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Testing Automotive Control Software [chapter]

Mirko Conrad, Ines Fey
2008 Industrial Information Technology  
Usually, the testing of today's ECU software follows a gut feeling approach, leading to test gaps and test redundancies. This paper presents a new, more systematic way of testing automotive control software. The central element of the approach is the Classification-Tree Method for Embedded Systems (CTM/ES). Using an interface description, which can be based on the specification and / or an executable model of the software, test scenarios can be derived systematically and described in a
more » ... way so as to provide the user with visual information about test coverage. The CTM/ES can be integrated into an overall test strategy for automotive control software developed in a model-based way. The approach opens up a new way of assuring quality for embedded control software which is especially designed for automotive software developers. 2 Standardized procedures for selecting test scenarios on the basis of certain sources of information (e.g. functional specification, executable model, program code).
doi:10.1201/9780849380273.ch11 fatcat:q37sreq3mjci3kdf2l7nlrnx3i

Ein Testverfahren für optimierende Codegeneratoren

Ingo Stürmer, Mirko Conrad
2005 Informatik - Forschung und Entwicklung  
Zusammenfassung: Die im Rahmen der Modell-basierten Entwicklung eingebetteter Steuerungs-und Regelungssoftware eingesetzten optimierenden Codegeneratoren müssen einer intensiven Qualitätssicherung unterzogen werden. Dem Einsatz von Testsuiten kommt dabei eine zentrale Rolle zu. Der Beitrag beschreibt den Aufbau einer modularen Testsuite für Codegeneratoren und schlägt einen Testansatz vor, der eine systematische Prüfung der vom Codegenerator angewendeten Optimierungstechniken ermöglicht. 1
more » ... hrung Als Reaktion auf die gestiegenen Herausforderungen bei der Entwicklung eingebetteter Software im Kraftfahrzeug [6] vollzieht sich seit Mitte der 1990er Jahre ein Paradigmenwechsel, der durch den Übergang von der klassischen Programmentwicklung hin zu Modell-basierten Techniken gekennzeichnet ist [19], [18], [11], [27]. Kennzeichnend für die Modell-basierte Entwicklung ist die frühzeitige Beschreibung der eingebetteten Software durch ausführbare Modelle unter Verwendung von Funktionsblockdiagrammen und erweiterten Zustandsautomaten. Ein für diese Zwecke gebräuchliches Modellierungs-und Simulationswerkzeug, das sowohl im akademischen als auch im industriellen Umfeld weite Verbreitung gefunden hat, ist MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow 1 [15]. Während MATLAB als Basisumgebung fungiert, stellen die Erweiterungen Simulink und Stateflow graphische Editoren und Simulatoren für Blockschaltbilder bzw. Statecharts zur Verfügung. Derartige graphische Modelle dienen als Basis aller weiteren konstruktiven Entwicklungsschritte bis hin zur Implementierung der zu realisierenden Software. Während in der Vergangenheit eine manuelle Implementierung der Software die Regel war, existieren mittlerweile Codegeneratoren, wie z.B. TargetLink [25] oder der Real-Time Workshop [23], die automatisch effizienten Code direkt aus dem Softwaremodell generieren können (Modellbasierte Codegenerierung). Bei einem Codegenerator handelt es sich prinzipiell um einen Compiler, der eine Quellsprache (hier eine graphische Modellierungssprache wie Simulink/Stateflow) in eine Zielsprache (hier eine prozedurale Programmiersprache wie C oder ADA) übersetzt. In der automobilen Softwareentwicklung ist dabei der konsequente Einsatz 1 Weltweit ist von ca 100.000 Simulink/Stateflow-Anwendern auszugehen. von Optimierungstechniken durch die beschränkte Speicherkapazität auf der Zielhardware unverzichtbar. Die Modell-basierte Codegenerierung ermöglicht deutliche Effizienzgewinne bei der Implementierung der Modelle. Voraussetzung hierfür ist aber, dass der Codegenerator bei der Übersetzung bereits getesteter Modelle keine Fehler in die Software einbringt. Eine mögliche Fehlerquelle sind dabei eben jene Optimierungen, die die notwendige Effizienz des generierten Codes im Hinblick auf Ausführungsgeschwindigkeit und Speicherverbrauch gewährleisten. Codegeneratoren haben aber noch nicht die Betriebsbewährtheit von C-und ADA Compilern erreicht und müssen daher einer intensiven Qualitätssicherung durch Testen unterzogen werden. Der vorliegende Beitrag beschreibt ein praxisorientiertes und systematisches Testverfahren für Codegenerator-Optimierungen. Die Codegenerierung wird dabei über das erfolgreiche Durchlaufen einer Testsuite abgesichert. Vorgestellt werden sowohl der generelle Aufbau einer solchen Testsuite, als auch ein Ansatz zur systematischen Erzeugung von Testfällen. Letztere prüfen die vom Codegenerator verwendeten Optimierungen. Der weitere Aufbau des Artikels ist wie folgt gegliedert: Kapitel 2 führt in die Modell-basierte Codegenerierung, Kapitel 3 in die dabei verwendeten Optimierungstechniken ein. In Kapitel 4 wird der generelle Ansatz zum Test von Codegeneratoren erläutert. Dieser wird in Kapitel 5 am Beispiel des Tests von Optimierungen umgesetzt. Kapitel 6 beschließt den Beitrag mit einer Zusammenfassung. 2 Modell-basierte Codegenerierung Die Modell-basierte Entwicklung eingebetteter Steuerungs-und Regelungssoftware ist durch den durchgehenden Einsatz ausführbarer Modelle in allen Entwicklungsphasen charakterisiert [11]. Die zu realisierende Funktion tritt dabei in verschiedenen, aufeinander aufbauenden Repräsentationsformen auf (Modellevolution): Ein (physikalisches) Funktionsmodell wird dabei um Realisierungsaspekte ergänzt, überarbeitet und schließlich mittels Codegeneratoren in optimierten Programmcode einer imperativen Programmiersprache (meist C) überführt. Der generierte Code kann auf verschiedenen Ausführungsplattformen (Host-PC, Evaluation Bord) analysiert bzw. getestet und anschließend in das eingebettete System (im Automobilbereich auch elektronisches Steuergerät (ECU) genannt) integriert werden (Abb. 1).
doi:10.1007/s00450-005-0189-5 fatcat:bmbgebqr75frtehvuim4lla5m4

