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Epidemiological studies have shown a close relationship between smoking and dental caries. Bacteria are one of the essential factors of caries formation. The imbalance of cariogenic bacteria and commensal bacteria in dental plaque results in higher production of acid that can corrode dental hard tissue. The aim of our review is to summarize the effect of smoking on caries-related bacteria. English articles available in Pubmed and ScienceDirect databases and published before December 2018 weredoi:10.18332/tid/105913 pmid:31516475 pmcid:PMC6662784 fatcat:vvuzmjxt3jertawdaf5yeevxki
more »... arched. A variety of evidence was collected including not only the influence of cigarette products on bacteria strains in vitro but also their effect on bacterial composition in saliva and dental plaque in vivo. We particularly emphasize the mechanisms by which nicotine acts on oral bacteria. The components of cigarettes promote the growth of cariogenic microorganisms. The mechanisms of how nicotine enhances Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, Streptococcus gordonii, Actinomyces and Candida albicans are described separately in detail. The commensal bacteria, Streptococcus sanguinis, show less competitive capability in the presence of nicotine. Smoking influences saliva by lowering the buffer capability, altering its chemical agent and bacterial components, and therefore promotes the formation of a caries-susceptible environment. Cigarette smoking and nicotine exposure promote the cariogenic activity of oral microorganisms and the formation of a caries-susceptible environment. This suggests that smokers should quit smoking, amongst other health reasons, also for their oral health.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Beijing strains have caused a great concern because of their rapid emergence and increasing prevalence in worldwide regions. Great efforts have been made to investigate the pathogenic characteristics of Beijing strains such as hypervirulence, drug resistance and favoring transmission. Phylogenetically, MTB Beijing family was divided into modern and ancient sublineages. Modern Beijing strains displayed enhanced virulence and higher prevalence when compared withdoi:10.1038/emi.2016.14 pmid:26905026 pmcid:PMC4777927 fatcat:rfoq3eojwvhmfoifipa6kzdpxa
more »... cient Beijing strains, but the genetic basis for this difference remains unclear. In this study, by analyzing previously published sequencing data of 1082 MTB Beijing isolates, we determined the genetic changes that were commonly present in modern Beijing strains but absent in ancient Beijing strains. These changes include 44 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two short genomic deletions. Through bioinformatics analysis, we demonstrated that these genetic changes had high probability of functional effects. For example, 4 genes were frameshifted due to premature stop mutation or genomic deletions, 19 nonsynonymous SNPs located in conservative codons, and there is a significant enrichment in regulatory network for all nonsynonymous mutations. Besides, three SNPs located in promoter regions were verified to alter downstream gene expressions. Our study precisely defined the genetic features of modern Beijing strains and provided interesting clues for future researches to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie this sublineage's successful expansion. These findings from the analysis of the modern Beijing sublineage could provide us a model to understand the dynamics of pathogenicity of MTB.
Active, stable and cost-effective electrocatalysts are a key to water splitting for hydrogen production through electrolysis or photoelectrochemistry. Here we report nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures formed on carbon nanotube sidewalls as highly effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction with activity similar to platinum. Partially reduced nickel interfaced with nickel oxide results from thermal decomposition of nickel hydroxide precursors bonded to carbon nanotubedoi:10.1038/ncomms5695 pmid:25146255 fatcat:lwvj7su5zbdylpm4xrxlcyndly
more »... idewalls. The metal ion-carbon nanotube interactions impede complete reduction and Ostwald ripening of nickel species into the less hydrogen evolution reaction active pure nickel phase. A water electrolyzer that achieves B20 mA cm À 2 at a voltage of 1.5 V, and which may be operated by a single-cell alkaline battery, is fabricated using cheap, non-precious metal-based electrocatalysts.
The effects of dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) modified titanium implants on bacterial activity and microbial ecosystem of saliva-derived biofilm were investigated for the first time. Titanium discs were coated with DMADDM solutions at mass fractions of 0 mg/mL (control), 1, 5 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. Biomass accumulation and metabolic activity of biofilms were tested using crystal violet assay and MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. 16S rRNAdoi:10.3390/molecules22112013 pmid:29156630 fatcat:56fozchrw5gglndso4efxn2b7u
more »... gene sequencing was performed to measure the microbial community. Live/dead staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to value the structure of biofilm. The results showed that the higher mass fraction of DMADDM the coating solution had, the significantly lower the values of metabolic activity and accumulated biofilms got, as well as fewer live cells and less extracellular matrix. Moreover, 5 mg/mL of DMADDM was the most effective concentration, as well as 10 mg/mL. In microecosystem-regulation, the DMADDM modified titanium implant decreased the relative abundance of Neisseria and Actinomyces and increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, a probiotic for peri-implant diseases. In conclusion, via inhibiting growth and regulating microecosystem of biofilm, this novel titanium implant coating with DMADDM was promising in preventing peri-implant disease in an 'ecological manner'.
