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Susan J. Lederman, Roberta L. Klatzky
2007 Canadian journal of experimental psychology  
/top-down) or reactive (exogenous/bottom-up) orienting.  ...  top-down visual mediation and bottom-up multisensory processing by so-called visual areas of the cortex.  ... 
doi:10.1037/cjep2007017 fatcat:u7sed3t4rffxheyxszupuggyey

EEG activities during program comprehension: an exploration of cognition

Yu-Tzu Lin, Yi-Zhi Liao, Xiao Hu, Cheng-Chih Wu
2021 IEEE Access  
TABLE I STUDIES I ON PROGRAM COMPREHENSION MODELS Authors (# of citations) Year Assimilation Cognition Brooks (835) 1983 top-down Program comprehension is a top-down and hypothesis-driven  ...  Brooks initialized the studies of theoretical models for program comprehension [10] . He argued that program comprehension is hypothesis-driven and is a top-down process [26] .  ...  Intel Education programs in Taiwan.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3107795 fatcat:rdcxs6pcrvck5l54vvcp4yidby

Optimization of Decision Rules in Fuzzy Classification

Renuka Arora, Sudesh Kumar
2012 International Journal of Computer Applications  
Discovering knowledge in the form of classification rules is one of the most important tasks of data mining. Discovery of comprehensible, concise and effective rules helps us to make right decisions.  ...  World Wide Web as a global information system has flooded us with a tremendous amount of data and information Discovery of knowledge and decision-making directly from such huge volumes of data contents  ...  The hybrid approach is a combination of both top down and bottom up mining. In this the tool can switch between top down and bottom up mining and again between directed and undirected mining.  ... 
doi:10.5120/8021-0505 fatcat:ginu6nhot5ajnghpclsmngbqbq

Energy Performance Modelling and Consumption Forecasting in Built Environments

2020 International journal of recent technology and engineering  
The building sector accounts for a staggering 30% of the world's energy use and one-third of associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.  ...  For all sector of the economy including the construction sector, energy consumption forecasting is critical for future planning.  ...  -top-down and bottom-up, whereas, Zhao and Magoulès [20] categorized them into five groups: engineering, statistical, neural networks, machine learning, support vector machines, and hybrid.  ... 
doi:10.35940/ijrte.f8350.079220 fatcat:c5c3kx2jnnbj3a5663wvi5456a

Measuring neural efficiency of program comprehension

Janet Siegmund, Norman Peitek, Chris Parnin, Sven Apel, Johannes Hofmeister, Christian Kästner, Andrew Begel, Anja Bethmann, André Brechmann
2017 Proceedings of the 2017 11th Joint Meeting on Foundations of Software Engineering - ESEC/FSE 2017  
We found evidence of semantic chunking during bottom-up comprehension and lower activation of brain areas during comprehension based on semantic cues, confirming that beacons ease comprehension.  ...  Instead, programmers must rely on a set of cognitive processes that aid in seeking, filtering, and shaping relevant information for a given programming task.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Anke Michalsky, Andreas Fügner, and Jörg Stadler for fMRI data acquisition and all participants of our pilot studies and the fMRI study.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3106237.3106268 dblp:conf/sigsoft/SiegmundPPAHKBB17 fatcat:l737ucr34zdlncnakgkainezhu

Effect of sequential video shot comprehensibility on attentional synchrony: A comparison of children and adults

Heather L. Kirkorian, Daniel R. Anderson
2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
The central question here was whether comprehension-related top-down cognitive processes drive eye movements during sequential processing of video montage.  ...  Differences between children and adults indicate that this top-down control of eye movements while watching video changes systematically over development.  ...  To the extent that viewers efficiently guide eye movements to successive shots by their emerging comprehension of the content, they are able to exert top-down control over eye movements to normal video  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.1611606114 pmid:30275303 pmcid:PMC6176630 fatcat:bbv4nefn6rgrnjuatvmqofxyba

Inductive logic programming at 30 [article]

Andrew Cropper, Sebastijan Dumančić, Richard Evans, Stephen H. Muggleton
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Inductive logic programming (ILP) is a form of logic-based machine learning. The goal is to induce a hypothesis (a logic program) that generalises given training examples.  ...  We focus on (i) new meta-level search methods, (ii) techniques for learning recursive programs, (iii) new approaches for predicate invention, and (iv) the use of different technologies.  ...  Top-down and bottom-up Top-down approaches [ , , ] start with a general hypothesis and then specialise it.  ... 
arXiv:2102.10556v2 fatcat:kv7ktjbajng6jjfae3sq3ubbmu

Neural-Symbolic Computing: An Effective Methodology for Principled Integration of Machine Learning and Reasoning [article]

