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Model Checking the FlexRay Physical Layer Protocol [chapter]

Michael Gerke, Rüdiger Ehlers, Bernd Finkbeiner, Hans-Jörg Peter
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we present the first timed automata model of its physical layer protocol, and we use automatic verification to prove fault tolerance under several error models and hardware assumptions.  ...  The FlexRay standard, developed by a cooperation of leading companies in the automotive industry, is a robust communication protocol for distributed components in modern vehicles.  ...  The authors want to thank Matthew Lewis for pointing out the Nangate Open Cell Library [11] and the anynomous reviewers for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15898-8_9 fatcat:bvvypbu46baizcgav4zunmauvm

Modeling and verifying the FlexRay physical layer protocol with reachability checking of timed automata [article]

Michael Gerke, Universität Des Saarlandes
2021
In this thesis, I report on the verification of the resilience of the FlexRay automotive bus protocol's physical layer protocol against glitches during message transmission and drifting clocks.  ...  Finally, it reports on the verified resilience of FlexRay's physical layer protocol against specific patterns of glitches under varying assumptions about the underlying hardware, like clock drift.  ...  This work was partially supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) as part of the Transregional Collaborative Research Center "Automatic Verification and Analysis of Complex Systems" (SFB/TR 14  ... 
doi:10.22028/d291-33312 fatcat:of5lcfrlz5hhdirguw4ga4hgja

FlexRay for Avionics: Automatic Verification with Parametric Physical Layers

Michael Gerke, Rüdiger Ehlers, Bernd Finkbeiner, Hans-Jörg Peter
2012 Infotech@Aerospace 2012  
We use the real-time model checker Uppaal to automatically verify the behavior of the FlexRay physical layer protocol when executed on a range of hardware configurations.  ...  Upgrading existing physical layers, such as CAN-based systems, with FlexRay is attractive, especially given that inexpensive FlexRay hardware is available on the market.  ...  This work was partially supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) as part of the Transregional Collaborative Research Center "Automatic Verification and Analysis of Complex Systems" (SFB/TR 14  ... 
doi:10.2514/6.2012-2583 dblp:conf/itaero/0002EFP12 fatcat:digsijf4jvfkfozhjwc43ipegq

On the verification of automotive protocols

G. Zarri, F. Colucci, F. Dupuis, R. Mariani, M. Pasquariello, G. Risaliti, C. Tibald
2006 Proceedings of the Design Automation & Test in Europe Conference  
LIN, CAN and FlexRay protocols.  ...  In automotive, the verification flow is historically based on a layered approach, where each level (model, design and system) has its proper verification and validation methodology.  ...  The main block is the PE verification component that contains a model of the Protocol Engine based on what described in FlexRay specifications.  ... 
doi:10.1109/date.2006.243873 dblp:conf/date/ZarriCDMPRT06 fatcat:2trurjgcy5fk3oflgutb724dlu

Towards a Systematic Test for Embedded Automotive Communication Systems

E. Armengaud, A. Steininger, M. Horauer
2008 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics  
In this paper we concentrate on the test of distributed systems based on FlexRay, the protocol that is envisioned as the communication backbone for future automotive systems.  ...  The cornerstones of our approach are a decomposition of the system into layers and mechanisms, and a versatile strategy for monitoring and stimulation under various conditions.  ...  Our approach is somewhat similar to the OSI layer model, however, finer-grained. In [28] , we have illustrated the complete model for the FlexRay communication services.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tii.2008.2002704 fatcat:76z7vuc2bjdgtnyf5yc43tmmbe

Design of a FlexRay/Ethernet Gateway and Security Mechanism for In-Vehicle Networks

Lee, Lin, Liao
2020 Sensors  
This is because the existing communication protocols (such as FlexRay) do not provide sufficiently high bandwidth requirements.  ...  For one-to-one mapping logic, the execution times of FlexRay to the Ethernet path and Ethernet to FlexRay path are constant, at 4.67 μs and 6.71 μs, respectively.  ...  Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank the Editors and all the Reviewers for their valuable comments. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s20030641 pmid:31979269 pmcid:PMC7038325 fatcat:yafjwaii3rgshbmaeasjw6uvsy

Categorizing and Analysis of Activated Faults in the FlexRay Communication Controller Registers

Yasser Sedaghat, Seyed Ghassem Miremadi
2009 2009 14th IEEE European Test Symposium  
FlexRay communication protocol is expected becoming the de-facto standard for distributed safetycritical systems.  ...  To study the activated faults, a FlexRay bus network, composed of four nodes, was modeled by Verilog HDL; and a total of 135,600 transient faults were injected in only one node, where 9,342 (6.9%) of the  ...  In addition, its physical layer provides support for bus, star, and multiple star topologies [4] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/ets.2009.21 dblp:conf/ets/SedaghatM09 fatcat:67q25z7y7rdwzmvn63t5vydzee

Refactoring an Automotive Embedded Software Stack using the Component-Based Paradigm

Thomas M. Galla, Dietmar Schreiner, Wolfgang Forster, Christof Kutschera, Karl M. Goschka, Martin Horauer
2007 2007 International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems  
We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by performing the refactoring of the modules FlexRay Driver and FlexRay Interface as an example and by deploying the resulting refactored components in a  ...  the particular requirements of the application.  ...  Furthermore, if acknowledgment or flow control is required by the higher layer, the respective slices (namely the flow control and/or the acknowledgment slice) of the FlexRay Transport Protocol are required  ... 
doi:10.1109/sies.2007.4297336 dblp:conf/sies/GallaSFKGH07 fatcat:bxvfmx2c75d3xh4brus7zamo5q

