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Explaining Reinforcement Learning to Mere Mortals: An Empirical Study [article]

Andrew Anderson, Jonathan Dodge, Amrita Sadarangani, Zoe Juozapaitis, Evan Newman, Jed Irvine, Souti Chattopadhyay, Alan Fern, Margaret Burnett
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We present a user study to investigate the impact of explanations on non-experts' understanding of reinforcement learning (RL) agents.  ...  We designed a 124 participant, four-treatment experiment to compare participants' mental models of an RL agent in a simple Real-Time Strategy (RTS) game.  ...  In this paper, we investigate how people's mental models of a reinforcement-learning agent vary in response to different explanation styles-saliency maps showing where the agent is "looking," and reward  ... 
arXiv:1903.09708v2 fatcat:e7b3wft65jb2rlbqoli2z2uc44

Cognitive techniques and language: A return to behavioral origins

María X Froján Parga, Miguel Núñez de Prado Gordillo, Ricardo de Pascual Verdú
2017 Psicothema  
the main purpose of this study is to offer an alternative explanatory account of the functioning of cognitive techniques that is based on the principles of associative learning and highlights their verbal  ...  The traditional accounts are questioned and analyzed in the light of the situation of psychology in the 1970s. conceptual analysis is employed to revise the concepts of language, cognition and behavior  ...  as the addressee of those reinforcing/ punishing utterances with the response elicited by the client's own verbalizations.  ... 
doi:10.7334/psicothema2016.305 pmid:28693706 fatcat:ip6adqsrh5c7zigxprr6lrun6a

Aggression; a Paradoxical pathology of the mind

D Kitapondya
2010 Dar Es Salaam Medical Students Journal  
Elders are the role model or architect of the behaviours of their children.  ...  This can be realized in patients with organic mental disorder e.g. schizophrenia.  ... 
doi:10.4314/dmsj.v15i1.52496 fatcat:kpcsbemq5rghva6smkuqfkje5m

Are Women, People of Color, Asians, and Southern Europeans Inherently Inferior to North-European Males? A History of Biological Determinism—A Cultural, Spiritual and Intellectual Disgrace—And the Implications for Understanding "Mental Illness"

Richard W Malott
2007 Behavior and Social Issues  
Furthermore, an appreciation of that disgraceful history can provide perspective for evaluating the contemporary emphasis on the biological and genetic basis of "mental illness" so well critiqued by Wong  ...  a glance at a couple current "mental-illness" issues from the behavioranalytic perspective developed in this article.  ...  Instead, what is biologically determined, what we're born with, is the ability to learn complex behavior-environment interactions and to acquire learned reinforcers, and in the case of a few birds, to  ... 
doi:10.5210/bsi.v16i2.369 fatcat:frre2bwhwze2plchunizsh2puq

Behaviourism and the mechanization of the mind

Jean-Claude Lecas
2006 Comptes rendus. Biologies  
Acknowledgements The author wish to thank Professor Buser for useful discussions on earlier drafts of the manuscript.  ...  The roots of behaviourism involve comparative psychology initiated by Darwin, British Empiricism emphasizing learning, and the reflex physiological model reinforced by Pavlovian conditioning.  ...  With his associate Kenneth Spence , he built a learning theory as completely deterministic as possible, based on the drive reduction role of reinforcement.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2006.03.009 pmid:16731496 fatcat:utiqd6oj6bfzlm2blayso4xer4

The origins of religious disbelief

Ara Norenzayan, Will M. Gervais
2013 Trends in Cognitive Sciences  
, and cultural learning mechanisms.  ...  Although most people are religious, there are hundreds of millions of religious disbelievers in the world. What is religious disbelief and how does it arise?  ...  Our framework integrates insights from three classes of naturalistic explanations for religious beliefs and behaviors: cognition, motivation, and cultural learning (Table 1) .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tics.2012.11.006 pmid:23246230 fatcat:wwd47h3xfzgolbcaqyufkxy4h4

Enhancing Human-Machine Teaming for Medical Prognosis Through Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (NODEs) [article]

D. Fompeyrine, E. S. Vorm, N. Ricka, F. Rose, G. Pellegrin
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Machine Learning (ML) has recently been demonstrated to rival expert-level human accuracy in prediction and detection tasks in a variety of domains, including medicine.  ...  We propose a model and demonstrate, by expanding a concrete example from the literature, how our model advances the vision of future hybrid Human-AI systems.  ...  The mortality prediction plot shows the model prediction of the in-hospital mortality.  ... 
arXiv:2102.04121v1 fatcat:joj4owap25aj7aoimhsctv4qau

