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Modular reasoning about heap paths via effectively propositional formulas

Shachar Itzhaky, Anindya Banerjee, Neil Immerman, Ori Lahav, Aleksandar Nanevski, Mooly Sagiv
<span title="">2014</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2qaxtqe2rfgjnfefqcokcnzelq" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 41st ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages - POPL &#39;14</a> </i> &nbsp;
paths in the heap, we show that heap reachability updates can be described in a simple manner.  ...  The restrictions force program specifications and verification conditions to lie within a fragment of first-order logic with transitive closure that is reducible to effectively propositional logic, and  ...  Adaptation of Local Effect to the Global Heap Our goal is to reason modularly about a procedure that modifies a subset of the heap.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2535838.2535854">doi:10.1145/2535838.2535854</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/popl/ItzhakyBILNS14.html">dblp:conf/popl/ItzhakyBILNS14</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/tgycr5och5c43d4xgdggml7tbq">fatcat:tgycr5och5c43d4xgdggml7tbq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170809043301/http://people.cs.umass.edu/~immerman/pub/POPL2014.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/71/92/7192c93a707e8e0347ea5d03ad0f671726cef981.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2535838.2535854"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

GRASShopper [chapter]

Ruzica Piskac, Thomas Wies, Damien Zufferey
<span title="">2014</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Yet, at the same time, she can revert to classical logic in the cases where decidable separation logic fragments are less suited, such as reasoning about constraints on data and heap structures with complex  ...  We present GRASShopper, a tool for compositional verification of heap-manipulating programs against user-provided specifications.  ...  Closely related to our approach is the work on using effectively propositional logic (EPR) for reasoning about programs that manipulate linked lists [13, 14] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-54862-8_9">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-54862-8_9</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/2cnejoljrbbvbhcxkuyl5ktqre">fatcat:2cnejoljrbbvbhcxkuyl5ktqre</a> </span>
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Extending Concurrent Separation Logic to Enhance Modular Formalization [article]

Yepeng Ding, Hiroyuki Sato
<span title="2020-07-27">2020</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
ECSL is capable of formalizing systems at different abstraction levels from memory management to architecture and protocol design with great modularity.  ...  Although concurrent separation logic (CSL) has partially tackled the problem by specifying systems and verifying the correctness of them, it faces modularity issues.  ...  Conclusion Reasoning about complex distributed systems requires great modularity.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.13685v1">arXiv:2007.13685v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/xauilnnebfgz3ktvuwd6wx3aia">fatcat:xauilnnebfgz3ktvuwd6wx3aia</a> </span>
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Machine-Checked Verification of the Correctness and Amortized Complexity of an Efficient Union-Find Implementation [chapter]

Arthur Charguéraud, François Pottier
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Reasoning in Coq about imperative OCaml code relies on the CFML tool, which is based on characteristic formulae and Separation Logic, and which we extend with time credits.  ...  Moreover, we implement Union-Find as an OCaml library and formally endow it with a modular specification that offers a full functional correctness guarantee as well as an amortized complexity bound.  ...  Path compression is attributed by Aho et al. [1] to McIlroy and Morris. Hopcroft and Ullman [19] study linking-by-size and path compression and establish an amortized bound of p˚q per operation.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22102-1_9">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-22102-1_9</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/gnlvogowdbfhnlqfyiezy54m3q">fatcat:gnlvogowdbfhnlqfyiezy54m3q</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190501004337/https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01245872/file/credits_itp15.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ad/15/ad1565948c4aad2658874f31911b4660624e0127.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22102-1_9"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Special section on advances in reachability analysis and decision procedures: contributions to abstraction-based system verification

Michael Huth, Orna Grumberg
<span title="2009-02-04">2009</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/zzy5ovlifvatfirg4js7u4uetq" style="color: black;">International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)</a> </i> &nbsp;
Finite-width data types challenge the reduction of that decision problem to one that off-the-shelf tools can solve effectively, e.g. SAT solvers for propositional logic.  ...  formula, but linear increase in the number of variables.  ...  But that strength also makes it very difficult to reason about frame conditions in a modular manner. Finally, one may need the ability to check constraints for each atom of a composite data object.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s10009-009-0100-y">doi:10.1007/s10009-009-0100-y</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/nd3otr5t5zdnbjzynciuun7iy4">fatcat:nd3otr5t5zdnbjzynciuun7iy4</a> </span>
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A Decidable Fragment of Separation Logic [chapter]

