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Network Analysis of Third Party Tracking: User Exposure to Tracking Cookies through Search

Richard Gomer, Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues, Natasa Milic-Frayling, M.C. Schraefel
2013 2013 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Joint Conferences on Web Intelligence (WI) and Intelligent Agent Technologies (IAT)  
There is 99.5% chance that a user will become tracked by all top 10 trackers within 30 clicks on search results. Finally, the third party networks exhibit properties of the small world networks.  ...  By considering third party domains associated with the top ten search results for a diverse set of queries, we arrived at the networks of third party domains in four search markets.  ...  RESEARCH FOCUS AND METHODS Our research focusses on the network aspects of online tracking and the exposure of users to third parties through Web services.  ... 
doi:10.1109/wi-iat.2013.77 dblp:conf/webi/GomerRMS13 fatcat:nqunm5r6tnewdhybe4vqjfuiva

Tracking and Personalization [chapter]

Rahat Masood, Shlomo Berkovsky, Mohamed Ali Kaafar
2021 Modern Socio-Technical Perspectives on Privacy  
Then, the chapter turns to online tracking specific to mobile and web technologies, as well as the more advanced behavioral tracking.  ...  Following this, the chapter ties the streams of personalization and tracking together and discusses various aspects of their relationships, including the currently deployed tracking methods for personalization  ...  Similarly, [48] studied the effect of third-party HTTP requests on the top 1M websites and showed that Google could track across 80% of websites through third-party domains.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-82786-1_9 fatcat:au7bgwajqzeffb2cvtgn3ytasy

Online Tracking

Steven Englehardt, Arvind Narayanan
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS'16  
We present the largest and most detailed measurement of online tracking conducted to date, based on a crawl of the top 1 million websites.  ...  We make 15 types of measurements on each site, including stateful (cookie-based) and stateless (fingerprinting-based) tracking, the effect of browser privacy tools, and the exchange of tracking data between  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank Shivam Agarwal for contributing analysis code used in this study, Christian Eubank and Peter Zimmerman for their work on early versions of Open-WPM, and Gunes Acar  ... 
doi:10.1145/2976749.2978313 dblp:conf/ccs/EnglehardtN16 fatcat:prxashpbtjgl7f5e7xnqsw6w24

Cross-Device Tracking: Measurement and Disclosures

Justin Brookman, Phoebe Rouge, Aaron Alva, Christina Yeung
2017 Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies  
Our paper demonstrates how data that is routinely collected and shared online could be used by online third parties to track consumers across devices.  ...  We designed this study to try to assess what information about cross-device tracking (including data flows and policy disclosures) is observable from the perspective of the end user.  ...  Instead, they may send cookie values to a cross-device tracking company through "cookie syncing"; the cross-device company could return a list of devices it believes to be linked to the same user (see  ... 
doi:10.1515/popets-2017-0020 dblp:journals/popets/BrookmanRAY17 fatcat:bww5ascwpbafjlubgzefvacis4

User Privacy and the Evolution of Third-Party Tracking Mechanisms on the World Wide Web

Sonal Mittal
2010 Social Science Research Network  
Third-party tracking refers to tracking done by websites that a user never navigates to explicitly. Many Internet users are vaguely aware that their information may be collected online.  ...  A computer security rubric is then applied to the behavior and tracking methodologies of third parties in order to show their adversarial qualities in matters of user privacy.  ...  My deepest thanks also goes to the team at CDT Labs who have advised me on technical matters and provided online support for the project.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2005252 fatcat:zwvngafiavcgvk7wu26pbiebhu

To Track or 'Do Not Track': Advancing Transparency and Individual Control in Online Behavioral Advertising

Omer Tene, Jules Polonetsky
2011 Social Science Research Network  
It cannot be discerned from harmonization of network protocols or etymological analysis of the words "track" or "third party."  ...  identifier, the network can create a user profile based on the range of sites the user visits. 34 Increasingly, in a process known as "cookie synching," many third party cookies that advertising networks  ...  a third party for processing. 371 An organization must use contractual or other means to provide a comparable level of protection while the information is being processed by a third party. 372 Given that  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1920505 fatcat:fifrwdkqbzhxtfm3ykupwecjkm

(Do Not) Track Me Sometimes: Users' Contextual Preferences for Web Tracking

William Melicher, Mahmood Sharif, Joshua Tan, Lujo Bauer, Mihai Christodorescu, Pedro Giovanni Leon
2016 Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies  
We find that many users want more control over tracking and think that controlled tracking has benefits, but are unwilling to put in the effort to control tracking or distrust current tools.  ...  tools, and explore the use of a classifier to automatically determine whether a user would be comfortable with tracking on a particular page visit; our results suggest this is a promising direction for  ...  Acknowledgments We would like to thank Samantha Gottlieb for her comments on early drafts of this work. This research was partially supported by NSF award CNS-1330596.  ... 
doi:10.1515/popets-2016-0009 dblp:journals/popets/MelicherSTBCL16 fatcat:b6q4mvwgundd7ccpsfmetl5exu

Click-tracking blocker: Privacy preservation by disabling search engines' click-tracking

