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Iberis amara (Bitter candy tuft, STW 6) is a component of STW 5 (Iberogast), which reduces visceral hypersensitivity and improves functional gastrointestinal disorders. ... Discussion The present study investigates the effect of STW 6 (Iberis amara), the main compound of STW 5, on colonic afferent sensitivity compared to STW 5. ... The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of the main compound bitter candytuft (Iberis amara, STW 6) on colonic afferent sensitivity. ...doi:10.1055/s-2006-954925 fatcat:qreum4soq5c75oylue6drei4a4
The genus Amara Bonelli, 1810 is a very speciose and taxonomically difficult genus of the Carabidae. ... Interspecific distances of zero were found for Amara alpina and Amara torrida as well as for Amara communis, Amara convexior and Amara makolskii. ... A Amara (Amara) similata (Gyllenhal, 1810) B Amara (Amarocelia) erratica (Duftschmid, 1812) C Amara (Bradytus) fulva (Müller, 1776) D Amara (Curtonotus) convexiuscula (Marsham, 1802) E Amara (Leirides) ...doi:10.3897/zookeys.759.24129 pmid:29853775 pmcid:PMC5968077 fatcat:qfsjvcsor5ekhiv7ijbz2gj6xa
The species were Simarouba amara, a fast-growing species associated with gaps in old-growth forest and abundant in secondary forest, and Minquartia guianensis, a slow-growing species tolerant of low-light ... CO2 flux measurements We measured CO2 elflux from 18 stems of Simarouba amara Aubl. ... Results Average CO2 efflux from stems was near 1 gmol m 2 s --1 for both Minquartia guianensis and Simarouba amara (Table 1) . ...doi:10.1007/bf00316947 pmid:28307003 fatcat:its6kaeoczealpzx6zf46mybmi
Experimental detection of entanglement in superconducting qubits has been mostly limited, for more than two qubits, to witness-based and related approaches that can certify the presence of some entanglement, but not rigorously quantify how much. Here we measure the entanglement of three- and four-qubit GHZ and linear cluster states prepared on the 16-qubit IBM Rueschlikon (ibmqx5) chip, by estimating their entanglement monotones. GHZ and cluster states not only have wide application in quantumarXiv:1808.05203v1 fatcat:f6kinkr37fh33pvzdfeu77p6uu
more »... omputing, but also have the convenient property of having similar state preparation circuits and fidelities, allowing for a meaningful comparison of their degree of entanglement. We also measure the decay of the monotones with time, and find in the GHZ case that they actually oscillate, which we interpret as a drift in the relative phase between the |0〉^⊗ n and |1〉^⊗ n components, but not an oscillation in the actual entanglement. After experimentally correcting for this drift with virtual Z rotations we find that the GHZ states appear to be considerably more robust than cluster states, exhibiting higher fidelity and entanglement at later times. Our results contribute to the quantification and understanding of the strength and robustness of multi-qubit entanglement in the noisy environment of a superconducting quantum computer.
The performance of error correction protocols are necessary for understanding the operation of potential quantum computers, but this requires physical error models that can simulated efficiently with classical computers. The Gottesmann-Knill theorem guarantees a class of such error models. Of these, one of the simplest is the Pauli twirling approximation (PTA), which is obtained by twirling an arbitrary completely positive error channel over the Pauli basis, resulting in a Pauli channel. Indoi:10.1038/srep14670 pmid:26419417 pmcid:PMC4588586 fatcat:c2asdmv6pfcolacyybmmh3n52a
more »... work, we test the PTA's accuracy at predicting the logical error rate by simulating the 5-qubit code using a 9-qubit circuit with realistic decoherence and unitary gate errors. We find evidence for good agreement with exact simulation, with the PTA overestimating the logical error rate by a factor of 2 to 3. Our results suggest that the PTA is a reliable predictor of the logical error rate, at least for low-distance codes.
Currents mediated by a glutamate transporter cloned from human motor cortex were measured in Xenopus oocytes. In the absence of glutamate, voltage jumps induced Na ÷-dependent capacitive currents that were blocked by kainate, a competitive transport antagonist. The pre-steady-state currents can be described by an ordered binding model in which a voltage-dependent Na + binding is followed by a voltage-independent kainate binding. At -80 mV, two charges are translocated per molecule of glutamate,doi:10.1016/0896-6273(95)90340-2 pmid:7748550 fatcat:hfq4x2emhveg5jkwvi7ssa7pcm
more »... with a cycling time of approximately 70 ms, which is significantly slower than the predicted time course of synaptically released glutamate. The results suggest that glutamate diffusion and binding to transporters, rather than uptake, are likely to dominate the synaptic concentration decay kinetics.
