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Evolution's greatest mistakes

Claire Ainsworth, Michael Le Page
2007 New scientist (1971)  
"Once you have done something like this it's very hard to change," says Michael Land, a specialist in eye physiology at the University of Sussex, UK.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0262-4079(07)62033-8 fatcat:xrddse3v35buvkuzpvv7dmo2dq

University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston

Majka B. Woods, N. Miles Farr, Michael Ainsworth
2020 Academic Medicine  
Ainsworth M. University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston.  ...  Ainsworth M. University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston. Acad Med. 2020;95(9 suppl).  ... 
doi:10.1097/acm.0000000000003381 pmid:33626756 fatcat:ygp7vndyubfqzprwnhsqan6mzu

Student Perceptions of the Professional Behavior of Faculty Physicians

Karen Szauter, Betty Williams, Michael A. Ainsworth, Michael Callaway, Robert Bulik, Martha G. Camp
2003 Medical Education Online  
This study was conducted to obtain a baseline understanding of the professional behavior of clinical faculty physicians from the medical students' perspective. Students completed a professionalism evaluation of supervising faculty at the end of each required third-year clerkship over a one year period. Results were analyzed by specific behaviors and across clerkships. Differences were noted in the frequency of the types of problems seen, and varied by clerkship discipline. The most common
more » ... ressions of professional behavior reported were the use of derogatory language towards other services or patients and the disrespectful treatment of others. Our study served to provide objective feedback to the faculty about student perceptions of faculty as role models for professionalism while on clinical rotations.
doi:10.3402/meo.v8i.4338 pmid:28253159 fatcat:mkznz7guwjgapelzc4oivchxca

Meta-analysis: the past, present and future

Elizabeth A. Ainsworth, Michael S. Rosenberg, Xianzhong Wang
2007 New Phytologist  
Some specific challenges for ecologists highlighted in the session (discussed by both Michael Rosenberg, Arizona State University, and Jessica Gurevitch, Stony Brook University) include the use of hierarchical  ...  The important quantitative difference detected by this meta-analytical synthesis (Ainsworth & Long, 2005) , as well as the finding of lower levels of proteins and essential minerals in staple crops grown  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02277.x pmid:17997759 fatcat:fkr2yhepkfct7p3ln2mb4ilpxu

An HTTP-Based Versioning Mechanism for Linked Data [article]

Herbert Van de Sompel, Robert Sanderson, Michael L. Nelson, Lyudmila L. Balakireva, Harihar Shankar, Scott Ainsworth
2010 arXiv   pre-print
Dereferencing a URI returns a representation of the current state of the resource identified by that URI. But, on the Web representations of prior states of a resource are also available, for example, as resource versions in Content Management Systems or archival resources in Web Archives such as the Internet Archive. This paper introduces a resource versioning mechanism that is fully based on HTTP and uses datetime as a global version indicator. The approach allows "follow your nose" style
more » ... gation both from the current time-generic resource to associated time-specific version resources as well as among version resources. The proposed versioning mechanism is congruent with the Architecture of the World Wide Web, and is based on the Memento framework that extends HTTP with transparent content negotiation in the datetime dimension. The paper shows how the versioning approach applies to Linked Data, and by means of a demonstrator built for DBpedia, it also illustrates how it can be used to conduct a time-series analysis across versions of Linked Data descriptions.
arXiv:1003.3661v1 fatcat:vp72sb6pwjchpo562lokklxc3i

Memento: Time Travel for the Web [article]