Overview of existing safeguarding techniques for automatically generated code

Ingo Stürmer, Daniela Weinberg, Mirko Conrad
2005 Software engineering notes  
Code generators are increasingly used in an industrial context to translate graphical models into executable code. Since the code is often deployed in safety-related environments, the quality of the code generators is of paramount importance. In this paper, we will present and discuss state-of-the-art techniques for safeguarding automatic code generation applied in model-based development. © ACM, (2005) This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of the ACM for
more » ... personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in ACM 1-59593-128-7/05/0005. http://doi.acm.
doi:10.1145/1082983.1083192 fatcat:qkklasq3izgajirw4ilplpsyo4

Modellbasierte Entwicklung eingebetteter Fahrzeugsoftware bei DaimlerChrysler

Mirko Conrad, Ines Fey, Matthias Grochtmann, Torsten Klein
2005 Informatik - Forschung und Entwicklung  
doi:10.1007/s00450-005-0197-5 fatcat:2gc3ljfknrbmhefa5p3nxqksue

Bender – An Educational Game for Teaching Agile Hardware Development

Daniel Omidvarkarjan, Jonas Conrad, Constantin Herbst, Christoph Klahn, Mirko Meboldt
2020 Procedia Manufacturing  
Within this paper, an educational game is presented that transfers Agile principles for the development of physical systems. The training leverages elements of Learning Factories (LF) to simulate an Agile hardware development project within two days. By doing so, the challenges of applying Agile within the hardware domain are realistically reflected. The training revolves around a physical wire bending machine, which a development team of four participants needs to modify within a realistic
more » ... neering and production setting. A trial with mechanical engineering students was conducted to validate the training design. The participants showed a positive attitude towards the active learning approach. Furthermore, the students expressed that they perceived the game to improve their learning regarding Agile hardware development. Abstract Within this paper, an educational game is presented that transfers Agile principles for the development of physical systems. The training leverages elements of Learning Factories (LF) to simulate an Agile hardware development project within two days. By doing so, the challenges of applying Agile within the hardware domain are realistically reflected. The training revolves around a physical wire bending machine, which a development team of four participants needs to modify within a realistic engineering and production setting. A trial with mechanical engineering students was conducted to validate the training design. The participants showed a positive attitude towards the active learning approach. Furthermore, the students expressed that they perceived the game to improve their learning regarding Agile hardware development.
doi:10.1016/j.promfg.2020.04.023 fatcat:6qr7xkhqtjdqlenyjrcdp63ueu