A multi-component framework for the analysis and design of explainable artificial intelligence [article]

S. Atakishiyev, H. Babiker, N. Farruque, R. Goebel1, M-Y. Kima, M.H. Motallebi, J. Rabelo, T. Syed, O. R. Zaïane
2020 arXiv   pre-print
First, the enormous application success of modern machine learning methods, especially deep and reinforcement learning, which have created high expectations for industrial, commercial and social value.  ...  levels of XAI.  ...  Research Council of Canada (NSERC).  ... 
arXiv:2005.01908v1 fatcat:af7fhjzyhveellylg3zqdtobpm

The Essential Behaviorist

George Graham
1987 Contemporary Psychology  
When I hear that Socrates is a man and that all men are mortal, why or how do I infer that Socrates is mortal? What is the stimulus dimension along which my learning history generalizes?  ...  Thus, the core of Zuriff’s recon- structed behaviorism is the taxonomy of stimulus, response, reinforcement, and related notions and assent to environ- mental determinism.  ... 
doi:10.1037/027125 fatcat:cnxgytzcnvfclpbcjimndncxou

MERGING ULTIMATE AND PROXIMATE CAUSES IN SOCIOBIOLOGY AND STUDIES OF WARFARE

R. PAUL SHAW
2008 Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue canadienne de sociologie  
Recent- ly, Ihave collaborated with Yuwa Wong of Simon Fraser University to develop this bridge in a formal model of ethnic readiness for conflict-warfare.  ...  To set the stage for our model, we argue that many social scientists treat kinship and ethnicity as mere access; group members ‘happen’ to be those who interact enough to transmit culture to one another  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1755-618x.1985.tb00075.x fatcat:7u43ns6tpjbjhokccs6l4r7emq

The Enigmatic Persistence of Anorexia Nervosa

B. Timothy Walsh
2013 American Journal of Psychiatry  
Cognitive neuroscience has described two related but distinct processes that underlie the acquisition of new patterns of behavior, namely, action-outcome and stimulus-response learning.  ...  It is likely that both processes are engaged in the development of anorexia nervosa and that stimulus-response learning (that is, habit formation) is critical to the persistence of the dieting behavior  ...  The proposed model provides an explanation for the occurrence of anorexia nervosa over many centuries.  ... 
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12081074 pmid:23429750 pmcid:PMC4095887 fatcat:bufp4gwqdjdvxanq3jypppe5xi

Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries

King-wa Fu, Chung-hong Chan, Patrick Ip
2014 BMC Pediatrics  
Results: This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death.  ...  Mortality Database, 2010 or the latest year if not available) of 24 European countries.  ...  There are a number of plausible explanations. One possible mechanism is that an individual's mental health and well-being can be a mediator between Internet risk and unnatural death risk.  ... 
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-14-195 pmid:25079144 pmcid:PMC4146448 fatcat:lcbubw52bbgwtdzrkrwd6xuy5m

Moral Learning: Conceptual foundations and normative relevance

Peter Railton
2017 Cognition  
If moral learning is indeed integral with the acquisition and updating of casual and evaluative models, this affords a new way of understanding well-known but seemingly puzzling patterns in intuitive moral  ...  are combined with learned information about risk and reward to guide choice and potentiate further learning.  ...  underlie the general capacity for reinforcement learning and model-based control.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2016.08.015 pmid:27601269 fatcat:cngssvyvhze6nkwckzviwfhiji

Personal Agency across Generations: Evolutionary Psychology or Religious Belief?

Joseph Loizzo
2011 Sophia  
Such a system is not merely discursive in that language serves to guide the social construction not just of discursive thinking but also of learned patterns of perception SOPHIA (2011) 50:429-452 and action  ...  mastered together with language in the course of neuropsychological development.  ...  In this view, learned forms of self-reification are especially harmful since they rationalize and reinforce the self-reifying instincts we share with more primitive life forms, making it harder for us  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11841-011-0231-y fatcat:fidu2xc5ybfbhmzpymjgdy37qa

The concept of mental disorder: On the boundary between biological facts and social values

Jerome C. Wakefield
1992 American Psychologist  
basic processes of reinforcement and learning, which are normal mechanisms.  ...  Otherwise, the application of disorder to mental conditions is merely an analogy or metaphor.  ... 
doi:10.1037/0003-066x.47.3.373 fatcat:eqteezzjenelnifbbpm2dbaavy
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