Herbert Van de Sompel, Michael L. Nelson, Robert Sanderson, Lyudmila L. Balakireva, Scott Ainsworth, Harihar Shankar
2009 arXiv   pre-print
The Web is ephemeral. Many resources have representations that change over time, and many of those representations are lost forever. A lucky few manage to reappear as archived resources that carry their own URIs. For example, some content management systems maintain version pages that reflect a frozen prior state of their changing resources. Archives recurrently crawl the web to obtain the actual representation of resources, and subsequently make those available via special-purpose archived
more » ... urces. In both cases, the archival copies have URIs that are protocol-wise disconnected from the URI of the resource of which they represent a prior state. Indeed, the lack of temporal capabilities in the most common Web protocol, HTTP, prevents getting to an archived resource on the basis of the URI of its original. This turns accessing archived resources into a significant discovery challenge for both human and software agents, which typically involves following a multitude of links from the original to the archival resource, or of searching archives for the original URI. This paper proposes the protocol-based Memento solution to address this problem, and describes a proof-of-concept experiment that includes major servers of archival content, including Wikipedia and the Internet Archive. The Memento solution is based on existing HTTP capabilities applied in a novel way to add the temporal dimension. The result is a framework in which archived resources can seamlessly be reached via the URI of their original: protocol-based time travel for the Web.
arXiv:0911.1112v2 fatcat:gg2o4atzovd63pr5zhnhhajarm

Interactive Preference Learning of Utility Functions for Multi-Objective Optimization [article]

Ian Dewancker and Michael McCourt and Samuel Ainsworth
2016 arXiv   pre-print
Real-world engineering systems are typically compared and contrasted using multiple metrics. For practical machine learning systems, performance tuning is often more nuanced than minimizing a single expected loss objective, and it may be more realistically discussed as a multi-objective optimization problem. We propose a novel generative model for scalar-valued utility functions to capture human preferences in a multi-objective optimization setting. We also outline an interactive active
more » ... system that sequentially refines the understanding of stakeholders ideal utility functions using binary preference queries.
arXiv:1612.04453v2 fatcat:5faw7irqyvbsvjtkyhsn63swie

How Much of the Web Is Archived? [article]

Scott G. Ainsworth and Ahmed AlSum and Hany SalahEldeen and Michele C. Weigle and Michael L. Nelson
2013 arXiv   pre-print
Although the Internet Archive's Wayback Machine is the largest and most well-known web archive, there have been a number of public web archives that have emerged in the last several years. With varying resources, audiences and collection development policies, these archives have varying levels of overlap with each other. While individual archives can be measured in terms of number of URIs, number of copies per URI, and intersection with other archives, to date there has been no answer to the
more » ... stion "How much of the Web is archived?" We study the question by approximating the Web using sample URIs from DMOZ, Delicious, Bitly, and search engine indexes; and, counting the number of copies of the sample URIs exist in various public web archives. Each sample set provides its own bias. The results from our sample sets indicate that range from 35%-90% of the Web has at least one archived copy, 17%-49% has between 2-5 copies, 1%-8% has 6-10 copies, and 8%-63% has more than 10 copies in public web archives. The number of URI copies varies as a function of time, but no more than 31.3% of URIs are archived more than once per month.
arXiv:1212.6177v2 fatcat:gnffrucuvvdhvk6jdzexyxvcxe

Fluid insight moderates the relationship between psychoticism and crystallized intelligence

Robert Buckingham, Michael Kiernan, Samantha Ainsworth
2012 Personality and Individual Differences  
To elucidate potential relationships between personality and intelligence it is necessary to move beyond the ad hoc reporting of correlation coefficients and focus instead on testing deductions from well-established theories. To this end the present paper references Eysenck's (1995) theoretical work linking the dimension of psychoticism to both psychosis and creative genius. Drawing on this theory it was argued that the relationship between psychoticism and crystallized ability will be
more » ... al on the level of fluid intelligence. Participants (N = 100) completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT). Moderated multiple regression revealed a significant interaction effect. Crystallized ability (K-BIT vocabulary) was negatively related to psychoticism at low levels of fluid ability (K-BIT matrices) and positively related to psychoticism at high levels of fluid ability. These findings highlight the potential importance of psychoticism within GfGc investment theory.
doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.10.051 fatcat:ozqkdnm7drguxbvzpi6ngd3itq

