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Metrics for Mass-Count Disparity

D.G. Feitelson
14th IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation  
Mass-count disparity is the technical underpinning of the "mice and elephants" phenomenon -that most samples are small, but a few are huge -which may be the most important attribute of heavy-tailed distributions  ...  In particular, it shows that the Pareto distribution actually has a relatively low mass-count disparity; the effects often observed are the result of combining some other distribution with a Pareto tail  ...  Thanks to Elliot Jaffe and Danny Braniss for collecting HU file sizes data, and to Yoav Etsion for running simulations of SPEC benchmarks and collecting address popularity data.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mascots.2006.30 dblp:conf/mascots/Feitelson06 fatcat:2zuhadkj3vbynmur2l3pgndwkq

Probabilistic Prediction of Temporal Locality

Yoav Etsion, Dror G. Feitelson
2007 IEEE computer architecture letters  
This trend motivates the search for more efficient caching mechanisms, enabling both faster service of frequently used blocks and decreased power consumption.  ...  We show that this predictor can identify a small set of data cache resident blocks that service most of the memory references, thus serving as a building block for new cache designs and block replacement  ...  Fig. 1 : 1 Mass-count disparity plots for data memory accesses in select SPEC benchmarks. The arrows demonstrate the W 1/2 , joint-ratio, and N 1/2 metrics of mass-count disparity.  ... 
doi:10.1109/l-ca.2007.5 fatcat:kzwkc4mnmjbehjvkw25n3st2te

A morphospace of planktonic marine diatoms. II. Sampling standardization and spatial disparity partitioning

Benjamin Kotrc, Andrew H. Knoll
2015 Paleobiology  
When sampling bias is corrected by randomized subsampling, all disparity metrics show stationary patterns, or at most directional changes of small magnitude.  ...  We also investigate a measure of disparity that is insensitive to sampling intensity, introducing a geographic component of morphological disparity.  ...  Disparity and diversity metrics for the Cenozoic diatom morphospace using SIB taxon 259 counting are shown in Figure 3. 260 Comparing the disparity metrics calculated under RT (Fig. 2) and SIB (Fig. 3)  ... 
doi:10.1017/pab.2014.5 fatcat:hn4eu56tr5ennaclonug4r3xxm

Decoupling of morphological disparity and taxic diversity during the adaptive radiation of anomodont therapsids

M. Ruta, K. D. Angielczyk, J. Frobisch, M. J. Benton
2013 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences  
by other causes (e.g. trait acquisition); and (iii) the bottleneck caused by a mass extinction means that a clade can emerge lacking its original potential for generating morphological variety.  ...  of morphological disparity (the range of anatomical form).  ...  We thank Michael Hassell (Editor), Anne Weil (Associate Editor), Matthew Wills (University of Bath) and an anonymous referee for their insightful comments and constructive criticism.  ... 
doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1071 pmid:23945681 pmcid:PMC3757962 fatcat:gmsttlevkjdmbfjnidiltqivty

Global ecomorphological restructuring of dominant marine reptiles prior to the K/Pg mass extinction [article]

Jamie A MacLaren, Rebecca F Bennion, Nathalie Bardet, Valentin Fischer
2022 bioRxiv   pre-print
(K/Pg) mass extinction.  ...  in decline in several provincial communities before the K/Pg mass extinction.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the museum curators for access to their specimens for photographing and scanning: Megan Sims, Anna Whitaker, and Chris Beard (KUVP, Kansas); Chase Shelburne  ... 
doi:10.1101/2021.12.30.474572 fatcat:bvo2x65o7ndh3lbgybrxnz4wre

Paleozoic ammonoid ecomorphometrics test ecospace availability as a driver of morphological diversification

Christopher D. Whalen, Pincelli M. Hull, Derek E. G. Briggs
2020 Science Advances  
The early burst model suggests that disparity rises rapidly to fill empty ecospace following clade origination or in the aftermath of a mass extinction.  ...  However, we find no evidence for early bursts of ecomorphological disparity. This contradicts arguments that the temporal scope, or traits measured in genomic data, conceal evidence of early bursts.  ...  The residual convex hull area for each 1-million-year bin was calculated for each metric by subtracting the observed metric (convex hull area of PC2 and PC3) from the median null model value.  ... 
doi:10.1126/sciadv.abc2365 pmid:32917688 fatcat:3ahwghkfj5cd5pnfp23sihklyq

L1 Cache Filtering Through Random Selection of Memory References

Yoav Etsion, Dror G. Feitelson
2007 Parallel Architecture and Compilation Techniques (PACT), Proceedings of the International Conference on  
preventing them from experiencing the mass-count disparity to the same degree.  ...  The existence of significant mass-count disparity has important consequences regarding random sampling.  ... 
doi:10.1109/pact.2007.4336215 fatcat:akrbkikrmfglpftcmvda2e77na