Streptococcus mutans is an important pathogen in the development of dental caries. Many studies have focused on the relationship between nicotine and S. mutans in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotine on the growth of S. mutans and its cariogenic potential in vivo. Sixteen male Specific-pathogen-free Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (nicotine-treated and nicotine-untreated group) and infected with S. mutans. The S. mutans suspension was treated with 1doi:10.1016/j.jds.2017.09.006 pmid:30895091 pmcid:PMC6388820 fatcat:2stutg2iqfbvbbdefe7pfhlg7q
more »... nicotine in the nicotine-treated group. The Keyes method was used to evaluate sulcal caries of rats, and dental plaque on molar teeth was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Incidence of sulcal caries was higher in nicotine-treated group compared to nicotine-untreated group (42.7 ± 1.7 vs 37.3 ± 4.9, P = 0.009). Severity of caries increased with nicotine treatment. The slightly dentinal caries scores and moderate dentinal caries scores were higher in the presence of nicotine (P < 0.001). Increased number of S. mutans cells attached to dental surface was observed under SEM in the nicotine-treated group. Nicotine would promote the attachment of S. mutans to dental surface, and further increase the incidence and severity of dental caries. Therefore, nicotine might be a risk factor for smoking-induced caries.
Wu Materials and Methods Methods are presented schematically in Figure 1 . ... Wu/Li/Zhou/Hu/Zhang/Huang/Xu/Guo/ Li/Feng/Peng/Weir/Cheng/Ren Caries Res 2018;52:14-21 DOI: 10.1159/000481832 20 Caries Res 2018;52:14-21 DOI: 10.1159/000481832 ...doi:10.1159/000481832 pmid:29232675 fatcat:s6hxq7mijndkhkvd5ssloq2afm
The hepatocellular carcinoma up-regulated EZH2-associated long non-coding RNA (HEIH) has been identified to act as an oncogene to promote cell tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the roles of HEIH in sorafenib resistance in HCC cells remain elusive. The expression of HEIH and microRNA (miR)-98-5p was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability, apoptosis, migration and invasion were analyzed using cell counting kit-8 assay, flowdoi:10.2147/cmar.s241383 pmid:32821157 pmcid:PMC7419617 fatcat:n5kxnxprongapbuhgwefdfjydu
more »... and transwell assay. Western blot was used to measure the levels of apoptosis-related protein and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway-related protein. The interaction between HEIH and miR-98-5p was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assay. In vivo experiments were performed using murine xenograft models. HEIH was up-regulated in sorafenib-resistant HCC tissues and cell lines, and HEIH silence weakened sorafenib resistance by suppressing cell viability, invasion and migration, decreasing the IC50 values to sorafenib, and increasing apoptosis in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells in vitro and reinforced the anti-tumor effects of sorafenib in vivo. HEIH was a sponge of miR-98-5p, and miR-98-5p inhibition reversed the sorafenib sensitivity induced by HEIH deletion in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells. MiR-98-5p inhibition could activate PI3K/AKT pathway, and enhanced sorafenib resistance by regulating the activation of PI3K/AKT pathway in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells. Besides, HEIH also activated PI3K/AKT pathway through regulating miR-98-5p in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells. HEIH conferred an advantage to sorafenib resistance in HCC by the activation of PI3K/AKT pathway through miR-98-5p, indicating a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC chemotherapy.
Seedling overgrowth always develops in undernourished plants due to biotic or abiotic stresses, which significantly decrease the yield of crops and vegetables. It is known that the plant growth retardants paclobutrazol (PBZ) and chlormequat chloride (CCC) are the most commonly used chemicals in controlling seedling height in plants by regulating the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway. However, the exact molecular regulation mechanism remains largely unknown. This study performed adoi:10.3390/ijms20133307 pmid:31284415 pmcid:PMC6650903 fatcat:i2a32w2fffe7bnlond2bnxmswq
more »... ve transcriptome profile to identify significantly differentially expressed genes after adding CCC and PBZ to the water culture seedling raising system for the first time. According to the obviously restrained shoots and roots, the GA biosynthesis genes were significantly decreased, as well as the endogenous GA content being reduced. Intriguingly, the GA signaling pathway genes were affected in opposite ways, increasing in roots but decreasing in shoots, especially regarding the phytochrome interacting factor SlPIF1 and the downstream genes expansins (SlEXPs), which promote cell wall remodeling. Further study found that the most down-regulated genes SlEXPA5 and SlEXPA15 were expressed specifically in shoot tissue, performing the function of repressing elongation, while the up-regulated genes SlEXPB2 and SlEXPB8 were proven to be root-specific expressed genes, which may promote horizontal elongation in roots. This research reported the comprehensive transcriptome profiling of plant growth retardants in controlling seedling overgrowth and restraining GA biosynthesis through the regulation of the GA signaling-related genes SlPIF1 and SlEXPs, with an opposite expression pattern between roots and shoots.
