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Monocular Pedestrian 3D Localization for Social Distance Monitoring

Yiru Niu, Zhihua Xu, Ershuai Xu, Gongwei Li, Yuan Huo, Wenbin Sun
<span title="2021-09-02">2021</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/taedaf6aozg7vitz5dpgkojane" style="color: black;">Sensors</a> </i> &nbsp;
This paper proposes an innovative pedestrian 3D localization method using monocular images combined with terrestrial point clouds.  ...  This allows the three-dimensional localization and height determination of pedestrians using monocular cameras, which are widely distributed in many major cities.  ...  We would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers and the editors for their comments. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175908">doi:10.3390/s21175908</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34502799">pmid:34502799</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6jnlrejv7bgfbiqunnyt2uof2u">fatcat:6jnlrejv7bgfbiqunnyt2uof2u</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210907105224/https://mdpi-res.com/d_attachment/sensors/sensors-21-05908/article_deploy/sensors-21-05908-v3.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/24/83/248375f7a7586793326f10abf24ea267721488c7.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175908"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

Perceiving Humans: From Monocular 3D Localization to Social Distancing

Lorenzo Bertoni, Sven Kreiss, Alexandre Alahi
<span title="">2021</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/in6o6x6to5e2dls4y2ff52dy6u" style="color: black;">IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print)</a> </i> &nbsp;
We show that it is possible to rethink the concept of "social distancing" as a form of social interaction in contrast to a simple location-based rule.  ...  We address the challenges related to the ill-posed monocular 3D tasks by proposing a neural network architecture that predicts confidence intervals in contrast to point estimates.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank their lab members and reviewers for their valuable comments.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/tits.2021.3069376">doi:10.1109/tits.2021.3069376</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/45bt7acuzna5pnhpadrt7bbsxy">fatcat:45bt7acuzna5pnhpadrt7bbsxy</a> </span>
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Perceiving Humans: from Monocular 3D Localization to Social Distancing [article]

Lorenzo Bertoni, Sven Kreiss, Alexandre Alahi
<span title="2021-03-24">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
We show that it is possible to rethink the concept of "social distancing" as a form of social interaction in contrast to a simple location-based rule.  ...  We address the challenges related to the ill-posed monocular 3D tasks by proposing a neural network architecture that predicts confidence intervals in contrast to point estimates.  ...  Mono3D [36] is a monocular 3D object detector for cars, cyclists and pedestrians. 3D localization of pedestrians is Method Dataset Number of ALE (m) ↓ [Recall (%) ↑ ] ALA (%) ↑ Training Instances  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.00984v2">arXiv:2009.00984v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ihvchsytdbd4zp45ibjyodwkba">fatcat:ihvchsytdbd4zp45ibjyodwkba</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210326015706/https://arxiv.org/pdf/2009.00984v2.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/34/9a/349a9f09a32c26bc8c08ad17d937356aef853283.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.00984v2" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

A Review of Deep Learning-Based Methods for Pedestrian Trajectory Prediction

Bogdan Ilie Sighencea, Rareș Ion Stanciu, Cătălin Daniel Căleanu
<span title="2021-11-13">2021</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/taedaf6aozg7vitz5dpgkojane" style="color: black;">Sensors</a> </i> &nbsp;
The current paper reviews the most recent deep learning-based solutions for the problem of pedestrian trajectory prediction along with employed sensors and afferent processing methodologies, and it performs  ...  Pedestrian trajectory prediction is one of the main concerns of computer vision problems in the automotive industry, especially in the field of advanced driver assistance systems.  ...  Pedestrian 3D point clouds characteristics at different distances. Figure 5 . 5 Figure 5. Pedestrian 3D point clouds characteristics at different distances. Figure 6 . 6 Figure 6.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227543">doi:10.3390/s21227543</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34833619">pmid:34833619</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC8619260/">pmcid:PMC8619260</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/u7wapci74jdlpcbpn2uu5ljomy">fatcat:u7wapci74jdlpcbpn2uu5ljomy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20211125160250/https://mdpi-res.com/d_attachment/sensors/sensors-21-07543/article_deploy/sensors-21-07543-v2.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ac/62/ac62f2a2c527cabfbb6f3c99d746d095c6481f54.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227543"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8619260" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

3D Recognition Based on Sensor Modalities for Robotic Systems: A Survey

Sumaira Manzoor, Sung-Hyeon Joo, Eun-Jin Kim, Sang-Hyeon Bae, Gun-Gyo In, Jeong-Won Pyo, Tae-Yong Kuc
<span title="2021-10-27">2021</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/taedaf6aozg7vitz5dpgkojane" style="color: black;">Sensors</a> </i> &nbsp;
3D visual recognition is a prerequisite for most autonomous robotic systems operating in the real world.  ...  Instigated by the recognition capability of social robots, we present the analysis of data representation methods based on sensor modalities for 3D object and place recognition using deep learning models  ...  Acknowledgments: Thanks for the help of reviewers and editors. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217120">doi:10.3390/s21217120</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34770429">pmid:34770429</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC8587961/">pmcid:PMC8587961</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/qqoqlkaycbc4xk24j7j2nzqabe">fatcat:qqoqlkaycbc4xk24j7j2nzqabe</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220501092259/https://mdpi-res.com/d_attachment/sensors/sensors-21-07120/article_deploy/sensors-21-07120-v3.pdf?version=1636421441" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/11/bf/11bf58bab784acfd94e1ad7d6939611fcba63cec.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217120"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8587961" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Semantic Driven Multi-Camera Pedestrian Detection [article]