International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 12-Country Reliability and Validity

CORA L. CRAIG, ALISON L. MARSHALL, MICHAEL SJ??STR??M, ADRIAN E. BAUMAN, MICHAEL L. BOOTH, BARBARA E. AINSWORTH, MICHAEL PRATT, ULF EKELUND, AGNETA YNGVE, JAMES F. SALLIS, PEKKA OJA
2003 Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise  
Physical inactivity is a global concern, but diverse physical activity measures in use prevent international comparisons. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed as an instrument for cross-national monitoring of physical activity and inactivity. Methods: Between 1997 and 1998, an International Consensus Group developed four long and four short forms of the IPAQ instruments (administered by telephone interview or self-administration, with two alternate reference
more » ... iods, either the "last 7 d" or a "usual week" of recalled physical activity). During 2000, 14 centers from 12 countries collected reliability and/or validity data on at least two of the eight IPAQ instruments. Test-retest repeatability was assessed within the same week. Concurrent (inter-method) validity was assessed at the same administration, and criterion IPAQ validity was assessed against the CSA (now MTI) accelerometer. Spearman's correlation coefficients are reported, based on the total reported physical activity. Results: Overall, the IPAQ questionnaires produced repeatable data (Spearman's clustered around 0.8), with comparable data from short and long forms. Criterion validity had a median of about 0.30, which was comparable to most other self-report validation studies. The "usual week" and "last 7 d" reference periods performed similarly, and the reliability of telephone administration was similar to the self-administered mode. Conclusions: The IPAQ instruments have acceptable measurement properties, at least as good as other established self-reports. Considering the diverse samples in this study, IPAQ has reasonable measurement properties for monitoring population levels of physical activity among 18-to 65-yr-old adults in diverse settings. The short IPAQ form "last 7 d recall" is recommended for national monitoring and the long form for research requiring more detailed assessment. METHODS Procedure Related short and long physical activity questionnaires were pilot tested and selected for international evaluation.
doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000078924.61453.fb pmid:12900694 fatcat:32xuzedrtzcujouxg2x5r2g4rq

Standardized Postoperative Recovery Reduces in-Hospital Stay After Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy

Anna Katrine Nyman Rasmussen, Michael Hareskov Larsen, Alan Patrick Ainsworth
2021 Journal of Surgery  
This study aims to examine if a standardized enhanced recovery program (ERP) could reduce the length of stay (LOS) after minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIO) compared to the earlier applied recovery program without increasing the risk of postoperative complications and readmissions. Methods: Retrospective study of patients with esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer who have had an uncomplicated postoperative stay following MIO. Patients had followed two different postoperative
more » ... ry programs according to their year of surgery (2016 versus 2018). Results: 48 patients in 2016 and 42 patients in 2018 were included. Patients were comparable on demographic factors. The median LOS was reduced from 9 days in 2016 to 8 days in 2018 (p<0.001). In 2018, 27 patients (64.3%) fulfilled the aim of discharge to their own home on day 8 after surgery. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the two groups in the risk of complications (Clavien-Dindo degree 0-2). Two patients in 2016 (4.2%) and two patients in 2018 (4.8%) were readmitted within 7 days after discharge (not significant). There was no in-hospital mortality or 30-day mortality in either of the two groups. Conclusion: The introduction of an ERP at our institution reduced the median postoperative stay after MIO by one day without increasing the risk of complications and readmittance. Further reduction might be obtained if oral feeding is allowed earlier.
doi:10.11648/j.js.20210902.12 fatcat:kzb6puqcv5dyldzyzot3sbgxve