Flux of substrate and charge mediated by three cloned excitatory amino acid transporters widely expressed in human brain were studied in voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes. Superfusion of L-glutamate or D-aspartate resulted in currents due in part to electrogenic Na ÷ cotransport, which contributed 1 net positive charge per transport cycle. A significant additional component of the currents was due to activation of a reversible anion flux that was not thermodynamically coupled to amino aciddoi:10.1016/0896-6273(95)90159-0 pmid:7546750 fatcat:lwr2y6rktzgofj4qajefthlx5q
more »... rt. The selectivity sequence of this ligand-activated conductance was NO3-> I-> Br > CI-> F-. The results suggest that these proteins mediate both transporter-and channel-like modes of permeation, providing a potential mechanism for dampening cell excitability, in addition to removal of transmitter.
Key indicators: single-crystal X-ray study; T = 173 K; mean (C-C) = 0.002 Å; disorder in main residue; R factor = 0.037; wR factor = 0.100; data-to-parameter ratio = 18.9. organic compounds o2774 Saeed et al. Comment The background of this study has been described in our earlier paper concerning the crystal structure of 1-(2-Chloro-5-ni-doi:10.1107/s160053680904183x pmid:21578367 pmcid:PMC2970993 fatcat:evcg4hv2ibcljk76x4jb23qw54
Many factors influence the manner in which material is encoded into memory, with one of the most important determinants of subsequent memorability being the degree to which an item is attended at study. Attentional gaze manipulationswhich occur when a task-irrelevant face at fixation looks towards or away from a targethave been shown to enhance attention such that stimuli that are gazed at elicit quicker responses. In the present study, four experiments were conducted to determine whetherdoi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2012.06.003 pmid:22742661 fatcat:cg5wjylypfav3nyiodv5f36rp4
more »... ional gaze cues can also influence the recall of items appearing at gazed-at or gazed-away from locations. In Experiment 1, an irrelevant gaze cue at fixation preceded the presentation of to-be-remembered items, with each item remaining on screen for 1000 ms. Gaze direction had no effect on memory for words. In Experiment 2, the presentation time for to-be-remembered items was reduced to 250 ms or 500 ms. Now gazed at items were more memorable. In Experiment 3, we manipulate the intentionality of the memory instruction and demonstrate that gaze cues influence memory even when participants are not explicitly attempting to memorize items. Finally, Experiment 4 demonstrates that these findings are specific to gaze cues as no memory effect is observed when arrow cues are presented. It is argued that gaze cues can modify memory for items, but that this effect is primarily attributable to shifts of attention away from target items when a gaze cue is invalid.
Flaviviruses, such as the dengue virus and the West Nile virus, are emerging arthropod-borne viruses that represent an immense global health problem. Considerable progress has been made in understanding flavivirus structure and replication strategies, but only now are the complex molecular interactions between the virus and host cell starting to be unraveled. In this Review, we discuss the ongoing efforts toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms that allow flaviviruses to manipulate hostdoi:10.1016/j.chom.2009.04.001 pmid:19380111 fatcat:rlexsym43bafjm7jti35hlbcua
more »... functions for successful infection. We draw attention to the importance of these studies in defining the pathogenesis of flaviviral diseases.
Background: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) has been successfully applied to the identification of hemoglobin (Hb) variants and the presence of glucose adducts (mass difference of 162 Da) on the separate Hb α and β chains. To establish the potential of ESIMS as a routine and/or a reference method for the quantification of glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), we carried out a detailed evaluation over a 4-month period in a routine laboratory environment. Methods: We optimized a proceduredoi:10.1093/clinchem/47.2.316 fatcat:sn64pb3gqjek3fp3ftdgfxt3me
more »... ng ESIMS suitable for the routine quantitative analysis of HbA1c. We determined reliability and reproducibility over 4 months and assessed the potential for automated sample injection. We then compared values of 1022 blood samples from diabetic patients with a routine HPLC-based ion-exchange procedure (HA-8140; Menarini). Results: Results of HbA1c measurement by ESIMS were available within 3 min. The analytical imprecision (CV) was 1.6–5.0% for both manual and automated injections. Data collection over the m/z 980-1400 range confirmed lower glycation of the α chain relative to the β chain (0.66:1). Only one glycation was observed per globin chain. The overall glycohemoglobin (i.e., the average of α- and β-chain glycations) measured by ESIMS (x) on 1022 blood samples was lower than by HPLC (y): y = 1.0432x + 0.4815. However, the β-chain glycation measured by ESIMS was up to 20% higher than the value measured by ion-exchange HPLC and showed a close conformity, particularly at 5–10% HbA1c, with the ion-exchange Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)-corrected and the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme DCCT mean return values. Conclusions: ESIMS provides a precise measurement of HbA1c and, in particular, glycation of the β chain. The method is robust and could be proposed as a procedure to substantiate HbA1c measurement and/or calibration.
