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Cryptographic authentication for real-time network protocols [chapter]

David Mills
1998 Networks in Distributed Computing  
This paper describes a new security model and authentication scheme for distributed, real-time network protocols used in time synchronization and event scheduling applications.  ...  This paper presents a new security model and authentication scheme for NTP and similar real-time protocols.  ...  Introduction The Network Time Protocol (NTP) [5] is widely deployed in the Internet to synchronize computer time to national standards.  ... 
doi:10.1090/dimacs/045/08 dblp:conf/dimacs/Mills97 fatcat:f2ugxumhrfemxbftl7rvi7uy2m

Attacking NTP's Authenticated Broadcast Mode

Aanchal Malhotra, Sharon Goldberg
2016 Computer communication review  
We identify two attacks on the Network Time Protocol (NTP)'s cryptographically-authenticated broadcast mode.  ...  First, we present a replay attack that allows an on-path attacker to indefinitely stick a broadcast client to a specific time.  ...  Time Foundation and NTPsec for deploying patches.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2935634.2935637 fatcat:sl22uclobbbebnhly76iccuvha

Authenticated Network Time Synchronization

Benjamin Dowling, Douglas Stebila, Greg Zaverucha
2016 USENIX Security Symposium  
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used by many network-connected devices to synchronize device time with remote servers.  ...  In this paper we present an authenticated version of NTP, called ANTP, to protect against desynchronization attacks.  ...  Acknowledgements We thank Gleb Sechenov at the Queensland University of Technology for assistance in setting up the network for the experiments.  ... 
dblp:conf/uss/DowlingSZ16 fatcat:r6lamg7qbje4vekgye2iqwad7e

The Threat of Covert Channels in Network Time Synchronisation Protocols

Kevin Lamshöft, Jonas Hielscher, Christian Krätzer, Jana Dittmann
2022 Journal of Cyber Security and Mobility  
This paper is an extended version version of our open-access paper [15] in which we performed an in-depth analysis of the Network Time Protocol (NTP) in regards to covert channels.  ...  While the Network Time Protocol (NTP) is the most prevalent protocol for synchronizing clocks in IT networks, the Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is mostly found in networks of Industrial Control Systems  ...  Network Time Protocol (NTP) NTP is an UDP based OSI-Layer 7 protocol, meant for time synchronization. The current version is 4 [36] , which is compatible to version 3.  ... 
doi:10.13052/jcsm2245-1439.1123 fatcat:fz232ucocncbhgrxadvv4a64pm

Preventing Time Synchronization in NTP's Broadcast Mode [article]

Nikhil Tripathi, Neminath Hubballi
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used by millions of hosts in Internet today to synchronize their clocks. Clock synchronization is necessary for many network applications to function correctly.  ...  We test the attack in real networks and show that it is effective in both authenticated and unauthenticated broadcast/multicast modes of NTP.  ...  INTRODUCTION Network Time Protocol (NTP) [1] is one of the oldest protocols and is used to synchronize clocks of computer systems on the Internet.  ... 
arXiv:2005.01783v2 fatcat:7rotxiwctfbfjbio6jvyv5ikmu

The Security of NTP's Datagram Protocol [chapter]

Aanchal Malhotra, Matthew Van Gundy, Mayank Varia, Haydn Kennedy, Jonathan Gardner, Sharon Goldberg
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Finally, our network protocol analysis introduces new ways of reasoning about network attacks on time synchronization protocols. Related work Secure protocols.  ...  For decades, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) has been used to synchronize computer clocks over untrusted network paths. This work takes a new look at the security of NTP's datagram protocol.  ...  We thank the Network Time Foundation and the maintainers of chrony and NTPsec for patching vulnerabilities described here.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-70972-7_23 fatcat:yi2mzvq5rng2dkdllhz3gxswbi

Good practice guide on reviewing accuracy and security of digital time synchronization protocols

Kristof Teichel
2021 Zenodo  
This guide presents good practice concerning the assessment and review of time synchronization setups  ...  The previous goals consider a given protocol that two or more given participants are actively involved in and then limit its scope to consequences of that specific protocol to those specific participants  ...  First off, we establish a few very general and obvious statements about the overall interests of the participants of (network) time synchronization protocols, first looking at time clients (that is to  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5744501 fatcat:7zkyv26lszfxdlfubyvprpe5my

Precision time protocol attack strategies and their resistance to existing security extensions