Josh Berdine, Cristiano Calcagno, Peter W. O'Hearn
<span title="">2004</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
The restrictions in the fragment are motivated by the stylized form of reasoning done in example program proofs.  ...  The main advantage of the logic is the way it supports reasoning about different portions of heap which can be combined in a modular way using the separating conjunction operation.  ...  Introduction Separation logic is a new approach to reasoning about programs that manipulate pointer structures [1] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-30538-5_9">doi:10.1007/978-3-540-30538-5_9</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/u27sggqivfbb3pycqrq6yhdltu">fatcat:u27sggqivfbb3pycqrq6yhdltu</a> </span>
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Automatic Reasoning on Recursive Data-Structures with Sharing [article]

Duc-Hiep Chu, Joxan Jaffar
<span title="2017-11-15">2017</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
, and a new frame rule to achieve local reasoning so that proofs can be compositional.  ...  The main contribution then is a program verification method which combines strongest postcondition reasoning in the form symbolic execution, unfolding recursive definitions of the data structure in question  ...  This is because they traverse via two recursive calls (but they are unconcerned about their relative order).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1511.07267v3">arXiv:1511.07267v3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/g4ytwmcbljchjhbsqqquspinzu">fatcat:g4ytwmcbljchjhbsqqquspinzu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200824101054/https://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.07267v3.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/52/45/5245fa6488c1fa3e606e107e713363bc402f59c1.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1511.07267v3" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Verifying the Correctness and Amortized Complexity of a Union-Find Implementation in Separation Logic with Time Credits

Arthur Charguéraud, François Pottier
<span title="2017-09-22">2017</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2ewief65xnegfh2slwulpgsnba" style="color: black;">Journal of automated reasoning</a> </i> &nbsp;
The only way for the user to reason about functions is via the predicate App, whose type is ∀A B. func → A → (Heap → Prop) → (B → Heap → Prop) → Prop.  ...  Our approach is modular in the sense that the Separation Logic specification that we establish can be used to reason about client programs, without knowledge of the Union-Find implementation.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s10817-017-9431-7">doi:10.1007/s10817-017-9431-7</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/opju5dkdmfcypel4zst5iuwcaq">fatcat:opju5dkdmfcypel4zst5iuwcaq</a> </span>
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Satisfiability Modulo Heap-Based Programs [chapter]

Quang Loc Le, Jun Sun, Wei-Ngan Chin
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
To check the satisfiability of a formula, our procedure iteratively unfolds the formula and examines the derived disjuncts.  ...  We have implemented the proposed solver and a new system for verifying heap-based programs. We have evaluated our system on benchmark programs from a software verification competition.  ...  Separation logic has recently established a solid reputation for reasoning about programs that manipulate heap-based data structures.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41528-4_21">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-41528-4_21</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/hclclgaucnfw3bfyaug4s3sh7e">fatcat:hclclgaucnfw3bfyaug4s3sh7e</a> </span>
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Checking reachability using matching logic

Grigore Rosu, Andrei Stefanescu
<span title="">2012</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/6y3m32grtnfktkp2oo6oqjbvta" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the ACM international conference on Object oriented programming systems languages and applications - OOPSLA &#39;12</a> </i> &nbsp;
Its main strength is the separation conjunction " * ", which allows for modular reasoning.  ...  quantifiers via substitution, we obtain the equivalent matching logic formula x → a, y → b heap ∧ a b For this reason, in practice we do not encourage the use of the transformation for generating matching  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2384616.2384656">doi:10.1145/2384616.2384656</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/oopsla/RosuS12.html">dblp:conf/oopsla/RosuS12</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/jsggbf2tfzh7hepfoagrtd4bge">fatcat:jsggbf2tfzh7hepfoagrtd4bge</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170815022807/https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/33771/rosu-stefanescu-2012-tr-g.pdf?sequence=2" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/cc/4b/cc4b0c7db72741ebd40a5c914d72ed001311ef87.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2384616.2384656"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

