blue), women (dark blue), mixed men-women (light green). (B) The largest category (VSS in heterosexual men) is further analyzed.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2012.05.004 pmid:22609047 fatcat:qkc52xsztrajnpp65xlwmi2gli
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