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ABSTRACTA common task in brain image analysis includes diagnosis of a certain medical condition wherein groups of healthy controls and diseased subjects are analyzed and compared. On the other hand, for two groups of healthy participants with different proficiency in a certain skill, a distinctive analysis of the brain function remains a challenging problem. In this study, we develop new computational tools to explore the functional and anatomical differences that could exist between the braindoi:10.1101/2020.09.18.303685 fatcat:vsw45uaepverdnti5fua472xw4
more »... f healthy individuals identified on the basis of different levels of task experience/proficiency. Towards this end, we look at a dataset of amateur and professional chess players, where we utilize resting-state functional magnetic resonance images to generate functional connectivity (FC) information. In addition, we utilize T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to estimate morphometric connectivity (MC) information. We combine functional and anatomical features into a new connectivity matrix, which we term as the functional morphometric similarity connectome (FMSC). Since, both the FC and MC information is susceptible to redundancy, the size of this information is reduced using statistical feature selection. We employ off-the-shelf machine learning classifier, support vector machine, for both single- and multi-modality classifications. From our experiments, we establish that the saliency and ventral attention network of the brain is functionally and anatomically different between two groups of healthy subjects (chess players). We argue that, since chess involves many aspects of higher order cognition such as systematic thinking and spatial reasoning and the identified network is task-positive to cognition tasks requiring a response, our results are valid and supporting the feasibility of the proposed computational pipeline. Moreover, we quantitatively validate an existing neuroscience hypothesis that learning a certain skill could cause a change in the brain (functional connectivity and anatomy) and this can be tested via our novel FMSC algorithm.
Brain and Language
A series of articles in the past two decades has suggested differential processing of open-and closed-class lexical items by normal adults. Difficulties in replicating a crucial study (Bradley, 1978) , however, have weakened the dual route hypothesis. We matched 16 French open-class items to 16 closed-class items for phonological structure, word length, and relative word frequency. Three agrammatic aphasics were asked to read each word in isolation and in a sentence context. Error analysisdoi:10.1006/brln.1997.1749 pmid:9126421 fatcat:dynxws6ktbe5hpch6tvyrgit74
more »... led strikingly more phonological errors on closed-class than open-class items. Dysfluencies were greater on closed-class items and contributed to greater overall reading time for the closed-class words, consistent with a two-route model for the production of closed-and open-class lexical items in Broca's aphasics and, thus, normals.
Copyright © 2021 RaviPrakash, Anwar, Biassou and Bagci. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). ...doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.629478 pmid:33679310 pmcid:PMC7933502 fatcat:ykxrfzamffb2zmpegoalzlean4
Head-repositioning does not reduce the reproducibility of fMRI activation in a block-design motor task Citation:doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.03.023 pmid:21406235 pmcid:PMC3085718 fatcat:6lrc56xryncujkvnxzxar56ngy
Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) rarely metastasize to the brain. Clinico-pathologic features of TET patients with brain metastasis are not well described. Methods: TET patients referred for consultation or screening for clinical trials are included. Imaging to evaluate for brain metastases was performed when clinically indicated or if required for screening. Tumor tissue from brain metastases was obtained for analysis, when available. Clinical characteristics and survival was evaluated and adoi:10.21037/tlcr.2017.08.06 pmid:29114474 pmcid:PMC5653528 fatcat:nrwkeez3vndgtfs7l5svnksadu
more »... tematic review of the literature on brain metastases associated with TETs was performed. Results: Fourteen TET patients with brain metastasis were identified. Median age at TET diagnosis was 53 years (range: 31-71 years). Twelve patients had thymic carcinoma and two patients had World Health Organization B3 thymoma. Median time from TET diagnosis to discovery of brain metastases was 2.5 years (range: 9 months-8.3 years). Eleven patients had extracranial, extrathoracic metastases during presentation with brain metastases. Three patients underwent surgery and radiation therapy, eight patients received radiation therapy alone, and one patient had surgery alone. One patient with thymoma died 11 months after diagnosis of brain metastases and another patient died but with unknown date of diagnosis of brain metastases. Among 12 patients with thymic carcinoma, 11 of whom had a known date of brain metastases diagnosis, the median potential follow-up is 35.8 months, and median overall survival (OS) from diagnosis of brain metastases is 13.1 months. Conclusions: Although uncommon, patients with advanced thymic carcinoma can develop brain metastases. Appropriate imaging and aggressive treatment should be considered for these patients. Gharwan et al. TETs and brain metastases tlcr.amegroups.com Gharwan et al. TETs and brain metastases Transl Lung Cancer Res tumors and metastasis to the brain: a case series and systematic review.