Alejandro López-Cifuentes, Marcos Escudero-Viñolo, Jesús Bescós, Pablo Carballeira
<span title="2022-04-07">2022</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
In the current worldwide situation, pedestrian detection has reemerged as a pivotal tool for intelligent video-based systems aiming to solve tasks such as pedestrian tracking, social distancing monitoring  ...  ; and 2) to obtain detections for each camera by solving a global optimization problem that maximizes coherence of detections both in each 2D image and in the 3D scene.  ...  First, stateof-the-art algorithms for monocular pedestrian detection and semantic segmentation are used to extract the respective image cues for each camera.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1812.10779v3">arXiv:1812.10779v3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/r4rf4emci5bglg74k4v4djcvge">fatcat:r4rf4emci5bglg74k4v4djcvge</a> </span>
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An Autonomous Approach to Measure Social Distances and Hygienic Practices during COVID-19 Pandemic in Public Open Spaces [article]

Peng Sun, Gabriel Draughon, Jerome Lynch
<span title="2020-11-14">2020</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
This work provides a scalable sensing approach to detect physical activities within public open spaces and monitor adherence to social distancing guidelines suggested by the US Centers for Disease Control  ...  Therefore, in order to ensure public safety, it is imperative for patrons of public open spaces to practice safe hygiene and take preventative measures.  ...  However, the total time for passing is very short and lasts only for a few seconds. Monitoring social distancing practices can be achieved automatically using the proposed sensing framework.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.07375v1">arXiv:2011.07375v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/3sbpqsznjbhyznbmahuyjm3oeu">fatcat:3sbpqsznjbhyznbmahuyjm3oeu</a> </span>
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Single Image Human Proxemics Estimation for Visual Social Distancing [article]

Maya Aghaei, Matteo Bustreo, Yiming Wang, Gianluca Bailo, Pietro Morerio, Alessio Del Bue
<span title="2020-11-05">2020</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Inter-personal distances are further locally inspected to detect possible violations of the social distancing rules.  ...  In this work, we address the problem of estimating the so-called "Social Distancing" given a single uncalibrated image in unconstrained scenarios.  ...  localization of pedestrians but locally for each pair of people.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.02018v2">arXiv:2011.02018v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/p5rkbjxryjg2dfze2tyg4zvzfm">fatcat:p5rkbjxryjg2dfze2tyg4zvzfm</a> </span>
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Insights and Strategies for an Autonomous Vehicle with a Sensor Fusion Innovation: A Fictional Outlook

Farrukh Hafeez, Usman U. Sheikh, Nasir Khaldi, Hassan Z. Al Garni, Zeeshan A. Arfeen, Saifulnizam A.Khalid
<span title="">2020</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/q7qi7j4ckfac7ehf3mjbso4hne" style="color: black;">IEEE Access</a> </i> &nbsp;
INDEX TERMS Advanced driver assistance system, deep learning, pedestrian intention prediction, sensor, sensor fusion.  ...  Along with sensor fusion, another area of prime importance that is necessary to be explored is the prediction of pedestrian intentions.  ...  Factors such as social norms, pedestrian demographics, group size, and pedestrian distance cannot be neglected for true detection. • The mode of communication between vehicle and pedestrian plays an important  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2020.3010940">doi:10.1109/access.2020.3010940</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/srcqf2a7gzfihilhvorrdgpvnq">fatcat:srcqf2a7gzfihilhvorrdgpvnq</a> </span>
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Pedestrian Models for Autonomous Driving Part I: Low-Level Models, From Sensing to Tracking

Fanta Camara, Nicola Bellotto, Serhan Cosar, Dimitris Nathanael, Matthias Althoff, Jingyuan Wu, Johannes Ruenz, Andre Dietrich, Charles Fox
<span title="">2020</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/in6o6x6to5e2dls4y2ff52dy6u" style="color: black;">IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print)</a> </i> &nbsp;
Technologies at these levels are found to be mature and available as foundations for use in high-level systems, such as behaviour modelling, prediction and interaction control.  ...  on pedestrianized high-streets.  ...  For example, [75] proposed a survey and experiments on pedestrian detection using monocular cameras.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/tits.2020.3006768">doi:10.1109/tits.2020.3006768</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/awa5dgk4rbazteetyyqrndbgxq">fatcat:awa5dgk4rbazteetyyqrndbgxq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201106175602/http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/162670/7/Camara2020pedestrian_IEEE_T-ITS_Part_I.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/8b/c2/8bc233c702df35c9724c00ffa2dae383de5003db.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/tits.2020.3006768"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