Artur d'Avila Garcez, Marco Gori, Luis C. Lamb, Luciano Serafini, Michael Spranger, Son N. Tran
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Neural-symbolic computing has been an active topic of research for many years, reconciling the advantages of robust learning in neural networks and reasoning and interpretability of symbolic representation  ...  We illustrate the effectiveness of the approach by outlining the main characteristics of the methodology: principled integration of neural learning with symbolic knowledge representation and reasoning  ...  Top-down approaches, on the other hand, construct logic programs from the most general clauses and extend them to be more specific.  ... 
arXiv:1905.06088v1 fatcat:gm4f3ncukrbevpd7nq5yr75ar4

CTNN: Corticothalamic-inspired neural network [article]

Leendert A Remmelzwaal, Amit K Mishra, George F R Ellis
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Here, we present a neural network architecture modelled on the top-down corticothalamic connections and the behaviour of the thalamus: a corticothalamic neural network (CTNN), consisting of an auto-encoder  ...  Sensory predictions by the brain in all modalities take place as a result of bottom-up and top-down connections both in the neocortex and between the neocortex and the thalamus.  ...  In the one case where computational efficiency was commented on [47] , the top-down connections at each layer in the neural network resulted in doubling the computational requirements of the predictive  ... 
arXiv:1910.12492v3 fatcat:zh23uzzlkze25cgvmptzwftdmy

A virtual Environment Interface to Compare Autonomous Perceptual Systems

Thomas P. Caudell
1995 International Journal of Virtual Reality  
Information flow between modules of the neural network is represented as graphical animations.  ...  This paper describes the on-going development of a novel interface approach to understanding complex systems.  ...  The Drive Module is a network that provides top-down direction to the LAPART inferencers.  ... 
doi:10.20870/ijvr.1995.1.1.2600 fatcat:yv4xfoc5dfcabew77cy72dtktm

The Neural Basis for Aging Effects on Language [chapter]

Deborah M. Burke, Elizabeth R. Graham
2012 The Handbook of the Neuropsychology of Language  
, top-down phonological retrieval.  ...  Neural activation and top-down phonological processes The transmission deficit model postulates that the top-down processes involved in language production are vulnerable to age-related transmission deficits  ... 
doi:10.1002/9781118432501.ch38 fatcat:yfwuqcfwtrgp3ezdw2vtgnfzei

Hierarchical Ontology Graph for Solving Semantic Issues in Decision Support Systems

Hua Guo, Kecheng Liu
2019 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems  
The study of selecting the appropriate corpora is intended to improve the data asset management of enterprises.  ...  In the context of the development of AI algorithms in natural language processing, tremendous progress has been made in knowledge abstraction and semantic reasoning.  ...  In this paper, a top-down approach of hierarchical ontology graph is proposed, which is starting from the question analysis.  ... 
doi:10.5220/0007769904830487 dblp:conf/iceis/GuoL19 fatcat:ynexyh7qcbffdkoptmm7kbufpu

Learning by Fixing: Solving Math Word Problems with Weak Supervision [article]

Yining Hong, Qing Li, Daniel Ciao, Siyuan Huang, Song-Chun Zhu
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Previous neural solvers of math word problems (MWPs) are learned with full supervision and fail to generate diverse solutions.  ...  To generate more diverse solutions, tree regularization is applied to guide the efficient shrinkage and exploration of the solution space, and a memory buffer is designed to track and save the discovered  ...  sub-goals in a top-down manner.  ... 
arXiv:2012.10582v2 fatcat:p2g7gnfhurhf7imapt6wm3euhi

Guest editorial: introduction to the special issue on selected papers from the ELECO'2019 conference

S. Ozoguz, O. Cicekoglu, H. H. Kuntman
2021 Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing  
The paper by Lida Kouhalvandi et al. entitled Automated top-down pruning optimization approach in RF power amplifier designs presents an automated high-accuracy optimization approach for designing high-performance  ...  The paper by Fikret Başar Gencer et al. entitled Design and validation of an artificial neural network based on analog circuits focuses on the design and validation of an analog artificial neural network  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10470-021-01819-w fatcat:fcapaaj4z5de3modiv2ymaqkvi

Auditory training methods in children with psychiatric diagnosis: an integrative literature review

Humberto de Oliveira Simões, Sthella Zanchetta, Erikson Felipe Furtado
2020 Revista CEFAC  
The bottom-up intervention and the combined approach (bottom-up and top-down), in the formal context, were the most frequent approaches, whose results led to the improvement in linguistic, metalinguistic  ...  The amount and frequency of sessions, as well as their duration varied. Conclusion: the heterogeneity of auditory training techniques diversified the results.  ...  , both bottom-up and top-down approaches were used, separately, in the context of formal training; when there was reading disorder, training occurred with simultaneous bottom-up and top-down approaches  ... 
doi:10.1590/1982-0216/202022218318 fatcat:ahybrfis4zfozlflhnhr3xm7ia
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