Systematic Model-Based Testing of Embedded Automotive Software

Mirko Conrad, Ines Fey, Sadegh Sadeghipour
2005 Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science  
The software embedded in automotive control systems increasingly determines the functionality and properties of present-day motor vehicles. The development and test process of the systems and the embedded software becomes the limiting factor. While these challenges, on the development side, are met by employing model-based specification, design, and implementation techniques, satisfactory solutions on the testing side are slow in arriving. With regard to the systematic test design and the
more » ... ption of test scenarios especially, there is a lot of room for improvement. This paper introduces the model-based black-box testing (MB 3 T ) approach in order to effectively minimize these deficits by creating a systematic procedure for the design of test scenarios for embedded automotive software and its integration in the model-based development process. According to the MB 3 T approach, logical test scenarios are first defined based on the textual requirements specification of the embedded software. These test scenarios are specified at a high level of abstraction and do not contain any implementation details of the test object. Due to their close link to the requirements it is easy to check which requirements are covered by which test scenario. Subsequently, the requirement-based logical tests are refined to executable model-based test scenarios. Finally, the approach helps to check, whether or not the logical test scenarios are fully covered by the executable test scenarios. The MB 3 T approach has recently been successfully employed in a number of automotive embedded software development projects at DaimlerChrysler.
doi:10.1016/j.entcs.2004.12.005 fatcat:r6ypjuhnbnfepdyy7mtsz3ce3q

Toward "Light‐to‐Light" Protection of Automotive Camera Monitor Systems

Benjamin Axmann, Frank Langner, Chihao Xu, Karlheinz Blankenbach, Mirko Conrad, Jan Bauer
2021 Information display  
ID by Benjamin Axmann, Frank Langner, Chihao Xu, Karlheinz Blankenbach, Mirko Conrad, and Jan Bauer Fig. 4 . 4 APVSS (ASIL Prepared Video Safety System) demonstrator.  ... 
doi:10.1002/msid.1215 fatcat:j7oqmqqbabbdddsdnginvksbtq

An Extension of the Classification-Tree Method for Embedded Systems for the Description of Events

Mirko Conrad, Alexander Krupp
2006 Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science  
Since 1999, the method and notion has been enhanced by Conrad and Fey to accommodate the description of time-dependent test scenarios termed test sequences [4, 5, 6, 7] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.entcs.2006.09.002 fatcat:gdcootgo6rc3tnbixmf7jzz4nq

Improving Functional Safety of Automotive Video Data Transmission and Processing Systems

Mirko Conrad, Frank Langner, Benjamin Axmann, Karlheinz Blankenbach, Jan Bauer, Matthäus Vogelmann, Manfred Wittmeir, Sascha Xu
2021 Journal of Automotive Software Engineering  
doi:10.2991/jase.d.210213.001 fatcat:akaed57yffbqrcaiilcwtcf7ei

Overview of existing safeguarding techniques for automatically generated code

Ingo Stürmer, Daniela Weinberg, Mirko Conrad
2005 Proceedings of the second international workshop on Software engineering for automotive systems - SEAS '05  
Code generators are increasingly used in an industrial context to translate graphical models into executable code. Since the code is often deployed in safety-related environments, the quality of the code generators is of paramount importance. In this paper, we will present and discuss state-of-the-art techniques for safeguarding automatic code generation applied in model-based development. © ACM, (2005) This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of the ACM for
more » ... personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in ACM 1-59593-128-7/05/0005. http://doi.acm.
doi:10.1145/1083190.1083192 fatcat:jurrd3ypqzfqddp7lrsyfjqk7q

