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Music Tempo Estimation: Are We Done Yet?

Hendrik Schreiber, Julián Urbano, Meinard Müller
2020 Transactions of the International Society for Music Information Retrieval  
With the advent of deep learning, global tempo estimation accuracy has reached a new peak, which presents a great opportunity to evaluate our evaluation practices.  ...  To aid future evaluations, we present a public repository containing evaluation code as well as estimates by many different systems and different ground truths for popular datasets.  ...  We would like to thank participants of our survey, G. Percival for kindly allowing us to use his results (Percival and Tzanetakis, 2014) to help start the estimate repository, M.  ... 
doi:10.5334/tismir.43 fatcat:h2ccbqpos5ehrfikxsome6dbta

Rhythm pattern representations for tempo detection in music

Sankalp Gulati, Preeti Rao
2010 Proceedings of the First International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Technologies and Multimedia - IITM '10  
We investigate different signal processing methods for rhythm pattern extraction and evaluate these for the music tempo detection task.  ...  The different systems are comparatively evaluated on a standard Ballroom Dance music database and an Indian music database.  ...  The tempo annotation was done manually by the authors so that the BPM values are consistent with the perceived speed of the song.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1963564.1963606 fatcat:vwd6u7mvcncldo4nbcgz72pbn4

Addressing Tempo Estimation Octave Errors In Electronic Music By Incorporating Style Information Extracted From Wikipedia

Florian Hörschläger, Richard Vogl, Sebastian Böck, Peter Knees
2015 Proceedings of the SMC Conferences  
Yet our findings show that uninformed estimators can produce such an output.  ...  We compare our results with tempo estimators, that are shipped with popular DJ tools.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.851138 fatcat:6topy4zahbhuxizlbxpyeaunau

Tempo and beat analysis of acoustic musical signals

Eric D. Scheirer
1998 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America  
A method is presented for using a small number of bandpass filters and banks of parallel comb filters to analyze the tempo of, and extract the beat from, musical signals of arbitrary polyphonic complexity  ...  Aspects of the algorithm are discussed in relation to previous high-level cognitive models of beat tracking.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks are due the Interval Research Corporation for their support of this work.  ... 
doi:10.1121/1.421129 pmid:9440344 fatcat:gtgbiwznhvd2jm2gtx5rneua3a

Illusory Tempo Changes Due to Musical Characteristics

Marilyn G. Boltz
2011 Music Perception  
These results are suggested to stem from an overgeneralization of certain structural correlations within the natural environment that, in turn, has implications for both musical performance and the processing  ...  In the present research, various musical characteristics were manipulated to observe their potential influence on perceived tempo.  ...  Subjective time estimates, in particular, are likely to be influenced in that perceived increases and decreases in tempo should result in perceptually shorter and longer time spans, respectively.  ... 
doi:10.1525/mp.2011.28.4.367 fatcat:luy5xgqchjbmddp3t6tsyitxvi

Directed Motor-Auditory EEG Connectivity Is Modulated by Music Tempo

Nicoletta Nicolaou, Asad Malik, Ian Daly, James Weaver, Faustina Hwang, Alexis Kirke, Etienne B. Roesch, Duncan Williams, Eduardo R. Miranda, Slawomir J. Nasuto
2017 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
Beat perception is fundamental to how we experience music, and yet the mechanism behind this spontaneous building of the internal beat representation is largely unknown.  ...  Existing findings support links between the tempo (speed) of the beat and enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG) activity at tempo-related frequencies, but there are no studies looking at how tempo  ...  We would like to thank the reviewers for their constructive suggestions that helped us to improve this work.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2017.00502 pmid:29093672 pmcid:PMC5651276 fatcat:tji3srilbjc5jpsvcx2pccuawi

Tempo curves considered harmful

Peter Desain, Henkjan Honing
1993 Contemporary Music Review  
In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves.  ...  Not so long ago we decided to spend a Christmas holiday studying music and its performance.  ...  We would like to thank also all the researchers mentioned, for their contribution to the field of timing in music.  ... 
doi:10.1080/07494469300640081 fatcat:6cceptjh6ranjfmkkb736gjk3u

Musical Emotion Perception in Bimodal Patients: Relative Weighting of Musical Mode and Tempo Cues

Kristen L. D'Onofrio, Meredith Caldwell, Charles Limb, Spencer Smith, David M. Kessler, René H. Gifford
2020 Frontiers in Neuroscience  
Several cues are used to convey musical emotion, the two primary being musical mode and musical tempo.  ...  In Experiment I, we examined the relative weighting of musical tempo and musical mode among adult cochlear implant (CI) users combining electric and contralateral acoustic stimulation, or "bimodal" hearing  ...  Portions of these data were presented at the 2018 Music and Cochlear Implant Symposium in Montreal, QC, Canada and 2019 Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnins.2020.00114 pmid:32174809 pmcid:PMC7054459 fatcat:pxbh4pecyvdi5pctnwlime3jcq

Does expressive timing in music performance scale proportionally with tempo?

