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the usage of crowdsourcing in collecting preference judgments, and by proposing novel neural retrieval models. ... In this thesis we attempt to address both difficulties from the perspectives of IR evaluation and of the retrieval model respectively, by reducing the manual cost with automatic methods, by investigating ... , coined MERGE-TIE-JUDGE , which is more robust and can utilize the "cluster effect" to reduce judgments. ...doi:10.22028/d291-26942 fatcat:ec5z3hk6qjdwbn5jv6tkwpsrra