Hypoxia pathway proteins regulate the synthesis and release of epinephrine in the mouse adrenal gland [article]

Deepika Watts, Nicole Bechmann, Ana Meneses, Ioanna K. Poutakidou, Denise Kaden, Catleen Conrad, Anja Krueger, Johanna Stein, Ali El-Armouche, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Graeme Eisenhofer, Mirko Peitzsch (+1 others)
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
The adrenal gland and its hormones regulate numerous fundamental biological processes; however, the impact of hypoxia signalling on its function remains scarcely understood. Here, we reveal that deficiency of HIF (Hypoxia Inducible Factors) prolyl hydroxylase domain protein-2 (PHD2) in the adrenal medulla of mice results in HIF2α-mediated reduction in phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) expression, and consequent reduction in epinephrine synthesis. Concomitant loss of PHD2 in renal
more » ... thropoietin (EPO) producing cells stimulated HIF2α-driven EPO overproduction, excessive RBC formation (erythrocytosis) and systemic hypoglycaemia. Using mouse lines displaying only EPO-induced erythrocytosis or anaemia, we show that hypo- or hyperglycaemia is necessary and sufficient to respectively enhance or reduce exocytosis of epinephrine from the adrenal gland. Based on these results, we propose that the PHD2-HIF2α axis in the adrenal medulla and beyond regulates both synthesis and release of catecholamines, especially epinephrine. Our findings are also of great significance in view of the small molecule PHD inhibitors being tested in phase III global clinical development trials for use in renal anaemia patients.
doi:10.1101/2020.10.15.340943 fatcat:mlxw7uhuwrgqjg5bpmblarmgpq

Experiences with model and autocode reviews in model-based software development

Ingo Stürmer, Mirko Conrad, Ines Fey, Heiko Dörr
2006 Proceedings of the 2006 international workshop on Software engineering for automotive systems - SEAS '06  
doi:10.1145/1138474.1138483 fatcat:hdinhldx6zdxff73byod7tecjy

Overnight/first morning urine free metanephrines and methoxytyramine for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: Is this an option?

Mirko Peitzsch, Denise Kaden, Christina Pamporaki, Katharina Langton, Georgiana Constantinescu, Catleen Conrad, Stephanie Fliedner, Richard O Sinnott, Aleksander Prejbisz, Roland Därr, Jacques Wm Lenders, Michael Bursztyn (+1 others)
2020 European Journal of Endocrinology  
Objective: Sympathoadrenal activity is decreased during overnight rest. This study assessed whether urinary free normetanephrine, metanephrine and methoxytyramine in overnight/first-morning urine collections might offer an alternative to measurements in 24-hour collections or plasma for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). Design and methods: Prospective multicenter cross-sectional diagnostic study involving 706 patients tested for PPGL among whom tumors were confirmed in 79
more » ... nd excluded in 627 after follow-up. Another 335 age- and sex-matched volunteers were included for reference purposes. Catecholamines and their free O-methylated metabolites were measured in 24-hour collections divided according to waking and sleeping hours and normalized to creatinine. Plasma metabolites from blood sampled after supine rest were measured for comparison. Results: Urinary outputs of norepinephrine, normetanephrine, epinephrine and metanephrine in the reference population were respectively 50[48-52]%, 35%[32-37]%, 76[74-78]% and 15[12-17]% lower following overnight than daytime collections. Patients in whom PPGLs were excluded showed 28[26-30]% and 6[3-9]% day-to-night falls in normetanephrine and metanephrine while patients with PPGLs showed no significant day-to-night falls in metabolites. Urinary methoxytyramine was consistently unchanged from day-to-night. According to receiver-operating characteristic curves, diagnostic accuracy of metabolite measurements in overnight/first morning urine samples did not differ from measurements in 24-hour urine collections, but was lower for both than for plasma. Using optimized reference intervals, diagnostic specificity was higher for overnight than daytime collections at similar sensitivities. Conclusions: Measurements of urinary free catecholamine metabolites in first morning/overnight urine collections offer an alternative for diagnosis of PPGL to 24-hour collections but remain less accurate than plasma measurements.
doi:10.1530/eje-19-1016 pmid:32187575 fatcat:am4tildh5jdkbe4jxfws33x76e