Peter Desain, Henkjan Honing
1994 Psychological Research  
The analysis suggests that timing aspects of music are closely linked to the musical structure and can only be studied and manipulated respecting this relation -not as a global timing pattern or tempo  ...  Evidence is presented that expressive timing in music is not relational invariant with respect to global tempo.  ...  The NYU Music Department, the NICI institute in Nijmegen, and the Computational Linguistics department in Amsterdam formed the stimulating environment in which our work could evolve.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf00419658 fatcat:jfuo3yk7vfennkbwtwkptqvfwm

The Effects of Network Delay on Tempo in Musical Performance

Peter F. Driessen, Thomas E. Darcie, Bipin Pillay
2011 Computer Music Journal  
Yet despite these two powerful trends, the intersection-where collaboration and music meet in online musicmaking-has remained merely a curiosity. Why?  ...  However, because performing artists are highly sensitive to delay, network latency affects the quality of the user experience of online music-making.  ...  We develop an analysis to predict the tempo variations of two musicians performing with fixed network delay for impulsive (clapping) music.  ... 
doi:10.1162/comj_a_00041 fatcat:lzaqsvsytjhtzl7d2p5nda4zxq

Preferred Dance Tempo: Does Sex or Body Morphology Influence How We Groove?

Sofia Dahl, David Huron, Garvin Brod, Eckart Altenmüller
2014 Journal of New Music Research  
These results are consistent with a biomechanical "resonance" model of dancing.  ...  In two experiments participants tuned a drum machine to their preferred dance tempo.  ...  This work was initiated during a post-doctoral fellowship awarded to the first author supported by School of Music, Ohio State University.  ... 
doi:10.1080/09298215.2014.884144 fatcat:tvealwkexvcpvihvntg6bhpq64

Evidence for tempo-specific timing in music using a web-based experimental setup

Henkjan Honing
2006 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance  
It has also been the topic of several studies in music perception.  ...  However, the existing perceptual studies present rather inconclusive evidence with regard to the perceptual invariance of expressive timing under tempo transformation in music performance.  ...  The resulting tempo estimate was used to calculate the tempo-scaling factor to make the stimulus pairs similar in tempo (see Table 1 for the tempo estimates in beats per minute).  ... 
doi:10.1037/0096-1523.32.3.780 pmid:16822137 fatcat:4abw7d776vafxl3txdso7bk6jy

Tango or Waltz?: Putting Ballroom Dance Style into Tempo Detection

Björn Schuller, Florian Eyben, Gerhard Rigoll
2008 EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing  
Next, this information is used to more robustly detect tempo. We evaluate the suggested method on a large public database containing 1.8 k titles of standard and Latin ballroom dance music.  ...  In this article, we therefore provide an introductory overview over basic and current principles of tempo detection.  ...  Yet already, good results on ballroom dance music are practically useable, for example, for virtual dance assistants [15] .  ... 
doi:10.1155/2008/846135 fatcat:qxysaran35byrejjjbjdrphyla

Relational invariance of expressive microstructure across global tempo changes in music performance: An exploratory study

Bruno H. Repp
1994 Psychological Research  
This study addressed the question of whether the expressive microstructure of a music performance remains relationally invariant across moderate (musically acceptable) changes in tempo.  ...  Finally, although the intensity profile seemed unaffected by tempo, a slight overall increase in intensity with tempo was observed.  ...  In this study, therefore, we will be concerned only with moderate tempo variations that are within the range of aesthetic acceptability for the composition chosen.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf00419657 pmid:8090862 fatcat:kvw2g3fom5ec5jrhehz4fcfy5a

A filled duration illusion in music: Effects of metrical subdivision on the perception and production of beat tempo

Bruno H. Repp, Meijin Bruttomesso
2009 Advances in Cognitive Psychology  
1 haskins laboratories, new haven, connecticut 2 yale University, new haven, connecticut timing, tempo perception, interval subdivision, filled duration illusion, music performance this study replicates  ...  and extends previous findings suggesting that metrical subdivision slows the perceived beat tempo (Repp, 2008) . here, musically trained participants produced the subdivisions themselves and were found  ...  designed this experiment for musicians, we did not yet know the results of Experiment 1.  ... 
doi:10.2478/v10053-008-0071-7 pmid:20689669 pmcid:PMC2916667 fatcat:n6eg7jra7nb23kh6qjyyjmvg5m
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