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Model Identification for WCET Analysis

Björn Lisper, Marcelo Santos
2009 2009 15th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium  
Static WCET analysis derives safe upper bounds. For complex hardware architectures the hardware modelling is still a challenge, leading to long analysis times and a risk of large WCET overestimation.  ...  First, we develop a hybrid WCET analysis method, which uses regression to identify parameters in the common linear Implicit Path Enumeration Technique (IPET) model for WCET calculation.  ...  Acknowledgment This research was supported by the KK-foundation through grant 2005/0271, the ALL-TIMES FP7 project, grant agreement no. 215068, and the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research via the  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtas.2009.16 dblp:conf/rtas/LisperS09 fatcat:xoqmxjnukfehvgsixtu4jmzydy

Approximate Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis for Early Stage Embedded Systems Development [chapter]

Jan Gustafsson, Peter Altenbernd, Andreas Ermedahl, Björn Lisper
2009 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) analysis finds upper bounds for the execution time of programs.  ...  Traditionally, WCET analysis is applied only in the late stages of embedded system software development.  ...  Early Stage WCET Estimate Calculation The approximate WCET for the program of interest will be derived using flow analysis, the approximate timing model derived in the model identification step, and a  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-10265-3_28 fatcat:pe44znpktzhs3ep3mcwizoueky

Usability Aspects of WCET Analysis

Jan Gustafsson
2008 2008 11th IEEE International Symposium on Object and Component-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC)  
Finally, we point out some areas for future research and development for WCET analysis methods and tools. Compilers-and-Timing-.html) provided travel support.  ...  A critical timing measure is the worst-case execution time (WCET) of a program. Often, timing analysis in industry is done by measurements.  ...  An important issue is that a model of the processor has to be built for static analysis tools, which means that such models may not be available for uncommon, new, or very complex processors.  ... 
doi:10.1109/isorc.2008.55 dblp:conf/isorc/Gustafsson08 fatcat:5fmhh5hvlzb3nj2nkwtxi4xbwe

Implications of Program Phase Behavior on Timing Analysis

Archana Ravindar, Y.N. Srikant
2011 2011 15th Workshop on Interaction between Compilers and Computer Architectures  
We propose a model for estimating WCET using static worst case instruction counts of individual phases and a function of measured average CPI of each phase.  ...  We describe a WCET analyzer built on this model which targets two different architectures and is evaluated against Chronos, a well known static WCET analyzer.  ...  It can be observed that the gap between M and estimated WCET increases in case of Chronos on architecture B. This is due to the address analysis method used by Chronos for modeling data cache misses.  ... 
doi:10.1109/interact.2011.12 dblp:conf/IEEEinteract/RavindarS11 fatcat:jnkqo7shgvdnnjvs2r7gpgxjfa

Predicting Worst-Case Execution Time Trends in Long-Lived Real-Time Systems [chapter]

Xiaotian Dai, Alan Burns
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
For hard and firm real-time systems, it is important to ensure these trends will not jeopardize the system.  ...  Many descriptive and model-based approaches have been used to detect trends, which range from correlation analysis, time-series modelling, regression analysis and non-parametric statistical methods [4  ...  Apply data selection process for samplings from (t − W ) to t. Fit preprocessed time series data with each trend analysis method to generate trend models. 3.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-60588-3_6 fatcat:eeqcv2octfggpcc44iha2bgj6a

Reducing WCET Overestimations in Multi-Thread Loops with Critical Section Usage

Simona Ramanauskaite, Asta Slotkiene, Kornelija Tunaityte, Ivan Suzdalev, Andrius Stankevicius, Saulius Valentinavicius
2021 Energies  
While basic timing analysis relies on execution path identification and its length evaluation, multi-thread code with critical section usage brings additional complications and requires analysis of resource-waiting  ...  Worst-case execution time (WCET) is an important metric in real-time systems that helps in energy usage modeling and predefined execution time requirement evaluation.  ...  The authors especially thank Christine Rochange for the inspiration and scientific support. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/en14061747 fatcat:mcui2ekesbgudbamnm7f7d4ium

Fast, Interactive Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis With Back-Annotation

Trevor Harmon, Martin Schoeberl, Raimund Kirner, Raymond Klefstad, Kwang H. Kim, Michael R. Lowry
2012 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics  
For hard real-time systems, static code analysis is needed to derive a safe bound on the worst-case execution time (WCET).  ...  We show that interactive WCET analysis is feasible using tree-based WCET calculation.  ...  WCA supports IPET and model checking based WCET analysis, not the tree technique.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tii.2012.2187457 fatcat:sw33cld7f5dpzcoeaqoenmm2hi

