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Part 3

Marinko Rade, Michael Shacklock, Mervi Könönen, Jarkko Marttila, Ritva Vanninen, Markku Kankaanpää, Olavi Airaksinen
2015 Spine  
Study Design. Controlled radiological study. Objective. Verify (1) whether conus medullaris displacement varies with the range of hip fl exion and (2) whether the acquired data support the "principle of linear dependence." Summary of Background Data. We have previously quantifi ed normal displacement of the conus with unilateral and bilateral straight leg raise (SLR) and have described the "principle of linear dependence." However, we have since effected methodological advances that have
more » ... d data that surpass previous studies. Methods. Ten asymptomatic volunteers were scanned with a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner using T2-weighted spc 3-dimensional scanning sequences and a device that permits greater ranges of SLR. Displacement of the conus medullaris during the unilateral and bilateral SLRs was quantifi ed reliably with a randomized procedure. Results. Pearson correlations were higher than 0.99 for both intraand interobserver reliability and the observed power was 1 for each tested maneuver. The conus displaced caudally in the spinal canal by 3.54 ± 0.87 mm ( μ ± SD) with unilateral ( P ≤ 0.001) and 7.42 ± 2.09 mm with bilateral SLR ( P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion. To the authors' knowledge, these are the fi rst data on noninvasive, in vivo , normative measurement of spinal cord displacement with the SLR test at 60 ° of hip fl exion. Conus medullaris displacement increased with hip fl exion angle, while maintaining the relationship between magnitude of conus displacement and number of nerve roots involved into the movement, supporting the "principle of linear dependence." The use of T2-weighted spc 3-dimensional sequence allows for better reliability testing, which is important for future clinical utility. DISCUSSION We investigated in vivo spinal cord displacement in the thoracolumbar vertebral canal during the clinically applied unilateral SLR on each side and bilateral SLR in asymptomatic
doi:10.1097/brs.0000000000000914 pmid:25839389 fatcat:gt4tjiz5r5c3tc234nrfpeccce

Subgingival Distribution of Microorganisms

Eija Könönen, Mervi Gürsoy
2014 Current Oral Health Reports  
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines Conflict of Interest Eija Könönen and Mervi Gürsoy declare that they have no conflicts of interest.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Klaus Könönen for generating the figure for this article.  ...  Clones/Types A comprehensive overview on the colonization of potential microorganisms related to aggressive periodontitis in geographically and ethnically diverse populations was recently provided by Könönen  ... 
doi:10.1007/s40496-014-0033-8 fatcat:znxwfu6sxvhddkmcezbvhmtmf4

Periodontitis: A Multifaceted Disease of Tooth-Supporting Tissues

Eija Könönen, Mervi Gursoy, Ulvi Kahraman Gursoy
2019 Journal of Clinical Medicine  
Periodontitis is an infection-driven inflammatory disease in which the composition of biofilms plays a significant role. Dental plaque accumulation at the gingival margin initiates an inflammatory response that, in turn, causes microbial alterations and may lead to drastic consequences in the periodontium of susceptible individuals. Chronic inflammation affects the gingiva and can proceed to periodontitis, which characteristically results in irreversible loss of attachment and alveolar bone.
more » ... iodontitis appears typically in adult-aged populations, but young individuals can also experience it and its harmful outcome. Advanced disease is the major cause of tooth loss in adults. In addition, periodontitis is associated with many chronic diseases and conditions affecting general health.
doi:10.3390/jcm8081135 pmid:31370168 pmcid:PMC6723779 fatcat:4dvm26nslng33cw4oje6llmsba

Activation of Gingival Fibroblasts by Bacterial Cyclic Dinucleotides and Lipopolysaccharide

Samira Elmanfi, Herman O. Sintim, Jie Zhou, Mervi Gürsoy, Eija Könönen, Ulvi K. Gürsoy
2020 Pathogens  
Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and respond with inflammatory proteins. Simultaneous impacts of bacterial cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on gingival keratinocytes have been previously demonstrated, but the effects of these MAMPs on other periodontal cell types, such as gingival fibroblasts, remain to be clarified. The present aim was to examine the
more » ... ndependent and combined effects of these cyclic dinucleotides and LPS on interleukin (IL) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) response of HGFs. The cells were incubated with c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP, either in the presence or absence of Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS, for 2 h and 24 h. The levels of IL-8, -10, and -34, and MMP-1, -2, and -3 secreted were measured by the Luminex technique. LPS alone or together with cyclic dinucleotides elevated IL-8 levels. IL-10 levels were significantly increased in the presence of c-di-GMP and LPS after 2 h but disappeared after 24 h of incubation. Concurrent treatment of c-di-AMP and LPS elevated MMP-1 levels, whereas c-di-GMP with LPS suppressed MMP-2 levels but increased MMP-3 levels. To conclude, we produce evidence that cyclic dinucleotides interact with LPS-mediated early response of gingival fibroblasts, while late cellular response is mainly regulated by LPS.
doi:10.3390/pathogens9100792 pmid:32993127 pmcid:PMC7600373 fatcat:qcskfmgluje5zgfk2stjted3n4

Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

Daniel Belstrøm, Christian Damgaard, Eija Könönen, Mervi Gürsoy, Palle Holmstrup, Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy
2017 Journal of Oral Microbiology  
Eija Könönen is professor and chair of periodontology at the University of Turku, Finland, since 2007.  ...  Notes on contributors Mervi Gürsoy is an associate professor in periodontology and works as university teacher at the Department of Periodontology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku (Finland)  ... 
doi:10.1080/20002297.2017.1364101 pmid:28839521 pmcid:PMC5560406 fatcat:wmye5amd7zbpdct6nkbsn7uoy4

Interaction between repetition suppression in motor activation and long-interval intracortical inhibition

Shohreh Kariminezhad, Jari Karhu, Laura Säisänen, Mervi Könönen, Petro Julkunen
2019 Scientific Reports  
Repetition suppression (RS) is the adaptation of the neural activity in response to a repeated external stimulus. It has been proposed that RS occurs at the thalamo-cortical level, hence activating a feedback loop to the cortex in order to counteract with the repeated motor cortical activation. In this study, to elucidate the common modulators between the RS and the inhibitory/facilitatory cortical networks, two TMS paradigms were applied, i.e. the characteristic long-interval intracortical
more » ... bition (LICI) and the I1-wave timed short-interval intracortical facilitation (SICF). Since LICI is a local intracortical inhibitory phenomenon affecting cortical excitation over a long interval like the RS, the interaction between RS and LICI was tested. As the I1-wave timed SICF is likely not affected by inhibitory modulation, the appearance of the RS with respect to SICF was investigated. Non-linear interaction between LICI and RS was observed, while I1-wave timed SICF facilitated all MEP responses of RS by a common offset still preserving the RS. These findings implicate that the underlying mechanism for the observed interaction is likely contributed to the activation of the negative thalamo-cortical feedback loop represented by the RS, most likely at the cortical level.
doi:10.1038/s41598-019-47932-9 pmid:31395949 pmcid:PMC6687749 fatcat:vspje73pvvfbbbx2crtcsmg4x4

Cyclic Dinucleotides in Oral Bacteria and in Oral Biofilms

Ulvi K. Gürsoy, Mervi Gürsoy, Eija Könönen, Herman O. Sintim
2017 Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology  
., Actinomyces species to brain abscesses (Könönen and Wade, 2015) , Parvimonas micra to septic arthritis (Baghban and Gupta, 2016) , and Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis to atherosclerotic  ... 
doi:10.3389/fcimb.2017.00273 pmid:28680857 pmcid:PMC5478684 fatcat:ih2s52na2vfaxjv6ucv6qybmmm

Primary hand motor representation areas in healthy children, preadolescents, adolescents, and adults

Laura Säisänen, Mervi Könönen, Eini Niskanen, Timo Lakka, Niina Lintu, Ritva Vanninen, Petro Julkunen, Sara Määttä
2020 NeuroImage  
Credit author statement Laura Säisänen; involved in conceptualization of the research, analysis of the data; preparation of the manuscript Mervi Könönen; development and design of methodology, analysis  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117702 pmid:33385558 fatcat:btfwx75osjc7bhzfaxsxgobkxi

Dynamic Probabilistic Atlas of Functional Brain Regions for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation [chapter]

Juha Koikkalainen, Mervi Könönen, Jari Karhu, Jarmo Ruohonen, Eini Niskanen, Jyrki Lötjönen
2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique to stimulate the brain non-invasively. The applications range from accurate localization of the primary motor areas to potential treatment of disorders such as tinnitus, severe depression, and pain. Stereotactic guidance requires individual MR images of the subject's head, which is in some applications typically omitted due to financial motivations. In this paper, we introduce a method that offers improved TMS pulse targeting also to those
more » ... ubjects who do not have MR examinations. A probabilistic brain model was constructed by spatially normalizing the locations of the functional brain areas in a study population, and modeling the distributions and estimates of the locations of the functional brain regions using probabilistic methods. The application of the probabilistic brain model to the target subject was based on a point set determined from the scalp and facial skin of the target subject. The methods were evaluated using data from four functional brain areas from 56 healthy subjects. The accuracy of the estimates of the locations of the functional brain regions was about nine millimeters.
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-85988-8_65 fatcat:2t4jyodi5bbhhjtjb43hzvmlna

Cavum septum pellucidum and psychopathy

Päivi Toivonen, Mervi Könönen, Eini Niskanen, Olli Vaurio, Eila Repo-Tiihonen, Allan Seppänen, Hannu J. Aronen, Ritva Vanninen, Jari Tiihonen, Mikko P. Laakso
2013 British Journal of Psychiatry  
The presence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) has been reported to be a neurodevelopmental marker of psychopathy. We scanned 26 violent offenders and 25 controls; 2 offenders and 2 controls had CSP (8% in both groups). Thus, the presence of CSP is not a common or a unique feature of antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy.
doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.123844 pmid:23908342 fatcat:5nsx6in5zfflfa2h3spcjxeiuq

Regulation of gingival epithelial cytokine response by bacterial cyclic dinucleotides