Waleed Alghamdi, Michael Schukat
2021 Cybersecurity  
AbstractThe IEEE 1588 precision time protocol (PTP) is very important for many industrial sectors and applications that require time synchronization accuracy between computers down to microsecond and even  ...  presence of security protocol extensions, infrastructure redundancy, and protocol redundancy.  ...  Over packetswitched networks, such time synchronization can be provided by two protocols, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and the Precision Time Protocol (PTP).  ... 
doi:10.1186/s42400-021-00080-y fatcat:oy562etorba6lghxneo7eygix4

Covert Channels in Network Time Security

Kevin Lamshöft, Jana Dittmann
2022 Information Hiding and Multimedia Security Workshop  
Network Time Security (NTS) specified in RFC8915 is a mechanism to provide cryptographic security for clock synchronization using the Network Time Protocol (NTP) as foundation.  ...  However, in the past it was shown that time synchronisation protocols such as the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and the Precision Time Protocol (PTP) might be leveraged as carrier for covert channels, potentially  ...  Over time, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) became the de-facto standard for synchronizing clocks in IT networks [15, 19] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/3531536.3532947 dblp:conf/ih/LamshoftD22 fatcat:qggtrxmf2vdjji4xjubwisukru

Preventing (Network) Time Travel with Chronos

Neta Rozen Schiff, Michael Schapira, Danny Dolev, Omer Deutsch
2018 Proceedings of the Applied Networking Research Workshop on - ANRW '18  
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) synchronizes time across computer systems over the Internet.  ...  Specifically, Chronos is designed to protect even against attackers capable of compromising a large number of (even authenticated!) NTP servers. • Backwards-compatibility with today's NTP servers.  ...  The network time protocol (NTP) [14] , [32] , designed by Mills [34] , is one of the Internet's oldest protocols.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3232755.3232766 dblp:conf/anrw/SchiffSDD18 fatcat:pwh7rfufsvfmppiwdajonexlk4

Security Mechanisms in High-Level Network Protocols

Victor L. Voydock, Stephen T. Kent
1983 ACM Computing Surveys  
The implications of adding security mechanisms to high-level network protocols operating in an open-system environment are analyzed.  ...  There are three classes of protocols to be considered. First, consider protocols in which PDUs always arrive in order, with no duplicates and no losses {e.g., most protocols above layer 4).  ...  In addition, providing detection measures in a communications protocol obviates the need for each application programmer to devise an application-specific means of detection.  ... 
doi:10.1145/356909.356913 fatcat:4ulfcb52rrenzgpndrjc2gwisu

The Dancing Bear: A New Way of Composing Ciphers [chapter]

Ross Anderson
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
One could either design a compound primitive, perhaps using the homomorphic properties of discrete exponentiation, or one could embed several primitives into a protocol.  ...  one can do threshold decryption using standard block ciphers, or using an arbitrary mix of different decryption algorithms -such as any three keys out of two AES keys, a 3DES key, an RSA key and a one-time  ...  We'll now look at a few specific examples of new tricks.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11861386_26 fatcat:hmlnmuflbrdnpkyznci7jxhsyi

Information protection via environmental data tethers

Matt Beaumont-Gay, Kevin Eustice, Peter Reiher
2008 Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on New Security Paradigms - NSPW '07  
Version 4 of the Network Time Protocol can use the Autokey protocol [22] to provide cryptographic authentication for time synchronization messages.  ...  More generally, the presence or absence of a specific network entity, for instance a service or a specific node, could be used as input to Tethers.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1600176.1600188 dblp:conf/nspw/Beaumont-GayER07 fatcat:nm7uddny5nfpljh3wiudi6jawa

Truly-Protect: An Efficient VM-Based Software Protection

Amir Averbuch, Michael Kiperberg, Nezer Jacob Zaidenberg
2013 IEEE Systems Journal  
A preliminary version of this paper appeared in the 5th International Conference on Network and System Security (NSS2011).  ...  It was extended by expanding the system's description, adding more efficient parallel implementation, just-in-time decryption, and a comprehensive performance analysis.  ...  Fig. 4 . 4 Program decryption time (in cycles) using AES and our cipher with different values of p. = 4. α = 112.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jsyst.2013.2260617 fatcat:lmj64vrs2bcq5mh7izvyaayaxu

Protecting IT Systems from Cyber Crime

R. Benjamin
1998 Computer journal  
At the same time, the rapidly growing interconnectivity of IT systems, and the convergence of their technology towards industry-standard hardware and software components and sub-systems, renders these  ...  Crude versions of 3 and possibly also of 5 exist in many networks. Facility 4, a potentially powerful form of adaptation to network damage, is insufficiently planned and practised.  ...  At the expense of transmitting an "empty" key stream at non-busy times, this can prevent any attack focused specifically on synchronisation.  ... 
doi:10.1093/comjnl/41.7.429 fatcat:bznnumpmm5e6jkfyoxbitg6zze
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