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Microlithography: trends, challenges, solutions, and their impact on design

A.K. Wong
2003 IEEE Micro  
Acknowledgments I am grateful to Anthony Yen and Walt Trybula at International Sematech for insightful discussions and suggestions.  ...  (Figure 5 ), and Anthony Yen at TSMC/International Sematech (Figure 12 ), as well as the permission granted by SPIE for reproduction of  ...  This behavior is of critical concern because of its impact on overlay and circuit density.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mm.2003.1196111 fatcat:rhlnxnw6evehxhsydnpwu6en7e

If it moves, simulate it!

Andrew Neureuther
2008 Optical Microlithography XXI  
The current challenges and growth areas for simulation include calibration, synergy with metrology, electronic self-testing and linking circuit design and fabrication.  ...  In the last 35 years modeling of projection printing has undergone many paradigm shifts in physical models, computational engines, algorithms and opportunities.  ...  This research was also partly funded by SRC Grant1443 and Intel.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.782310 fatcat:ae7yffgipfc4pee7jwsod2pya4

Pixelated phase mask as novel lithography RET

Yan Borodovsky, Wen-Hao Cheng, Richard Schenker, Vivek Singh
2008 Optical Microlithography XXI  
Such PPM with a singular choice of pixel dimensions acts as a mask with variable phase and transmission due to radiation scattering and attenuation on pixel features with the effective intensity and phase  ...  Key properties of the pixelated phase masks, the steps for their practical realization, and the benefits to random logic products discussed.  ...  So it is important to state upfront the reasons we embarked on development of Novel RET and to comment on benefits and challenges of its use.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.772116 fatcat:274sphhoijdtjawasnhcchvjuq

Optical lithography: 40 years and holding

John H. Bruning, Donis G. Flagello
2007 Optical Microlithography XX  
The patterning process evolved initially from methods used in the printing industry, but as integrated circuits became more complex, and as device geometries shrank, sophisticated new imaging methods evolved  ...  Acknowledgements The author wishes to thank the following people and organizations for generously providing graphic material and assistance:  ...  The cross-features with their overlayed aerial images to the right of the Figure show the impact on the aerial image when the cross feature is printed, at that particular k 1 value, without compensation  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.720631 fatcat:zkajgihsandh3c3hgfapgeup5q

Lithography and the future of Moore's law

Gordon E. Moore, Timothy A. Brunner
1995 Optical/Laser Microlithography VIII  
There was still a large contingent in the user community who wanted to design their own circuits and who considered the job of the semiconductor industry to be to supply them with transistors and diodes  ...  Printing in advancing it's technology over the centuries has had a revolutionary impact on society.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.209244 fatcat:hscyoui5ingwpmwaupyk53pzyy

Pattern centric OPC flow: a special RET flow with fast turn-around-time

Tom Wang, Joanne Wu, Qingwei Liu, Gary Zhang, Benny Wang, Bo Su, Guojie Cheng
2008 Optical Microlithography XXI  
Both lithographical challenges and computational complexity associated with 45nm process and below create a need for advanced capabilities on commercial OPC tools.  ...  As today, there are no explorations on the linkage between design styles and layout pattern OPC reusability.  ...  There is an urgent need for a software solution which utilizes efficient methodology to process OPC correction based on the design space information, such as unique patterns and their percentage of reusability  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.771617 fatcat:7ar2sg4jyrh53k4doljlvx2jua

Water immersion optical lithography for 45-nm node

Bruce W. Smith, Hoyoung Kang, Anatoly Bourov, Frank Cropanese, Yongfa Fan, Anthony Yen
2003 Optical Microlithography XVI  
Historically, the application of immersion optics to microlithography has not been seriously pursued because of the alternative solutions available.  ...  Immersion fluid composition, temperature, flow, and micro-bubble influence on optical properties (index, absorption, aberration, birefringence). 5.  ...  This is a consequence of the impact that imaging into an immersion media has on focal depth.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.485489 fatcat:65w3wvfupzer3kdrvbrwet6kei

32nm and below logic patterning using optimized illumination and double patterning

Michael C. Smayling, Valery Axelrad, Harry J. Levinson, Mircea V. Dusa
2009 Optical Microlithography XXII  
"[1] The introduction of logic design styles which use strictly one-directional lines for the critical levels now gives the opportunity for illumination optimization.  ...  Gridded Design Rules (GDR) have been demonstrated to give areacompetitive layouts at existing 90, 65, and 45nm logic nodes while reducing CD variability. [2] These benefits can be extended to ≤32nm logic  ...  We would like to thank the staff at Sequoia Design Systems and Tela Innovations for their help in creating layouts and running the OPC and simulation jobs.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.814258 fatcat:tp7as5oqdnevveui4zems27hdy