Prognostic Outcomes of Tall Cell Variant Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Scharukh Jalisi, Tiffiny Ainsworth, Michael LaValley
2010 Journal of Thyroid Research  
Objective. To evaluate the prognosis of tall cell variant (TCV) compared to usual variant (UV) papillary thyroid cancer by comparing disease-related mortality and recurrence data from published studies.Methods. Ovid MEDLINE keyword search using "tall cell variant papillary thyroid cancer" was used to identify studies published in English that calculated disease-related mortality and recurrence rates for both TCV and UV.Results. A total of 131 cases of tall cell variant papillary thyroid cancer
more » ... ere reviewed. The combined odds ratio of recurrence for TCV compared to UV is 4.50 with a 95% confidence interval from 2.90 to 6.99. For disease-related mortality, the combined odds ratio for TCV was compared to UV of 14.28 with a 95% confidence interval from 8.01 to 25.46.Conclusion. Currently published data suggests that TCV is a negative prognostic indicator in papillary thyroid cancer and requires aggressive therapy. This meta-analysis provides the largest prognostic data series on TCV in the literature and clearly identifies the need for accurate pathological identification of TCV and its further study as an independent prognostic factor.
doi:10.4061/2010/325602 pmid:21048837 pmcid:PMC2957694 fatcat:g4gk6vwbirdp5cyi26ttx7bfgy

The Making of Might-Have-Beens

Jessica L. Alquist, Sarah E. Ainsworth, Roy F. Baumeister, Michael Daly, Tyler F. Stillman
2014 Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin  
using an adaptation of the Velten induction where participants were asked to re-write pro-free will sentences, anti-free will sentences, or control sentences that were not about free will (Alquist, Ainsworth  ... 
doi:10.1177/0146167214563673 pmid:25511569 fatcat:xbpchxn5wzh3fgdkcdimyegubq

Overweight, Obesity, and Neighborhood Characteristics among Postpartum Latinas

Colleen Keller, Michael Todd, Barbara Ainsworth, Kathryn Records, Sonia Vega-Lopez, Paska Permana, Dean Coonrod, Allison Nagle Williams
2013 Journal of Obesity  
Background. Weight gain during the childbearing years and failure to lose pregnancy weight after birth contribute to the development of obesity in Latinas.Design and Methods.Madres para la Salud(Mothers for Health) is a 12-month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring a social support intervention with moderate-intensity physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. This paper describes
more » ... he initial body composition of the sample, social support, and neighborhood contextual correlations of overweight and obese Latina mothers within the first 6 months after birth.Results. The mean body mass index was 29.68 with 38.56% bioelectrical impedence analysis for body fat. Elements of the environment (e.g., opportunities to walk) received middle or high scores. Access to healthy food was positively related to favorability of the walking environment. Waist-to-hip ratio was uncorrelated with other obesity-related indices.Conclusions. The body adiposity of these Latina mothers was coupled with low levels of social support from family and friends and neighborhood characteristics that were unfavorable to walking.
doi:10.1155/2013/916468 pmid:23476752 pmcid:PMC3580903 fatcat:7nmwfox2arhpvdc2p35ma77spy

A comparison of a social support physical activity intervention in weight management among post-partum Latinas

Colleen Keller, Barbara Ainsworth, Kathryn Records, Michael Todd, Michael Belyea, Sonia Vega-López, Paska Permana, Dean Coonrod, Allison Nagle-Williams
2014 BMC Public Health  
Weight gain during the childbearing years and failure to lose pregnancy weight after birth contribute to the development of obesity in postpartum Latinas. Methods: Madres para la Salud [Mothers for Health] was a 12-month, randomized controlled trial exploring a social support intervention with moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) seeking to effect changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation, and depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. This report describes the efficacy of the
more » ... Madres intervention. Results: The results show that while social support increased during the active intervention delivery, it declined to pre-intervention levels by the end of the intervention. There were significant achievements in aerobic and total steps across the 12 months of the intervention, and declines in body adiposity assessed with bioelectric impedance. Conclusions: Social support from family and friends mediated increases in aerobic PA resulting in decrease in percent body fat. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01908959.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-971 pmid:25233867 pmcid:PMC4177167 fatcat:pcfn6s4go5c3ndf6df3lxnslwi
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