Verifying higher-order programs with the dijkstra monad

Nikhil Swamy, Joel Weinberger, Cole Schlesinger, Juan Chen, Benjamin Livshits
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/jpubwsjaozha5itdes6pzyz2fm" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 34th ACM SIGPLAN conference on Programming language design and implementation - PLDI &#39;13</a> </i> &nbsp;
Finally, the monad can easily be varied to handle features like exceptions and heap invariants, while retaining the same type inference algorithm.  ...  Thus, in a language like JavaScript, even to reason about simple function calls one needs to reason precisely about higher-order state.  ...  Indeed, careful use of higher-order logic in monadic F makes it possible to reason modularly about features like local state, while still allowing automated verification via an SMT solver.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2491956.2491978">doi:10.1145/2491956.2491978</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/pldi/SwamyWSCL13.html">dblp:conf/pldi/SwamyWSCL13</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/kdy4fwzonfa3xgrbckkee34d7y">fatcat:kdy4fwzonfa3xgrbckkee34d7y</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161118083406/http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/nswamy/papers/paper-pldi13.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/d8/b3/d8b3320aaf47b76e3321125ab366c76737c0f1a2.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2491956.2491978"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

Verifying higher-order programs with the dijkstra monad

Nikhil Swamy, Joel Weinberger, Cole Schlesinger, Juan Chen, Benjamin Livshits
<span title="2013-06-23">2013</span> <i title="Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/xu5bk2lj5rbdxlx6222nw7tsxi" style="color: black;">SIGPLAN notices</a> </i> &nbsp;
Finally, the monad can easily be varied to handle features like exceptions and heap invariants, while retaining the same type inference algorithm.  ...  Thus, in a language like JavaScript, even to reason about simple function calls one needs to reason precisely about higher-order state.  ...  Indeed, careful use of higher-order logic in monadic F makes it possible to reason modularly about features like local state, while still allowing automated verification via an SMT solver.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2499370.2491978">doi:10.1145/2499370.2491978</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7oacwxzjufctpcv7x6yz3egobu">fatcat:7oacwxzjufctpcv7x6yz3egobu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161118083406/http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/nswamy/papers/paper-pldi13.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/d8/b3/d8b3320aaf47b76e3321125ab366c76737c0f1a2.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2499370.2491978"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

Tracechecks: Defining Semantic Interfaces with Temporal Logic [chapter]

Eric Bodden, Volker Stolz
<span title="">2006</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
These assertions reason about the dynamic control flow of an application. They can be used to formally define the semantic interface of classes.  ...  Figure 4 Temporal assertions use LTL path formulae as a means of reasoning about a sequence of states.  ...  Introducing LTL Linear temporal logic reasons about an infinite path in a model (usually a Kripke structure) [7] . It is thus an extension of propositional logic.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/11821946_10">doi:10.1007/11821946_10</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/mh2p4rpzand63oe6ny2nlv4pue">fatcat:mh2p4rpzand63oe6ny2nlv4pue</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160610212009/http://www.bodden.de/pubs/bs06tracechecks.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/4c/9a/4c9ac240260c6a455b4cbe85d18d25be66e0fc15.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/11821946_10"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Compositional Verification of Procedural Programs using Horn Clauses over Integers and Arrays [article]

Anvesh Komuravelli, Nikolaj Bjorner, Arie Gurfinkel, Kenneth L. McMillan
<span title="2015-08-06">2015</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
We present a compositional SMT-based algorithm for safety of procedural C programs that takes the heap into consideration as well.  ...  Third, we integrate the MBP algorithm into the framework of compositional reasoning of procedural programs using may and must summaries recently proposed by us.  ...  The ability to reason with ARR makes it possible to handle heap-allocating programs without inlining procedures, as the heap can be faithfully modeled using ARR [14] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1508.01288v1">arXiv:1508.01288v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/r62lxdiebrbz5pxax7tzvl5gni">fatcat:r62lxdiebrbz5pxax7tzvl5gni</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191021022652/https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.01288v1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/40/ae/40ae7ef7bc84a54d3a83fd505ecc801de4959d95.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1508.01288v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Saturn

Yichen Xie, Alex Aiken
<span title="2007-05-01">2007</span> <i title="Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/4hplau6wtnhnfnqt2t7vbri6vm" style="color: black;">ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
Saturn exploits recent advances in boolean satisfiability (SAT) solvers and is path sensitive, precise down to the bit level, and models pointers and heap data.  ...  First, for each program function, several optimizations compress the size of the boolean formulas that model the control-and dataflow and the heap locations accessed by a function.  ...  To detect bugs involving heap objects, a reasonable model of the heap needs to be constructed (recall Section 3.2).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1232420.1232423">doi:10.1145/1232420.1232423</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/dokdkocywbhynlp6nuejff3wuy">fatcat:dokdkocywbhynlp6nuejff3wuy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070418041620/http://theory.stanford.edu/~aiken/publications/papers/saturn_toplas.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/25/f8/25f89137d150b9310ba57d7117f0b58982db0552.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1232420.1232423"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>
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