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Lessons learned from a MAN

Hank Nussbacher
1996 Computer networks and ISDN systems  
The Israeli network converted to using a Metropolitan Area Network back in February 1994. This MAN network provides coverage over 250 kilometers and 3 major cities in Israel.  ...  The seven Israeli universities use Ethernet ports to the MAN running at 10 Mbit/s. This paper describes the lessons learned from running such a nationwide Ethernet netwo::k.  ...  Acknowledgements I would like to thank all the Israeli university networking personnel that worked hard to test and debug this network: Oded Comay, Doron Shikmoni, Simon Shikman, Benzi Mizrachi and Rafi  ... 
doi:10.1016/0169-7552(95)00087-9 fatcat:bxvxs5y7mfeozlmw6fyjxg4qe4

Multimedia Networks: Fundamentals and Future Directions

Nalin Sharda
1999 Communications of the Association for Information Systems  
WAN options for multimedia networking include digital leased lines and ISDN.  ...  The legacy networks (designed in 70s and 80s) are not able to meet these requirements. Enhancements to the older networking technologies have been developed to convert these into multimedia networks.  ...  These lines have become available for leasing since the early 1980s Digital Table 5 : 5 Digital Lease Lines and their Multimedia Applications QoS and Cost of Digital Leased Lines: Leased lines are technically  ... 
doi:10.17705/1cais.00110 fatcat:6lrlzq3bhrehtpqmh6oksfzmsq

Real-time audio and video transmission of IEEE GLOBECOM '96 over the Internet

C. Perkins, J. Crowcroft
1997 IEEE Communications Magazine  
The multimedia transmission was carried over carefully engineered links that traversed many different subnet technologies, including point-to-point circuits, SMDS networks, ATM networks, and fast Ethernet  ...  The former system is based on a server model of distribution 1 , whilst the latter is based on the use of network level packet multicast.  ...  The staff at UCL's Information Systems Division, and the University of London Computer Center at the Networks Operations Center, and UCL CS helped to debug Internet multicast routing and SMDS interworking  ... 
doi:10.1109/35.570716 fatcat:cwctrgrftzbmnjdihnibkfbo5u

A Review on Distributed Application Processing Frameworks in Smart Mobile Devices for Mobile Cloud Computing

Muhammad Shiraz, Abdullah Gani, Rashid Hafeez Khokhar, Rajkumar Buyya
2013 IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials  
It proposes thematic taxonomy of current DAPFs, reviews current offloading frameworks by using thematic taxonomy and analyzes the implications and critical aspects of current offloading frameworks.  ...  However in spite of all the advancements in recent years, SMDs are still low potential computing devices, which are constrained by CPU potentials, memory capacity and battery life time.  ...  SMDs use wireless network technology protocols such as 3G, LTE, or Wi-Fi to access the services of computational cloud in mobile environment.  ... 
doi:10.1109/surv.2012.111412.00045 fatcat:m26vd5clvbgfrpo2cdohuog3uq

Open-layered networks: the growing importance of market coordination

Petros Kavassalis, Joseph P. Bailey, Thomas Y. Lee
2000 Decision Support Systems  
Based upon the Internet perspective, this paper will attempt to clarify and revise several ideas about the separation between infrastructure facilities and service offerings in digital communications networks  ...  The key notions that we will focus on in this paper are: i) the bearer service as a technology-independent interface which exports blind network functionality to applications development; ii) the organizational  ...  In the leased line case, customers specify the bandwidth of a connection often days or weeks in advance of using that bandwidth.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0167-9236(99)00080-9 fatcat:payiflagwnhg3ne6ef4kevucpa

Restructuring Industries: The Carrot and the Stick

Roger Sherman
2003 Review of Network Economics  
Restructuring brings market incentives into formerly monopolized network industries and raises a host of questions about whether the carrot of profit seeking can be disciplined by the stick of competition  ...  In the telephone industry access pricing is an issue, and major problems are illustrated. In the electricity industry other problems are described and possible solutions are briefly sketched.  ...  To overcome some of these problems, the FERC proposed a Standard Market Design (SMD), 49 a set of policies and procedures intended to induce efficiency incentives by using the best rules yet discovered  ... 
doi:10.2202/1446-9022.1035 fatcat:likm4qzaffahrd5lphitpwuqn4

Is Bank Supervision Effective? Evidence from the Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses

Ling Yang
2016 Social Science Research Network  
I investigate whether bank supervision is effective in enforcing written rules on the estimations of the allowance for loan and lease losses (ALLL) consistently between public and private banks, which  ...  State-chartered public banks underestimated the ALLL by about 13% annually between 2013 and 2015.  ...  In each graph, the red line plots the SMDs of the unmatched sample, the green line plots the SMDs of the matched sample, and the blue line 30 plots the SMDs of the weighted sample.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2886636 fatcat:xdg4kb4xpfeqxi3px76kq3xbpq