Samira Elmanfi, Jie Zhou, Herman O. Sintim, Eija Könönen, Mervi Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy
2018 Journal of Oral Microbiology  
Cyclic dinucleotides (cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) and cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP)) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Individual impacts of PAMPs on immune system have been evaluated, but simultaneous actions of multiple PAMPs have not been studied. Examination the effects of cyclic dinucleotides and Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS on gingival epithelial cytokine response. Human gingival keratinocytes (HMK) were
more » ... ted with 1, 10, and 100 µM concentrations of c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP, either in the presence or absence of P. gingivalis LPS. Intra- and extracellular levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL-1Ra, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were measured using the Luminex technique. LPS decreased extracellular IL-8 levels, while the presence of c-di-AMP inhibited this effect. Incubating HMK cells with c-di-AMP (alone or with LPS) elevated the extracellular level of MCP-1. Extracellular VEGF level increased when cells were incubated with LPS and c-di-GMP together, or with c-di-AMP alone. LPS and c-di-AMP suppressed intracellular IL-1β levels. The c-di-AMP elevated intracellular levels of IL-1Ra. c-di-AMP and, to a lesser extent, c-di-GMP regulate keratinocyte cytokine response, either as an aggregator or as a suppressor of LPS, depending on the cytokine type.
doi:10.1080/20002297.2018.1538927 pmid:30598733 pmcid:PMC6263105 fatcat:fd7yoicr3vakpbeugw2qzm3b2m

Subclinical Cerebral Complications After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

Ritva Vanninen, Marja Äikiä, Mervi Könönen, Kaarina Partanen, Harri Tulla, Päivi Hartikainen, Juhani Partanen, Hannu Manninen, Pentti Enberg, Mikko Hippeläinen
1998 Archives of Neurology  
Partanen, and Manninen), Neurology (Ms Ä ikiä and Drs Hartikainen and Enberg), Clinical Neurophysiology (Ms Könönen and Dr J. Partanen), and Surgery (Drs Tulla and Hippelä inen), Kuopio  ... 
doi:10.1001/archneur.55.5.618 pmid:9605718 fatcat:jqgk67vddvgohkjklzw7x7rsle

Alcohol consumption during adolescence is associated with reduced grey matter volumes

Noora Heikkinen, Eini Niskanen, Mervi Könönen, Tommi Tolmunen, Virve Kekkonen, Petri Kivimäki, Heikki Tanila, Eila Laukkanen, Ritva Vanninen
2017 Addiction  
doi:10.1111/add.13697 pmid:27865039 fatcat:3zwhg52c2fdejgihpnjvoxdnpe

Longitudinal study on modulated corticospinal excitability throughout recovery in supratentorial stroke

Petro Julkunen, Mervi Könönen, Sara Määttä, Ina M. Tarkka, Sinikka H. Hiekkala, Laura Säisänen, Ritva Vanninen, Jari Karhu, Pekka Jäkälä
2016 Neuroscience Letters  
Longitudinal study on modulated corticospinal excitability throughout recovery in supratentorial stroke, Neuroscience Letters http://dx.Highlights  Corticospinal excitability is modulated over 6 months recovery in stroke  Asymmetry in CSE reaches normal levels after ~1 month after stroke onset  Lesion size and severity correlate positively with reduced CSE rMT: Resting motor threshold SSS: Scandinavian stroke scale TA: Tibialis anterior TMS: Transcranial magnetic stimulation UH: Unaffected hemisphere
doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2016.02.014 pmid:26872852 fatcat:hyqkyrygwzhfzbh5jaajrzvefa

Bacterial Cyclic Dinucleotides and the cGAS–cGAMP–STING Pathway: A Role in Periodontitis?

Samira Elmanfi, Mustafa Yilmaz, Wilson W. S. Ong, Kofi S. Yeboah, Herman O. Sintim, Mervi Gürsoy, Eija Könönen, Ulvi K. Gürsoy
2021 Pathogens  
Host cells can recognize cytosolic double-stranded DNAs and endogenous second messengers as cyclic dinucleotides—including c-di-GMP, c-di-AMP, and cGAMP—of invading microbes via the critical and essential innate immune signaling adaptor molecule known as STING. This recognition activates the innate immune system and leads to the production of Type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. In this review, we (1) focus on the possible role of bacterial cyclic dinucleotides and the
more » ... F3 pathway in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and the regulation of periodontal immune response, and (2) review and discuss activators and inhibitors of the STING pathway as immune response regulators and their potential utility in the treatment of periodontitis. PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched with the terms "STING", "TBK 1", "IRF3", and "cGAS"—alone, or together with "periodontitis". Current studies produced evidence for using STING-pathway-targeting molecules as part of anticancer therapy, and as vaccine adjuvants against microbial infections; however, the role of the STING/TBK1/IRF3 pathway in periodontal disease pathogenesis is still undiscovered. Understanding the stimulation of the innate immune response by cyclic dinucleotides opens a new approach to host modulation therapies in periodontology.
doi:10.3390/pathogens10060675 pmid:34070809 fatcat:vkivcnnei5dlpeb77bwnxdeji4
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