Data used in the writing of this manuscript can be obtained upon request to Amara Holder (email@example.com). Results and Discussion Analysis of BB samples. ...doi:10.1038/s41598-017-06981-8 pmid:28779152 pmcid:PMC5544734 fatcat:l6lvhozylfeb3d3w5xk53mihtu
Photocatalytic oxidation of mono- and di-substituted arylboronic acids to phenols has been investigated in a continuous flow LED photoreactor. In EtOH–H2O, conversion was accelerated at 2 MPa; whereas reactions at 0.1 MPa led to 64% desymmetrisation.doi:10.1039/c4ra15588b fatcat:fehekofusjcg3gmtzmkoxc2bbi
The feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of computerized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CCRT) for mitigating neurocognitive decline was evaluated in African adults ≥50 years old. Eighty-one Ugandans with (n = 40) and without (n = 41) chronic human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) were allocated CCRT-i.e., 20-45-min cognitive training sessions with culturally adapted video games delivered via Captain's Log Software, or standard of care (SOC). Pre and post (i.e., 8-weeks later)doi:10.3390/jcm9072137 pmid:32645896 pmcid:PMC7408686 fatcat:mqpepj277ranzicdaa277tgdaa
more »... ervention performance based neurocognitive tests, quality of life (QOL) and frailty related phenotype (FRP) were determined in all respondents. Multivariable linear regression estimated CCRT- vs. SOC-related differences (β) in neurocognitive batteries, QOL and FRP. Effect sizes (ES) for estimated β were calculated. CCRT protocol was completed by 92.8% of persons allocated to it. Regardless of HIV status, CCRT was associated with higher performance in learning tests than SOC-interference list (β = 1.00, 95%CI: (0.02, 1.98); ES = 0.43) and delayed recall (β = 1.04, 95%CI: (0.06, 2.02); ES = 0.47). CCRT effect on verbal fluency was clinically important (ES = 0.38), but statistical significance was not reached (β = 1.25, 95%CI: (-0.09, 2.58)). Among HIV-positive adults, clinically important post-CCRT improvements were noted for immediate recall (ES = 0.69), working memory (ES = 0.51), verbal fluency (ES = 0.51), and timed gait (ES = -0.44) tasks. Among HIV-negative adults, CCRT resulted in moderate post-intervention improvement in learning tests (ES = 0.45) and large decline in FRP (ES = -0.71), without a positive effect on simple attention and visuomotor coordination tasks. CCRT intervention is feasible among older Ugandan adults with potential benefit for learning and verbal fluency tests regardless of HIV status and lowering FRP in HIV-negative older adults.
Dysregulation of interleukin-22 (IL-22) has been associated with autoimmune diseases but divergent effects upon inflammation have hampered efforts to define its contribution to pathogenesis. Here, we examined the role of IL-22 in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). In the peripheral blood of PsA patients, there was a decrease in IL-22 + CD4 + T cells compared with healthy controls resulting in a heightened CD4 + IFNγ + /IL-22 + ratio accompanied by diminished CCR6 expression. IL-22doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.01403 pmid:29163483 pmcid:PMC5666299 fatcat:lijxzsvc4jeyvm2f32gnmlclwu
more »... ng cells were depleted primarily from the central memory CD4 T-cell subset in PsA patients. Paradoxically IL-22 and particularly interferon-gamma (IFNγ) production were elevated within a CD4 + T-cell subset with phenotypic markers characteristic of naïve T cells (CD3 + CD4 + CD27 + CD45RA + CCR7 + CD95 − IL-2Rβ − ) from PsA patients with the highest IFNγ + /IL-22 + ratio of all the CD4 subsets. These unconventional "naïve" CD4 + T cells from PsA patients displayed some phenotypic and functional characteristics of memory cells including a marked proliferative response. Increased IFNγ production from these unconventional "naïve" T cells from PsA patients promoted greater expression of the chemo-attractant CXCL9 by HaCaT keratinocytes compared with their healthy counterparts. Treatment with anti-TNF therapy reversed these abnormalities in this T-cell subset though did not affect the frequency of IL-22 + T cells overall. Furthermore, blockade of IL-22 enhanced the IFNγ mediated release of CXCL-9. These results reveal CD4 + T-cell dysregulation in patients with PsA which can be reversed by anti-TNF and highlight the regulatory properties of IL-22 with important implications for therapeutic approaches that inhibit its production.
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