Converged Networking: A Review of Concepts and Technologies

Adel Ahmed Ali, Ahmed M. Al-Naamany
2000 Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Science  
The specific areas addressed here are networking basics, networking technologies, types of traffic, and convergence of computer and communication networks.  ...  Converged networking is an emerging technology thrust that integrates voice, video, and data traffic on a single network.  ...  There are two kinds of VCs: 1) a permanent VC (PVC) for a leased line and 2) a switched VC (SVC) for a dynamically established connection.  ... 
doi:10.24200/squjs.vol5iss0pp209-225 fatcat:n6nrffb6cjebzm2pddvarwc7mu

UTRAN Transmission Infrastructure Planning and Optimisation [chapter]

Karsten Erlebach, Zbigniew Jóskiewicz, Marcin Ney
2006 Understanding UMTS Radio Network Modelling, Planning and Automated Optimisation  
The fundamental changes between 2G to 3G transmission networks and their resulting risks and chances are often overlooked in the first phase of a 3G network deployment.  ...  On the other side, nearly all IP-and ADSL-operators do not comply with the same level of quality, which classic telecoms were used to. The reason is based on the different type of services.  ...  There are two types of the leased lines [31]: 1. Point-to-point leased lines; 2. Multi-point or multi-drop leased lines.  ... 
doi:10.1002/0470030569.ch17 fatcat:743ai7rpzjbgfe3h3fmmun5p4u

Voice over IP in the Local Exchange: A Case Study [article]

Martin B.H. Weiss, Hak-Ju Kim
2001 arXiv   pre-print
This paper presents the operating cost portion of our ongoing research project comparing circuit-switched and IP network costs for an existing local exchange carrier.  ...  We have found that (1) The operating cost differential between IP and circuit switching for this LEC will be small; and (2) A substantial majority of a telco's operating cost lies in customer service and  ...  five types of subscribers, which are residential dial-in, business dial-in, 128 kb dial-in ISDN, 56 kb leased-line, and T1 leased-line subscribers.  ... 
arXiv:cs/0109067v1 fatcat:p2c2x4stpjhbvd4j6xeotrfyme


Roland E. Lehr, Alan P. Marchand
1972 Orbital Symmetry  
(e.g., leased Lines, Frame Relay, SMDS, ATM, or SONET) to interconnect their Points of Presence (POPs) at Network Access Points (NAPs).  ...  The fulfillment of this process is likely to be an industry of both integrated and nonintegrated firm types, coexisting and using new types of emergent wholesale markets (e.g., IP transport services) to  ...  ., fax, data services, etc.) and the emergence of wholesale markets for bulk switched and dedicated transport (e.g., leased lines, virtual private networks, etc.) further highlight the potential for separating  ... 
doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-441150-0.50005-8 fatcat:zjjto27gyfbt5ljt2rfgktyvxu

Design considerations for usage accounting and feedback in internetworks

Deborah Estrin, Lixia Zhang
1990 Computer communication review  
We then outline issues raised by the design of mechanisms to realize these policies, including : network service disciplines, accounting granularity, metrics, authentication, and coordination among transit  ...  In fact, one of the goals of th e feedback mechanisms explored in this paper is to allo w network service providers and users to avoid the introduction of usage sensitive charges if they so wish ; while  ...  Commercial carrier s have participated mostly through leasing of lines used to connect network nodes within the private networks .  ... 
doi:10.1145/381906.381935 fatcat:ca5tgavoubgblhn6psmwdcbpoq

2005 IMS MTT-S - Exhibition guide

2005 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 2005.  
Thin wall aluminum cast bends, regular wall aluminum and bronze cast bends, and aluminum flange stock are also in stock for immediate delivery. Waveguide/Waveguide Components AC Microwave 1513  ...  Aluminum, copper, bronze, invar, stainless steel and silver waveguide are in stock.  ...  SMD style delay lines up to 12 nanoseconds from DC to 3 GHz. Ultra broadband temperature variable at- tenuators DC to 20 GHz.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mwsym.2005.1516499 fatcat:qggebn5ckfbxtczxg7cuyh4rua

Prediction by Soft Computing, Planning, and Strategy Building of Aquatic Catch: Chilika Lagoon, Odisha, India

Siba Prasad Mishra, Ananta Charan Ojha
2021 Annual Research & Review in Biology  
Methodologies: Fish catch data collected for 30 years and soft computing models linear regression, Multi Linear Perception (ANN), SMOorg (SVM) and the Random Forest algorithms (Weka Software) are used  ...  for alternate occupation and migration.  ...  in annual lease fee by 27% on compound rate.  ... 
doi:10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i330352 fatcat:woeizooak5epjh76o5qrkcnylu

Multiprotocol networking—a blueprint

M. L. Hess, J. A. Lorrain, G. R. McGee
1995 IBM Systems Journal  
Routers (IP, SNA, IPX, etc.) tra- ditionally use leased, point-to-point lines to build a router backbone, each line being a tiny subnet.  ...  Network designers can thus select, for each user port, the service interface that best fits the ap- 342 HESS, LORRAIN, AND McGEE plication needs and the line attachment speed and type of any user device  ... 
doi:10.1147/sj.343.0330 fatcat:y3ur7ohfxva7njjafsf3sdc4ou
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