Eutherian morphological disparity across the end-Cretaceous mass extinction

Thomas John Dixon Halliday, Anjali Goswami
2015 Biological Journal of the Linnean Society  
We find that the range-based metric suggests that eutherian disparity increased immediately after the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, while both variance-based metrics declined from the Campanian to the  ...  In the aftermaths of mass extinction events, during radiations of clades, and in several other evolutionary scenarios, there is often a decoupling of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Graeme Lloyd for assistance with the code, and Paul Upchurch, the ADaPTiVE discussion group and the UCL-NHM-Imperial journal club for discussion and advice.  ... 
doi:10.1111/bij.12731 fatcat:353yuuduvbh2npm6uuihcm4e4q

Dinosaur morphological diversity and the end-Cretaceous extinction

Stephen L. Brusatte, Richard J. Butler, Albert Prieto-Márquez, Mark A. Norell
2012 Nature Communications  
For each set of taxa all four disparity metrics are shown.  ...  between successive time bins for all metrics (Fig. 2 ).  ... 
doi:10.1038/ncomms1815 pmid:22549833 fatcat:yljgwdekwvfqbbxmztadbjok5a

Contribution of Individual and Neighborhood Factors to Racial Disparities in Respiratory Outcomes

Chinedu O. Ejike, Han Woo, Panagis Galiatsatos, Laura M Paulin, Jerry A Krishnan, Christopher B. Cooper, David J Couper, Richard E Kanner, Russell P Bowler, Eric A. Hoffman, Alejandro P Comellas, Gerard J. Criner (+15 others)
2020 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine  
, thicker airways (Pi10), and more air trapping on CT metrics compared to whites.  ...  disparities.  ...  Sensitivity analyses were conducted adjusting for site as a fixed effect and also adjusting models for individual parameters, including baseline lung function and comorbidity count (27) ; occupational  ... 
doi:10.1164/rccm.202002-0253oc pmid:33007162 pmcid:PMC8048743 fatcat:etsq3eacsfd4hjsxnanxbbg76u

Extinction as the loss of evolutionary history

D. H. Erwin
2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
Furthermore, both taxic and phylogenetic measures are poor metrics of morphologic disparity.  ...  But understanding the evolutionary impact of these extinctions requires a variety of metrics.  ...  proxy for disparity (42) .  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.0801913105 pmid:18695248 pmcid:PMC2556409 fatcat:aaufglo75zhhfp4hrz3wt2fxme

Multifaceted disparity approach reveals dinosaur herbivory flourished before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction

Klara K. Nordén, Thomas L. Stubbs, Albert Prieto-Márquez, Michael J. Benton
2018 Paleobiology  
These trends were only revealed by using a combination of disparity metrics, demonstrating how this approach can offer novel insights into macroevolutionary processes underlying patterns of disparity and  ...  We apply three disparity metrics that together capture different aspects of morphospace occupation and show how this approach is key to understanding patterns of morphological evolution.  ...  The distancebased metrics for Eurasia lack the Aptian high disparity but show the same low Campanian disparity.  ... 
doi:10.1017/pab.2018.26 fatcat:ppzgbcqlovgifenolhmeavltq4

DISPARITY: MORPHOLOGICAL PATTERN AND DEVELOPMENTAL CONTEXT

DOUGLAS H. ERWIN
2007 Palaeontology  
As the quantitative assessments of morphology have replaced counts of higher taxa as a metric of morphological disparity, numerous studies have demonstrated the rapid construction of morphospace early  ...  Other studies have evaluated changing patterns of disparity across mass extinctions, ecomorphological patterns and the patterns of convergence within ecological communities, while  ...  as his metric of disparity.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2006.00614.x fatcat:4wvcqj7c4vbvrhv2x6qba3dcl4

Phylogenetic corrections for morphological disparity analysis: new methodology and case studies

Stephen L. Brusatte, Shaena Montanari, Hong-yu Yi, Mark A. Norell
2011 Paleobiology  
We present a general method for using phylogeny to correct measures of disparity, by including reconstructed ancestors in the disparity analysis.  ...  The phylogenetic disparity curve for archosaurs differs little from the taxic curve, supporting a previously documented pattern of decoupled disparity and rates of morphological change in dinosaurs and  ...  Carrano) for helpful comments that helped tighten our arguments, and R.  ... 
doi:10.1666/09057.1 fatcat:44cyaxcqjzeafpbrz5pfjr4ak4

Exploiting Core Working Sets to Filter the L1 Cache with Random Sampling

Yoav Etsion, Dror G. Feitelson
2012 IEEE transactions on computers  
The concept of a core motivates the design of dual cache structures that provide special treatment for the core.  ...  We therefore propose to extend Denning's definition with that of core working sets, which identify blocks that are used most frequently and for the longest time.  ...  Our contribution is in the quantification of this effect using metrics for mass-count disparity.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tc.2011.197 fatcat:3bi4e2h6vfg7flvq5wwmiosrjy
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