A Low-Cost On-Line Monitoring Mechanism for the FlexRay Communication Protocol

Yasser Sedaghat, Seyed Ghassem Miremadi
2009 2009 Fourth Latin-American Symposium on Dependable Computing  
Based on these results and detailed study of the FlexRay specifications, a low-cost on-line monitoring mechanism is proposed to check freeze errors.  ...  Among the communication protocols, FlexRay is expected to become the communication backbone for future automotive systems.  ...  Fault tolerance of the TTP/C protocol has been assessed, by heavy-ion fault injection [16] and physical pin-level fault-injection [17] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/ladc.2009.20 dblp:conf/ladc/SedaghatM09 fatcat:k6fjrx76obgz7h5t7azzjf2qm4

A Code Generation Framework for Time-Triggered Real-Time Systems

Johannes Pletzer, Josef Templ, Wolfgang Pree
2009 2009 International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems  
We present the plug-in interfaces and describe sample plug-ins we developed for the FlexRay communication bus using two hardware platforms with FlexRay controllers.  ...  The framework is extensible by the use of plug-ins, which are used to support specific node platforms and communication protocols and therefore guarantee a clear separation of platform independent from  ...  scheduler plug-in for the time-triggered FlexRay protocol.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icess.2009.46 dblp:conf/icess/PletzerTP09 fatcat:6w3bfkisg5dabm2suxug3lifpm

A Systematic Development Methodology for Mixed-Mode Behavioral Models of In-Vehicle Embedded Electronic Systems

Candice Muller, Maurizio Valle, William Prodanov, Roman Buzas
2010 EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems  
The model development methodology is described and the results of the methodology applied to two case studies are presented: (1) the mixed-mode behavioral model of a generic Flexray physical layer transceiver  ...  and (2) the mixed-mode behavioral model of a CAN bus transceiver-integrated circuit.  ...  Flexray Physical Layer Transceiver. The mixed-mode behavioral model of Flexray physical layer transceiver reported in [16] is fully compatible with the Flexray standard [9] .  ... 
doi:10.1155/2010/726286 fatcat:r6vybin37bg4zkkns6yszrfw4a

EVALUATION OF BABBLING IDIOT FAILURES IN FLEXRAY-BASED NETWORKES

Vahid Lari, Mehdi Dehbashi, Seyed Ghassem Miremadi, Mojtaba Amiri
2007 IFAC Proceedings Volumes  
To do this, a FlexRay communication controller is modeled by Verilog HDL at the behavioral level. Then, this controller is exploited to setup a FlexRay-based network composed of four nodes.  ...  The evaluation is based on about 35680 bit-flip fault injections inside different parts of the FlexRay communication controller.  ...  FAILURE AND ERROR MODELS Error models The FlexRay protocol has different mechanisms for detecting errors in the controller.  ... 
doi:10.3182/20071107-3-fr-3907.00055 fatcat:wwcn2u3ptvb4boy7mwvcrosbkm

An FSM-based monitoring technique to differentiate between follow-up and original errors in safety-critical distributed embedded systems

Yasser Sedaghat, Seyed Ghassem Miremadi
2011 Microelectronics Journal  
The proposed technique is based on monitoring the operational states of a communication controller. In this paper, this technique has been applied to the FlexRay protocol.  ...  However, it is applicable for all communication protocols having an FSM-based description such as FlexRay, TTP/C, and TT-Ethernet.  ...  Acknowledgment The authors would like to thank Mrs.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.mejo.2011.04.003 fatcat:qt7ti4fdyvdezhcx54wiviptte

Energy Efficiency Due to a Common Global Timebase—Synchronizing FlexRay to 802.1AS Networks as a Foundation

Paul Milbredt, Efim Schick, Michael Hübner
2018 Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications  
Nowadays, this is achieved by technologies specifically designed for the automotive domain, like FlexRay, which offer a fault-tolerant time synchronization mechanism built into the protocol.  ...  In this article, we present the first step: Synchronizing legacy FlexRay networks to the upcoming Ethernet backbone, which will contain a precise clock over the generalized Precision Time Protocol (gPTP  ...  Acknowledgments: This research was done, while Paul Milbredt was working for AUDI AG, whom we thank not only for all the resources but also for the permission to publish.  ... 
doi:10.3390/jlpea8030026 fatcat:pi5lkktmnre3xal33f5icjo374

An approach to the pervasive formal specification and verification of an automotive system

Tom In der Rieden, Steffen Knapp
2005 Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on Formal methods for industrial critical systems - FMICS '05  
We will discuss in detail the model layers from the hardware up to a computational model for concurrent user processes interacting with a generic microkernel written in C.  ...  The Verisoft project aims at the pervasive formal verification of entire computer systems. In particular, the verification of functional and timing properties of the Automotive System is attempted.  ...  The OSEKtime standard comprises a fault-tolerant communication layer, FTCom, which supports real-time bus protocols as FlexRay.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1081180.1081195 fatcat:vap5ajcewfb2bc6lt6rfjfwg5i
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