Twenty-seven previously healthy (of 36 consecutive eligible patients), HIV-negative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation during the late post-treatment period (1.3-4 years post diagnosis), assessing attention, language, learning, memory, visuospatial, executive function, information processing, psychomotor functioning, as well as mood symptoms. Seven of eight domains (all except attention) showed increased percentages of CMdoi:10.1038/s41598-019-54876-7 pmid:31804566 pmcid:PMC6895107 fatcat:ad2jxc6mrzclnbaayzgdl7ctdq
more »... scoring in the less than 16th percentile range compared to standardized normative test averages, adjusted for education level and age. Comparison with a matched archival dataset of mild cognitive impairment/Alzheimer's disease patients showed that CM patients exhibited relative deficits in psychomotor and executive function with fewer deficits in memory and learning, consistent with a frontal-subcortical syndrome. MRI evaluation at the time of testing demonstrated an association of lower neuropsychological functioning with ventriculomegaly. These studies suggest that CM should be included in the list of treatable causes of dementia in neurological work ups. Future studies are needed to identify diagnostic and treatment regimens that may enhance neurological function after therapy.
The brain's vascular network dynamically affects its development and core functions. It rapidly responds to abnormal conditions by adjusting properties of the network, aiding stabilization and regulation of brain activities. Tracking prominent arterial changes has clear clinical and surgical advantages. However, the arterial network functions as a system; thus, local changes may imply global compensatory effects that could impact the dynamic progression of a disease. We developed automateddoi:10.1109/tpami.2020.3008379 pmid:32750811 fatcat:qyo66d7kmfejfkcu3b7jw7wwly
more »... nalized system-level analysis methods of the compensatory arterial changes and mean blood flow behavior from a patient's clinical images. By applying our approach to data from a patient with aggressive brain cancer compared with healthy individuals, we found unique spatiotemporal patterns of the arterial network that could assist in predicting the evolution of glioblastoma over time. Our personalized approach provides a valuable analysis tool that could augment current clinical assessments of the progression of glioblastoma and other neurological disorders affecting the brain.
Background-Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series are subject to corruption by many noise sources, especially physiological noise and motion. Researchers have developed many methods to reduce physiological noise, including RETROICOR, which retroactively removes cardiac and respiratory waveforms collected during the scan, and CompCor, which applies principal components analysis (PCA) to remove physiological noise components without any physiological monitoring during the scan.doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.11.015 pmid:25481542 pmcid:PMC4832429 fatcat:c5c4r4nhkja6nludmv3ijhasni
more »... ew Method-We developed four variants of the CompCor method. The optimized CompCor method applies PCA to time series in a noise mask, but orthogonalizes each component to the BOLD response waveform and uses an algorithm to determine a favorable number of components to use as "nuisance regressors." Whole brain component correction (WCompCor) is similar, except that it applies PCA to time-series throughout the whole brain. Low-pass component correction (LCompCor) identifies low-pass filtered components throughout the brain, while high-pass component correction (HCompCor) identifies high-pass filtered components. Comparison with existing method: We compared the new methods with the original CompCor method by examining the resulting functional contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), sensitivity, and specificity. Results-1) the optimized CompCor method increased the CNR and sensitivity compared to the original CompCor method and 2) the application of WCompCor yielded the best improvement in the CNR and sensitivity. Conclusions-The sensitivity of the optimized CompCor, WCompCor, and LCompCor methods exceeded that of the original CompCor method. However, regressing noise signals showed a paradoxical consequence of reducing specificity for all noise reduction methods attempted. Graphical abstract Keywords BOLD fMRI; physiological noise; principal components analysis Soltysik et al.
Biassou, Nadia; Obler, Loraine K.; Nespoulous, Jean- Luc; Dordain, Monique et al. (U Pennsylvania, Dept of Linguis- tics, Philadelphia, PA) Dual processing of open- and closed- class words. ...
International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 1997(Jul), Vol 6(2), 117-125. 40757 Biank, Nancee— See Beck, Peggy 36199 Biardeau, Agnes— See Bijeljac-Babic, Ranka 41558 Biassou, Nadia; Obler, Loraine K.; Nespoulous ...
We also thank Nadia Biassou, Amrit Kashyap, and Ethan Buch for a careful and helpful reading of the manuscript. The research was supported by the NIH/NIDCD Intramural Research Program. ...doi:10.3389/fncom.2022.876652 fatcat:ndkbp4kvgnhbfjrzrvepzobvnu