Targeted Quantification of Carbon Metabolites Identifies Metabolic Progression Markers and an Undiagnosed Case of SDH-Deficient Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma in a German Cohort

Doreen William, Kati Erdmann, Jonas Ottemöller, Anastasios Mangelis, Catleen Conrad, Mirko Peitzsch, Evelin Schröck, Graeme Eisenhofer, Aristeidis Zacharis, Susanne Füssel, Daniela Aust, Barbara Klink (+1 others)
2021 Metabolites  
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the 10 most common cancer entities and can be categorised into distinct subtypes by differential expression of Krebs cycle genes. We investigated the predictive value of several targeted metabolites with regards to tumour stages and patient survival in an unselected cohort of 420 RCCs. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of metabolite ratios identified two main clusters separated by α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) levels and sub-clusters with differential levels of
more » ... e oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Sub-clusters characterised by high 2HG were enriched in higher tumour stages, suggesting metabolite profiles might be suitable predictors of tumour stage or survival. Bootstrap forest models based on single metabolite signatures showed that lactate, 2HG, citrate, aspartate, asparagine, and glutamine better predicted the cancer-specific survival (CSS) of clear cell RCC patients, whereas succinate and α-ketoglutarate were better CSS predictors for papillary RCC patients. Additionally, this assay identifies rare cases of tumours with SDHx mutations, which are caused predominantly by germline mutations and which predispose to development of different neoplasms. Hence, analysis of selected metabolites should be further evaluated for potential utility in liquid biopsies, which can be obtained using less invasive methods and potentially facilitate disease monitoring for both patients and caregivers.
doi:10.3390/metabo11110764 pmid:34822422 pmcid:PMC8624007 fatcat:jzjc3qsu6zbtpigan5264p3cfu

Metabolomics, machine learning and immunohistochemistry to predict succinate dehydrogenase mutational status in phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas

Paal W. Wallace, Catleen Conrad, Sascha Brückmann, Ying Pang, Eduardo Caleiras, Masanori Murakami, Esther Korpershoek, Zhengping Zhuang, Elena Rapizzi, Matthias Kroiss, Volker Gudziol, Henri J.L.M.Timmers (+14 others)
2020 Journal of Pathology  
Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumours with a hereditary background in over one third of patients. Mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes increase the risk for PPGLs and several other tumours. Mutations in subunit B (SDHB) in particular are a risk factor for metastatic disease, further highlighting the importance of identifying SDH mutations for patient management. Genetic variants of unknown significance, where implications for the patient and
more » ... ily members are unclear, are a problem for interpretation. For such cases, reliable methods for evaluating protein functionality are required. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB (SDHB-IHC) is the method of choice but does not assess functionality at the enzymatic level. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based measurements of metabolite precursors and products of enzymatic reactions provides an alternative method. Here, we compare SDHB-IHC with metabolite profiling in 189 tumours from 187 PPGL patients. Besides evaluating succinate:fumarate ratios (SFR), machine learning algorithms were developed to establish predictive models for interpreting metabolite data. Metabolite profiling showed higher diagnostic specificity compared to SDHB-IHC (99.2% versus 92.5%, p = 0.021), whereas sensitivity was comparable. Application of machine learning algorithms to metabolite profiles improved predictive ability over that of the SFR, in particular for hard-to-interpret cases of head and neck paragangliomas (AUC 0.9821 versus 0.9613, p = 0.044). Importantly, the combination of metabolite profiling with SDHB-IHC has complementary utility, as SDHB-IHC correctly classified all but one of the false-negatives from metabolite profiling strategies while metabolite profiling correctly classified all but one of the false-negatives/positives from SDHB-IHC. From 186 tumours with confirmed status of SDHx variant pathogenicity, the combination of the two methods resulted in 185 correct predictions, highlighting the benefits of both strategies for patient management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1002/path.5472 pmid:32462735 fatcat:7d4g3rtyafhs3mwu2rz5t4s37e
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