Roberto Alberdeston, Erich Dondyk, Cliff C. Zou
2014 2014 IEEE Global Communications Conference  
program called Click-Tracking Blocker that modifies all URLs on search result pages once they are retrieved by users' computers, such that search engines will no longer be able to track users' clicking  ...  Click-Tracking Blocker can be readily and easily installed by end users to protect their privacy, works for all three major search engines, and does not affect users' search experience.  ...  It can successfully prevent search engines to extract user private information based on search queries, but at the cost of generating excessive wasted network traffic to both the search engines and users  ... 
doi:10.1109/glocom.2014.7036868 dblp:conf/globecom/AlberdestonDZ14 fatcat:telf7v2awrhmbjzxr6ajembjgm

Under the Spotlight: Web Tracking in Indian Partisan News Websites

Vibhor Agarwal, Yash Vekaria, Pushkal Agarwal, Sangeeta Mahapatra, Shounak Set, Sakthi Balan Muthiah, Nishanth Sastry, Nicolas Kourtellis
2021 Zenodo  
Desktop versions of news websites deliver more cookies than their mobile counterparts. A handful of third-parties are tracking users in most websites in this study.  ...  The paper performs, to the best of our knowledge, the first comprehensive analysis on the Indian online news media with respect to tracking and partisanship.  ...  First and Third-party Cookie Analysis To perform the cookie-based analysis, we use the javascript_cookies table of SQLite dump from the OpenWPM crawled data.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5653540 fatcat:myf7n7c445cfpe2apv22i3tf6q

Talon: An Automated Framework for Cross-Device Tracking Detection [article]

Konstantinos Solomos, Panagiotis Ilia, Sotiris Ioannidis, Nicolas Kourtellis
2019 arXiv   pre-print
In search for new ways to optimize the effectiveness of ads, advertisers have introduced new advanced paradigms such as cross-device tracking (CDT), to monitor users' browsing on multiple devices and screens  ...  Although digital advertising fuels much of today's free Web, it typically does so at the cost of online users' privacy, due to the continuous tracking and leakage of users' personal data.  ...  The paper reflects only the authors' views and the Agency and the Commission are not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.  ... 
arXiv:1812.11393v5 fatcat:3hwxegsu3rds7pf2qmt7ib43we

Measuring the Privacy vs. Compatibility Trade-off in Preventing Third-Party Stateful Tracking

Jordan Jueckstock, Peter Snyder, Shaown Sarker, Alexandros Kapravelos, Benjamin Livshits
2022 Proceedings of the ACM Web Conference 2022  
Our work measures the privacy vs. compatibility trade-offs of representative third-party storage policies to enable design of browsers that are both compatible and privacy respecting.  ...  Our contributions include web-scale measurements of page behaviors under multiple third-party storage policies inspired by production browsers.  ...  Cookie Syncing & Other State Transfers. Third-parties can collude to share stored user tracking identifiers and expand their tracking scope via cookie syncing, first measured in depth by Olejnik et al  ... 
doi:10.1145/3485447.3512231 fatcat:x2cy7uft5zg6xj6asmyp42d3pi

Towards Transparency in Email Tracking [chapter]

Max Maass, Stephan Schwär, Matthias Hollick
2019 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Our preliminary results show widespread email tracking, where opening an email can result in information being sent to up to 13 third parties, in some cases disclosing the users' email address in the process  ...  We introduce the PrivacyMail platform to assist with the automated analysis of email messages.  ...  Acknowledgements This work has been co-funded by the DFG as part of project C.1 within the RTG 2050 "Privacy and Trust for Mobile Users".  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-21752-5_2 fatcat:b4jualzcyfeb5emjri2rdpvrvy

The effect of behavioral tracking practices on consumers' shopping evaluations and repurchase intention toward trusted online retailers

Tun-Min (Catherine) Jai, Leslie Davis Burns, Nancy J. King
2013 Computers in Human Behavior  
Third-party cookies enable online third-party advertisers like Google to more precisely follow web-surfing behavior across affiliated sites, like Google Search (search engine), You Tube (publisher), and  ...  I know some websites allow other third-party companies to place cookies into customers' hard drives to track shopping behaviors. 37.2 Table 2 . 2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Measurement Model  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.021 fatcat:lqbsejxbvjezrljiypfcntcijy

Talon: An Automated Framework for Cross-Device Tracking Detection

Konstantinos Solomos, Panagiotis Ilia, Sotiris Ioannidis, Nicolas Kourtellis
2019 Zenodo  
In search for new ways to optimize the effectiveness of ads, advertisers have introduced new advanced paradigms such as cross-device tracking (CDT), to monitor users' browsing on multiple devices and screens  ...  Although digital advertising fuels much of today's freeWeb, it typically does so at the cost of online users' privacy, due to the continuous tracking and leakage of users' personal data.  ...  The paper reflects only the authors' views and the Agency and the Commission are not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.3598092 fatcat:b2w2gdjqwredbo25xpvhjohtya

The TV is Smart and Full of Trackers: Measuring Smart TV Advertising and Tracking

Janus Varmarken, Hieu Le, Anastasia Shuba, Athina Markopoulou, Zubair Shafiq
2020 Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies  
Finally, we examine our Roku and Fire TV datasets for exposure of personally identifiable information (PII) and find that hundreds of apps exfiltrate PII to third parties and platform domains.  ...  We find that smart TVs connect to well-known and platform-specific advertising and tracking services (ATSes).  ...  The authors would like to thank M. Hammad Mazhar and the team at Minim for their help with collecting and analyzing smart TV traffic in the wild.  ... 
doi:10.2478/popets-2020-0021 fatcat:yfd2btavpndypgbfcq52kwt2zm
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