The W-SEPT Project: Towards Semantic-Aware WCET Estimation

Maiza Claire, Raymond Pascal, Parent-Vigouroux Catherine, Bonenfant Armelle, Carrier Fabienne, Hugues Cassé, Philippe Cuenot, Denis Claraz, Nicolas Halbwachs, Erwan Jahier, Hanbing Li, Marianne De Michiel (+8 others)
2017 Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis  
The W-SEPT project, for "WCET, Semantics, Precision and Traceability", has been carried out to study and exploit the influence of program semantics on the WCET estimation.  ...  This paper presents the results of this project : a semantic-aware WCET estimation workflow for high-level designed systems.  ...  Static analysis methods aim at providing a guaranteed upper bound to the WCET, by considering an abstract model of the program execution.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2017.9 dblp:conf/wcet/MaizaRPBCCCCHJL17 fatcat:qoobg54nkrb7zhauujzgws7xlu

Scalable and precise estimation and debugging of the worst-case execution time for analysis-friendly processors: a comeback of model checking

Martin Becker, Ravindra Metta, R. Venkatesh, Samarjit Chakraborty
2018 International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)  
In this article we show how all of these issues can be significantly mitigated or even solved, if we use processors that are amenable to WCET analysis.  ...  Our approach is based on Model Checking, which however is known to scale badly with growing application size.  ...  Model Checking for WCET Analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10009-018-0497-2 fatcat:nb4pxjkybnbifo32gobb2so3my

Validating Static WCET Analysis: A Method and Its Application

Wei-Tsun Sun, Eric Jenn, Hugues Cassé, Michael Wagner
2019 Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis  
Static WCET analysis based on abstract interpretation takes benefits from its formal foundations. However, it also strongly depends on the correctness of the underlying models.  ...  WCET analysis is a key activity in the development of safety critical real-time systems.  ...  WCET may be used to perform schedulability analysis or response time analysis, or to demonstrate compliance with the synchronous execution model hypothesis.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2019.6 dblp:conf/wcet/SunJC19 fatcat:p6a2fcy5ajc6favczckj44xr4u

Symbolic execution and timed automata model checking for timing analysis of Java real-time systems

Kasper S. Luckow, Corina S. Păsăreanu, Bent Thomsen
2015 EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems  
This paper presents SYMRT, a tool based on a combination of symbolic execution and real-time model checking for timing analysis of Java systems.  ...  Symbolic execution is used for the generation of a safe and tight timing model of the analyzed system capturing the feasible execution paths.  ...  The output of model checking is the analysis result, e.g., a yes/no answer for TCTL properties, and a number for WCET and BCET analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s13639-015-0020-8 fatcat:pisxcvwf2zdyjldhulfhcfpxwm

Testing Implementation Soundness of a WCET Analysis Tool [chapter]

Reinhard Wilhelm, Markus Pister, Gernot Gebhard, Daniel Kästner
2020 A Journey of Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems  
The main problem, specific for WCET analysis, was the microarchitectural analysis, a combined cache and pipeline analysis.  ...  This method for the microarchitectural analysis was the main innovation that made our WCET analysis work for real-life architectures and scale to industrialsize software [6] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-47487-4_2 fatcat:qvnt6ltauzcjjpmtgro7r3tpa4

On uses of extreme value theory fit for industrial-quality WCET analysis

Suzana Milutinovic, Enrico Mezzetti, Jaume Abella, Tullio Vardanega, Francisco J. Cazorla
2017 2017 12th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES)  
analysis.  ...  Over the last few years, considerable interest has arisen in measurement-based probabilistic timing analysis.  ...  Authors also thank George Lima for his feedback on this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sies.2017.7993402 dblp:conf/sies/MilutinovicMAVC17 fatcat:tllwfpdntzgh3ag2wpcbg6c6mm

Reducing Timing Interferences in Real-Time Applications Running on Multicore Architectures

Thomas Carle, Hugues Cassé, Michael Wagner
2018 Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis  
We introduce a unified wcet analysis and scheduling framework for real-time applications deployed on multicore architectures.  ...  We show how such points can be extracted from the binary code of applications and selected prior to performing the wcet analysis.  ...  WCET Computation The identification of tips and the proposed scheduling method require not only wcet computation by static analysis but also intermediate results such as the analysis of the data cache.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2018.3 dblp:conf/wcet/CarleC18 fatcat:jwmrlqdcczborhiftclonvjpfq

WCET nested-loop minimization in terms of instruction-level-parallelism

Yaroub Elloumi, Mohamed Akil, Mohamed Hedi Bedoui
2015 2015 International Conference on High Performance Computing & Simulation (HPCS)  
Thereafter, the WCET is formulated in term of the parallelism level rise.  ...  Our experiments indicate the WCET prediction is accurate within an error rate of 8.54%.  ...  Loop bounds analysis The MDFG allows modelling nested loops, whatever the loop iteration bounds are.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hpcsim.2015.7237066 dblp:conf/ieeehpcs/ElloumiAB15 fatcat:nnnd7akgvjbw3hhvbyy6smxdue
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