The number of spanning trees of a graph is an important invariant related to topological and dynamic properties of the graph, such as its reliability, communication aspects, synchronization, and so on. However, the practical enumeration of spanning trees and the study of their properties remain a challenge, particularly for large networks. In this paper, we study the num- ber and degree distribution of the spanning trees in the Hanoi graph. We first establish recursion relations between thedoi:10.1016/j.tcs.2015.10.032 fatcat:nxotxirfcnaf5h3izkp3p6xj3a
more »... er of spanning trees and other spanning subgraphs of the Hanoi graph, from which we find an exact analytical expression for the number of spanning trees of the n-disc Hanoi graph. This result allows the calculation of the spanning tree entropy which is then compared with those for other graphs with the same average degree. Then, we introduce a vertex labeling which allows to find, for each vertex of the graph, its degree distribution among all possible spanning trees.
Clioquinol is a potent chelator of divalent metal ions including zinc. Results: Clioquinol fits the zinc-centered active pocket of HDACs and inhibits HDAC activity, which results in cell cycle arrest and cancer cell apoptosis. Conclusion: Clioquinol inhibits HDAC activity and induces blood cancer cell death. Significance: This is the first report to demonstrate that clioquinol inhibits HDAC activity.doi:10.1074/jbc.m113.472563 pmid:24114842 pmcid:PMC3837159 fatcat:vktyayk5xzbkvk3sbqatu6worq
Aerobic denitrification microbes have great potential to solve the problem of NO3−-N accumulation in industrialized recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs). A novel salt-tolerant aerobic denitrifier was isolated from a marine recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) and identified as Halomonas alkaliphile HRL-9. Its aerobic denitrification performance in different dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperatures, and C/N ratios was studied. Investigations into nitrogen balance and nitrate reductasedoi:10.3390/ijerph16224451 fatcat:be76gjgegra3tb27mdd7xa3keu
more »... genes (napA and narG) were also carried out. The results showed that the optimal conditions for nitrate removal were temperature of 30 °C, a shaking speed of 150 rpm, and a C/N ratio of 10. For nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N) (initial concentration 101.8 mg·L−1), the sole nitrogen source of the growth of HRL-9, the maximum NO3−-N removal efficiency reached 98.0% after 24 h and the maximum total nitrogen removal efficiency was 77.3% after 48 h. Nitrogen balance analysis showed that 21.7% of NO3−-N was converted into intracellular nitrogen, 3.3% of NO3−-N was converted into other nitrification products (i.e., nitrous nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and organic nitrogen), and 74.5% of NO3−-N might be converted to gaseous products. The identification of functional genes confirmed the existence of the napA gene in strain HRL-9, but no narG gene was found. These results confirm that the aerobic denitrification strain, Halomonas alkaliphile HRL-9, which has excellent aerobic denitrification abilities, can also help us understand the microbiological mechanism and transformation pathway of aerobic denitrification in RASs.
2020 13th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, BioMedical Engineering and Informatics (CISP-BMEI)
Mingyun ...........................................................................................................................................................................203 Modeling of Chinese ... Imaging Remote Sensing Multimedia Processing for Communications Image Processing Applications .....350 Shengjie Li, Qi Cai, Yuanxin Wu ... ...doi:10.1109/cisp-bmei51763.2020.9263536 fatcat:7ulpvhnt35d2lg5dwzu4kexley
Liang Wang,1 Ming Wang,2 Mingyun Zhang,1 Xingde Li,1 Zhongcheng Zhu,1 Haiyan Wang2 1Department of Endoscopic Professional, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, China; 2Department of Radiation Therapy, ... Tsai HY, Yang YF, Wu AT, et al. ... CMAR.S158013 Checked for plagiarism Yes Review by Single anonymous peer review Peer reviewer comments 2 Editor who approved publication: Professor Harikrishna Nakshatri Liang Wang, 1 Ming Wang, 2 Mingyun ...doaj:4f155da93bda4251901e2ba790f18d18 fatcat:pexvbc6hv5hqpn6k3t6nqs2mfu
, Tsai Mon-Che, Zhou Jigang, Guan Mingyun, Lin Meng-Chang, Zhang Bo, Hu Yongfeng, Wang Di-Yan, Yang Jiang, Nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis, ... and Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Environmental Engineering Science, 36 (2019) 81-89 https://doi. org/10.1089/ees.2018.0157. Zhao Lianqin, Yang Sheng-Tao, Feng Shicheng, Ma Qiang, Peng Xiaoling, Wu ...doi:10.25073/2588-1140/vnunst.4883 fatcat:blmbcwmjkrappkvtcmgyugnnqu
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