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Memory Erasability Amplification [chapter]

Jan Camenisch, Robert R. Enderlein, Ueli Maurer
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
First, we provide a formal model of erasable memory.  ...  Second, we investigate how the erasability of such memories can be amplified. We provide a number of constructions of memories with strong erasability guarantees from memories with weaker guarantees.  ...  Memory Erasability Amplification We now describe several variants of imperfectly erasable memory that are relevant in practice, namely, memory that leaks a constant number of bits, memory that leaks bits  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-44618-9_6 fatcat:ww7rw5obuvbttcppv3qhk3vhgy

Write amplification reduction in NAND Flash through multi-write coding

Ashish Jagmohan, Michele Franceschini, Luis Lastras
2010 2010 IEEE 26th Symposium on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST)  
to reprogram data on a NAND Flash page multiple times without block erase Motivation Reprogramming without erase results in significant decrease in write amplification and in memory wear (just two-writes  ...   Memory Wear Two-write coding almost order of magnitude better than uncompressed system Write amplification in SLC NAND DeviceMulti-write Coding for NAND Flash Aim Develop controller-level coding technique  ... 
doi:10.1109/msst.2010.5496985 dblp:conf/mss/JagmohanFL10 fatcat:uam3timnuncyrgsgtun6jt3fvm

Garbage Collection Algorithms in Flash-Based Solid State Drives

Issues such as write amplification, however, degrade the performance and lifespan of an SSD.  ...  varies based on factors such as pre-defined hot/cold data separation, hotness of data, uniform/non-uniform nature of incoming writes, the GC window size and the number of pages in each block of the flash memory  ...  Three major operations define the flash memory based SSDs; read, write and erase.  ... 
doi:10.35940/ijitee.k7819.1091220 fatcat:5wwm57aaljbdrero4kz3mnabsq

An Improved Analytical Expression for Write Amplification in NAND Flash [article]

Luojie Xiang, Brian Kurkoski
2011 arXiv   pre-print
Agarwal et al. gave an closed-form expression for write amplification in NAND flash memory by finding the probability of a page being valid over the whole flash memory.  ...  This paper gives an improved analytic expression for write amplification in NAND flash memory by finding the probability of a page being invalid over the block selected for garbage collection.  ...  Flash memory has limitations that challenge the design of flash memory systems. One fundamental limitation of flash memory is nonsupport of overwriting and block erase.  ... 
arXiv:1110.4245v1 fatcat:pgjap555gvgtdlvuxyqquu6sxe

WOM codes reduce write amplification in NAND flash memory

Xiang Luojie, Brian M. Kurkoski, Eitan Yaakobi
2012 2012 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM)  
For example, in a 16-level per cell flash memory, when a two-write MLC WOM code is used with a total overprovisioning of 0.8, the write amplification is 15% lower than a non-WOM-coded system.  ...  It is shown through both analysis and simulation that, with proper parameters, flash memories which use WOM codes to encode data can achieve a lower write amplification than in a non-WOM-coded system.  ...  Flash memory adopts block erase. This makes erasing whenever an update on a physical page is needed extremely inefficient.  ... 
doi:10.1109/glocom.2012.6503611 dblp:conf/globecom/XiangKY12 fatcat:5udkxypsxrezpaqhizfqusy7xm

A closed-form expression for write amplification in NAND Flash

Rajiv Agarwal, Marcus Marrow
2010 2010 IEEE Globecom Workshops  
The log-structured filesystems typically used in current solid-state drive's (SSD) exhibit write amplification, whereby multiple NAND writes are required for each host write.  ...  Write amplification negatively affects the SSD endurance and write throughput. This performance loss depends on the drive overprovisioning and the garbage collection method.  ...  As block(s) of flash memory need to be erased before they are rewritten, the software layer of a flash memory device contains a garbage-collection mechanism to translate invalid pages to free pages.  ... 
doi:10.1109/glocomw.2010.5700261 fatcat:s46o2hvkund3lci6dag64x224u

