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Game and Simulation Design for Studying Pedestrian-Automated Vehicle Interactions [article]

Georgios Pappas, Joshua E. Siegel, Jacob Rutkowski, Andrea Schaaf
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The present cross-disciplinary research explores pedestrian-autonomous vehicle interactions in a safe, virtual environment.  ...  Behavioral results in virtuality, especially when there were consequences, tend to simulate real life sufficiently well to make design choices, and we received valuable insights into human/vehicle interaction  ...  Recently, the use of virtual environments to research pedestrian-automated vehicle interactions has been explored, with Deb et al.  ... 
arXiv:2109.15205v1 fatcat:tmnfne2zj5at7cbsjhoupxtdse

How Do We Study Pedestrian Interaction with Automated Vehicles? Preliminary Findings from the European interACT Project [chapter]

Natasha Merat, Yee Mun Lee, Gustav Markkula, Jim Uttley, Fanta Camara, Charles Fox, André Dietrich, Florian Weber, Anna Schieben
2019 Lecture Notes in Mobility  
, externally presented interfaces can be used for communication between AVs and pedestrians.  ...  interacting with other road users, especially pedestrians.  ...  Introduction An inherent challenge in mixed traffic environments of the future is that manually driven and automated vehicles (AVs) will need to interact with non-automated road users, such as pedestrians  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-22933-7_3 fatcat:24uh2c3jkvghjdsnnig34wd5bi

Next Generation X-in-the-Loop Validation Methodology for Automated Vehicle Systems

Zsolt Szalay
2021 IEEE Access  
INDEX TERMS Automotive proving ground, automated vehicle control, autonomous vehicle, co-simulation, digital twin, mixed-reality testing, scenario-based testing, testing and validation, virtual and mixed  ...  Accordingly, a novel Xin-the-Loop framework is proposed to fully exploit the recent advances in info-communication technologies, vehicle automation, and testing and validation requirements.  ...  SYS5 offers an urban test environment for highly automated vehicles.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3061732 fatcat:uzxjfksxmraedhenovjdzkqf7m

Impact of External Human–Machine Interface Communication Strategies of Automated Vehicles on Pedestrians' Crossing Decisions and Behaviors in an Urban Environment

Marc Wilbrink, Merle Lau, Johannes Illgner, Anna Schieben, Michael Oehl
2021 Sustainability  
In a Virtual Reality (VR) simulator study, 62 participants were instructed to cross a street while interacting with non-automated (without eHMI) and automated vehicles (equipped with static eHMI or dynamic  ...  In future urban traffic, it is more likely that AVs will operate not in separated traffic spaces but in so-called mixed traffic environments where different types of traffic participants interact.  ...  Participants encountered interactions with automated and non-automated vehicles in a VR pedestrian simulator in a mixed traffic scenario.  ... 
doi:10.3390/su13158396 fatcat:duvneij7zfb6fo4s52ohybbnfu

Chair for Intelligent Transportation Systems–Sustainable Transport Logistics 4.0

Yisheng Lv
2021 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine  
(b) The identification of pedestrian poses for further classification. (Source: Walter Morales; used with permission.) (a) A mixed reality view with virtual and real robots (in blue).  ...  If this is not the case, the coexistence of manually controlled and autonomous cars and trucks in a mixed environment might negatively affect road user interactions and jeopardize safety.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mits.2021.3081895 fatcat:zztztafxpvduro6chyb6iraiiy

Vulnerable road users and the coming wave of automated vehicles: Expert perspectives

Wilbert Tabone, Joost de Winter, Claudia Ackermann, Jonas Bärgman, Martin Baumann, Shuchisnigdha Deb, Colleen Emmenegger, Azra Habibovic, Marjan Hagenzieker, P.A. Hancock, Riender Happee, Josef Krems (+6 others)
2021 Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives  
Acknowledgements This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 860410.  ...  A problem arises in a mixed manual and automated environment where the VRU might not get the manual car driver's signal as they are looking for other communication.  ...  This direction concerns new research projects, such as the EU-funded project Supporting the Interaction of Humans and Automated Vehicles: Preparing for the Environment of Tomorrow (SHAPE-IT) (European  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.trip.2020.100293 fatcat:rwtx64g63ngk5ps6m4elho6qge

eHMI: Review and Guidelines for Deployment on Autonomous Vehicles

Juan Carmona, Carlos Guindel, Fernando Garcia, Arturo de la Escalera
2021 Sensors  
This review provides further insight into the specific issue of the information flow between pedestrians and automated vehicles by evaluating recent advances in external human–machine interfaces (eHMI)  ...  Human–machine interaction is an active area of research due to the rapid development of autonomous systems and the need for communication.  ...  For instance, a recent experiment using augmented reality in the Unity environment [30] tested three different vehicle sizes (small, medium, and big), concluding that the safety perception in front of  ... 
doi:10.3390/s21092912 pmid:33919209 fatcat:wheqo45ftfflpkinxlg4nj6ivm

Augmented Reality for Future Mobility: Insights from a Literature Review and HCI Workshop

Andreas Riegler, Andreas Riener, Clemens Holzmann
2021 I-COM: A Journal of Interactive and Cooperative Media  
There is a growing body of research in the field of interaction between drivers/passengers and automated vehicles using augmented reality (AR) technology.  ...  AR may also be the enabling technology to increase trust and acceptance in automated vehicles through explainable artificial intelligence (AI), and therefore help on the shift from manual to automated  ...  research at the intersection of AR technology, HCI, UI/UX, and psychology is required to enable safe and practical AR applications for future mobility solutions.  ... 
doi:10.1515/icom-2021-0029 fatcat:owoacgaxpzarloszalfxe6qo7i

Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Section on Immersive Virtual Reality Simulation for Vehicular Technology

Alberto Cannavo, Fabrizio Lamberti, Himanshu Thapliyal, Ruck Thawonmas
2022 IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology  
Finally, the authors of "MiRE, a Mixed Reality environment for testing of automated driving functions" present a MR environment that can be used to experiment with CAVs and test, e.g., their interaction  ...  of Virtual Reality (VR) and related cutting-edge immersive technologies like Augmented Reality (AR) and Mixed Reality (MR) to vehicular systems for supporting the design of novel Human-Machine Interaction  ... 
doi:10.1109/tvt.2022.3160625 fatcat:gxtgotkvprb6td663d3j6pxi6m

Studying pedestrians' crossing behavior when interacting with automated vehicles using virtual reality

J. Pablo Nuñez Velasco, Haneen Farah, Bart van Arem, Marjan P. Hagenzieker
2019 Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour  
However, other road users, such as pedestrians and cyclists will still be present and would need to interact with these automated vehicles.  ...  The second aim is to assess the perceived realism of Virtual reality based on 360°videos for pedestrian crossing behavior for research purposes.  ...  Acknowledgment The work reported in this paper was funded as part of the project Spatial and Transport impacts of Automated Driving (STAD) by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO)  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.trf.2019.08.015 fatcat:r5fcplf7uzbclacghabxkx2lby

Passenger opinions of the perceived safety and interaction with automated shuttles: A test ride study with 'hidden' safety steward

Sina Nordhoff, Jork Stapel, Bart van Arem, Riender Happee
2020 Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice  
A B S T R A C T A necessary condition for the effective integration of automated vehicles in our daily lives is their acceptance by passengers inside and pedestrians and cyclists outside the automated  ...  vehicle. 119 respondents experienced an automated shuttle ride with a 'hidden steward on board' in a mixed traffic environment in Berlin-Schöneberg.  ...  We thank Panagiotis Loukaridis, Hanna Buntz, and Rand Abu Ajamia for accompanying us on the ride with the automated vehicle as hidden stewards, and thank Tabea Weiβ and Tim Warner for coding the data from  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tra.2020.05.009 fatcat:vlufyuohabejnplzgtt33muqly

Virtual Immersive Reality for Stated Preference Travel Behavior Experiments: A Case Study of Autonomous Vehicles on Urban Roads

Bilal Farooq, Elisabetta Cherchi, Anae Sobhani
2018 Transportation Research Record  
We present Virtual Immersive Reality Environment (VIRE) that is capable of developing highly realistic, immersive, and interactive choice scenario.  ...  We demonstrate the use of VIRE in the pedestrian preferences related to autonomous vehicles and associated infrastructure changes on urban streets of Montr\'eal.  ...  In this paper, we present the Virtual Immersive Reality Environment (VIRE) platform for developing a range of transportation SP experiments that are highly realistic, immersive, interactive, and have the  ... 
doi:10.1177/0361198118776810 fatcat:twlhscxcqzfldcattdwh3tu6ci

Decoding pedestrian and automated vehicle interactions using immersive virtual reality and interpretable deep learning [article]

Arash Kalatian, Bilal Farooq
2020 arXiv   pre-print
To ensure pedestrian friendly streets in the era of automated vehicles, reassessment of current policies, practices, design, rules and regulations of urban areas is of importance.  ...  For this purpose, an interpretable machine learning framework is proposed to explore factors affecting pedestrians' wait time before crossing mid-block crosswalks in the presence of automated vehicles.  ...  The effectiveness of such methods can also be tested in the virtual reality environment.  ... 
arXiv:2002.07325v1 fatcat:dvnus76z4newlj2ifa547s4vfu

Safety envelope of pedestrians upon motor vehicle conflicts identified via active avoidance behaviour

Bingbing Nie, Quan Li, Shun Gan, Bobin Xing, Yuan Huang, Shengbo Eben Li
2021 Scientific Reports  
Understanding the underlying behaviour mechanisms can combine active sensing system on feature caption and passive devices on injury mitigation for automated vehicles.  ...  Safety envelopes were generated by combining the simultaneous interactions between the pedestrian and the vehicle.  ...  Acknowledgements This study was in part supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (52072216, 51705276), Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (2019Z08QCX13), and  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41598-021-82331-z pmid:33597565 pmcid:PMC7889901 fatcat:rcivemgo3rcqzoojdnav2xugp4

Editorial for Special Issue: Test and Evaluation Methods for Human-Machine Interfaces of Automated Vehicles

Frederik Naujoks, Sebastian Hergeth, Andreas Keinath, Nadja Schömig, Katharina Wiedemann
2020 Information  
Today, OEMs and suppliers can rely on commonly agreed and standardized test and evaluation methods for in-vehicle human–machine interfaces (HMIs).  ...  The shift towards higher levels of vehicle automation has also moved the discussion towards the interaction between automated and non-automated road users using exterior HMIs.  ...  Acknowledgments: The guest editors would like to thank the authors for their valuable submissions, the reviewers for their precious and constructive comments.  ... 
doi:10.3390/info11090403 fatcat:kw4wg7kin5fdxhus4gmk7bnohi
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