OpenTraj: Assessing Prediction Complexity in Human Trajectories Datasets [article]

Javad Amirian, Bingqing Zhang, Francisco Valente Castro, Juan Jose Baldelomar, Jean-Bernard Hayet, Julien Pettre
<span title="2020-11-02">2020</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
For assessing a dataset complexity, we define a series of indicators around three concepts: Trajectory predictability; Trajectory regularity; Context complexity.  ...  Proper benchmarking being a key issue for comparing methods, this paper addresses the question of evaluating how complex is a given dataset with respect to the prediction problem.  ...  Its tracking sub-dataset provides 3D annotations (cars/pedestrians) for ∼20 LiDAR and video sequences in urban contexts.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.00890v2">arXiv:2010.00890v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/g4pzd5lbwjfrjkmap2vcwyllxe">fatcat:g4pzd5lbwjfrjkmap2vcwyllxe</a> </span>
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Real-Time Counting People in Crowded Areas by Using Local Empirical Templates and Density Ratios

Dao-Huu HUNG, Gee-Sern HSU, Sheng-Luen CHUNG, Hideo SAITO
<span title="">2012</span> <i title="Institute of Electronics, Information and Communications Engineers (IEICE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/xosmgvetnbf4zpplikelekmdqe" style="color: black;">IEICE transactions on information and systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
Finally, to extract the bounds of density ratios for groups of different number of pedestrians, we propose a 3D human models based simulation in which camera viewpoints and pedestrians' proximity are easily  ...  For PETS 2009's datasets, our proposed method achieves competitive results with other methods tested on the same datasets [1], [2] . key words: local empirical templates, local density ratios, density  ...  Estimated occupied areas were combined with some social statistics of interpersonal distance to determine the count.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1587/transinf.e95.d.1791">doi:10.1587/transinf.e95.d.1791</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wc3ywboverdrlgfmp36x4rupwm">fatcat:wc3ywboverdrlgfmp36x4rupwm</a> </span>
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Vehicle Safety-Assisted Driving Technology Based on Computer Artificial Intelligence Environment

Haibo Yan, Rahim Khan
<span title="2022-06-18">2022</span> <i title="Hindawi Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/3wwzxqpotbc73bzpemzybzg7ee" style="color: black;">Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience</a> </i> &nbsp;
between the two vehicles is close to the safe distance, obtained by the simulation test results.  ...  The vehicle dynamics model is established under multiconditional assumptions, the path planner and path tracking controller are designed based on the model predictive control algorithm, and the local desired  ...  use. ere is almost no requirement for distance measurement for long-range targets, and the monocular vision ranging approach is more in line with the needs of this paper's topic with faster detection  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/4390394">doi:10.1155/2022/4390394</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35761870">pmid:35761870</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC9233616/">pmcid:PMC9233616</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/mdqxdf3nyneb7nvfh2spblp2a4">fatcat:mdqxdf3nyneb7nvfh2spblp2a4</a> </span>
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A review of motion analysis methods for human Nonverbal Communication Computing

Dimitris Metaxas, Shaoting Zhang
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/z7tk7kanxjcz7hgk77ae6t3ofy" style="color: black;">Image and Vision Computing</a> </i> &nbsp;
In general, nonverbal communication research offers high-level principles that might explain how people organize, display, adapt and understand such behaviors for communicative purposes and social goals  ...  Models of nonverbal behaviors in interaction are essential for collaboration tools, human-computer and virtual interaction and other assistive technologies designed to support people in real-world activities  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank all the reviewers for their constructive suggestions.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imavis.2013.03.005">doi:10.1016/j.imavis.2013.03.005</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ylxt5bph2jfgrfd5a4c22qn66u">fatcat:ylxt5bph2jfgrfd5a4c22qn66u</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150117052002/http://research.rutgers.edu:80/~shaoting/paper/IVC_review.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/88/a9/88a9b3043a951c622667dcd5f70acd2c850b3950.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imavis.2013.03.005"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

Miklas Kristoffersen, Jacob Dueholm, Rikke Gade, Thomas Moeslund
<span title="2016-01-05">2016</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/taedaf6aozg7vitz5dpgkojane" style="color: black;">Sensors</a> </i> &nbsp;
We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds.  ...  Sensors 2016, 16, 62 2 of 15 zenithal view is often used when counting at entry or exit points but is rarely an option in practice when monitoring public pedestrian streets.  ...  According to Hall, the social relations between pedestrians impact the physical distance between them.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s16010062">doi:10.3390/s16010062</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26742047">pmid:26742047</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC4732095/">pmcid:PMC4732095</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/jzdvzwfws5cetbb6c2cvvcwc5e">fatcat:jzdvzwfws5cetbb6c2cvvcwc5e</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170923065706/http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/16/1/62/pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/50/c4/50c4ece0f07f2fbc3cf2fef98df24aeea0145899.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s16010062"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4732095" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>
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