Shot overlap model-based fracturing for edge-based OPC layouts

Shangliang Jiang, Avideh Zakhor, Kafai Lai, Andreas Erdmann
2014 Optical Microlithography XXVII  
One unique feature of our algorithm is that it can readily trade off between edge placement error and shot count by adjusting two input parameters.  ...  Our proposed fracturing algorithm generates both the location and dosage of shots given the mask layout and mask making parameters.  ...  A number of challenges need to be addressed in designing model-based fracturing algorithms.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.2046650 fatcat:yq2yazqlovcw7jxefi5enke4v4

Front Matter: Volume 6518

Proceedings of SPIE, Chas N. Archie
2007 Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXI  
Kusch, Nanotools GmbH (Germany) SESSION 10 METROLOGY CHALLENGES 65181C Impact of thin film metrology on the lithographic performance of 193-nm bottom antireflective coatings [6518-46] C. A.  ...  (Japan) 65181Q Impact of acid diffusion length on resist LER and LWR measured by CD-AFM and CD-SEM [6518-60] J. Foucher, CEA/LETI/MINATEC (France); A. Pikon, C. Andes, J.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.736738 fatcat:xpnyeprmjzhuhagrjzaahvg64y

Double patterning for 32nm and below: an update

Jo Finders, Mircea Dusa, Bert Vleeming, Henry Megens, Birgitt Hepp, Mireille Maenhoudt, Shaunee Cheng, Tom Vandeweyer
2008 Optical Microlithography XXI  
Both techniques pose difficult challenges to process control, metrology and integration, but seem feasible for the 32nm node.  ...  Double patterning lithography -either with two litho and etch steps or through the use of a sacrificial spacer layer, have equal complexity and particularly tight requirements on CDU and Overlay.  ...  Acknowledgement We would like to acknowledge entire DPL teams at ASML and IMEC for their support and outstanding work results.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.772780 fatcat:sc2anv4tcjeyhjlcecqyimoj6u

22nm logic lithography in the presence of local interconnect

Michael C. Smayling, Robert J. Socha, Mircea V. Dusa, Mircea V. Dusa, Will Conley
2010 Optical Microlithography XXIII  
The lines / cuts approach works well for the poly and interconnect layers, but the "hole" layers have less benefit from gridded designs and remain a big challenge for patterning.  ...  One approach "B" will use Gate and 1x Metal pitches of approximately 80nm, which, combined with the appropriate design style, may allow single exposure to be used.  ...  Depending on the method of implementing Local Interconnect, the ability to avoid Active contacts adjacent to transistor channel regions allows the full impact of mobility increase due to strain layers  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.846580 fatcat:wuib5pr5mzbxtp7qaxaz327z4q

Increasing complexity and limits of organization in the microlithography industry: implications for science-based industries

Hiroyuki Chuma
2006 Research Policy  
The paper emphasizes that extremely complex tools like microlithography require interim modularity to effectively orchestrate the dispersion of specialized knowledge and know-how over a wide range of professionals  ...  The microlithography industry is used for this purpose as a typical example of sciencebased industries.  ...  At the same time, however, both the increase in world semiconductor shipments and the new era of DUV tools' dominance have a significantly negative impact on Nikon's share and partly on Canon's.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.respol.2005.12.002 fatcat:cykpv6yxqzdnjpzzva2nqullbi

Lithography simulation employing rigorous solutions to Maxwell's equations

Ronald L. Gordon, Chris A. Mack, Luc Van den Hove
1998 Optical Microlithography XI  
The electromagnetic simulator will predict the transmission of light through the mask taking into account material properties, width, and thickness of the structures on the mask.  ...  A method of obtaining rigorous solutions to Maxwell's equations for the transmission of light through a photomask, both chrome-based and phase-shifting, is presented.  ...  Although such approximations may prove useful in crosschecking the solutions obtained from numerical methods, their discussion is beyond the scope of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.310747 fatcat:iqcdlcl5yzd2zenjhhfnhkejki

High index 193 nm immersion lithography: the beginning or the end of the road

Paul A. Zimmerman, Bryan J. Rice, Emil C. Piscani, Vladimir Liberman, Harry J. Levinson, Mircea V. Dusa
2009 Optical Microlithography XXII  
This paper reviews the success or failure of various HIL components and presents the top final material prospects and properties in each category.  ...  This choice was made even though the only currently available technology the can enable 32 nm and 22 nm manufacturing is double patterning.  ...  Turro and Luis Brus at Columbia University, and the Ober and Giannelis groups at Cornell University for their monumental effort in this work.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.814381 fatcat:scfarnmxkfdhnaz6zjwchnerp4
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