On the distribution of valid pages with greedy garbage collection for NAND flash

Borja Peleato, Rajiv Agarwal, John Cioffi
2012 2012 IEEE Statistical Signal Processing Workshop (SSP)  
Flash memory requires a garbage-collection process resulting in additional read and write operations, known as write amplification.  ...  A block is the elementary unit for erase operations, whereas reads and writes are processed in terms of pages. Before data can be written to a page, the block must have been erased.  ...  Flash memory requires a garbage-collection process resulting in additional read and write operations, known as write amplification.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ssp.2012.6319743 dblp:conf/ssp/PeleatoAC12 fatcat:stm7tjvez5eyze6d4yc7qjicum

Analysis of the d-choices garbage collection algorithm with memory in flash-based SSDs

Benny Van Houdt
2014 Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Performance Evaluation Methodologies and Tools  
reducing the write amplification in the presence of hot and cold data.  ...  The synthetic workloads consist of uniform random writes and the write amplification is analyzed by means of a mean field model.  ...  In the latter case adding more memory does not always reduce the write amplification, that is, there exists an optimal amount of memory. 3.  ... 
doi:10.4108/icst.valuetools.2013.254372 dblp:conf/valuetools/Houdt13 fatcat:nczkflx6ofdvxdhf6riaaeojrq

Reorder the Write Sequence by Virtual Write Buffer to Extend SSD's Lifespan [chapter]

Zhiguang Chen, Fang Liu, Yimo Du
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
To extend the lifespan, SSD usually employs a write buffer to reduce write traffic to flash memory.  ...  The two components work together just like the virtual memory adopted by operating system. So, we name the architecture as virtual write buffer.  ...  Flash memory supports three basic operations, write, read and erase. Write must be preceded by the erase. An alternation between write and erase is named as an E/W (Erase/Write) cycle.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-24403-2_21 fatcat:sxcgusnd4jfwdbe527kxacxxvq

Analytical modeling of garbage collection algorithms in hotness-aware flash-based solid state drives

Yue Yang, Jianwen Zhu
2014 2014 30th Symposium on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST)  
cycles ( 1K -100K ) "erase-before-write" limitation Flash Memory Limitation  Question: How long will an SSD device last?  ...  block selection valid data migration (source of write amplification) victim block erase  Write amplification Garbage Collection I 1.Relocating valid data 2.Erasing block V I B MSST  ... 
doi:10.1109/msst.2014.6855534 dblp:conf/mss/YangZ14 fatcat:nddxsz3wnnbfrgnsv7umypurpu

Reducing write amplification of flash storage through Cooperative Data Management with NVM

Eunji Lee, Julie Kim, Hyokyung Bahn, Sam H. Noh
2016 2016 32nd Symposium on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST)  
To reduce write amplification, this paper presents a new technique that cooperatively manages data in flash storage and nonvolatile memory (NVM).  ...  Write amplification is a critical factor that limits the stable performance of flash-based storage systems.  ...  Flash memory is an erase-before-write medium and the erasure unit (called block) is much larger than the write unit (called page) [7] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/msst.2016.7897087 dblp:conf/mss/LeeKBN16 fatcat:3aua4cmwkrbsbies2qcxwea47m

On the power of asymmetry and memory in flash-based SSD garbage collection

B. Van Houdt
2016 Performance evaluation (Print)  
Numerical examples demonstrate that both asymmetry and memory reduce the write amplification, however the reduction is typically less than 2% when exploiting asymmetry, while more significant gains exceeding  ...  10% are observed when memory is introduced.  ...  Figure 3 : 3 Figure 3: Impact of memory on the write amplification of the d-memory GC algorithm for b = 64 and S f = 0.1 (left).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.peva.2015.11.002 fatcat:getmi3rdwjb53hnjlki3w4jhwe

HiFlash: A History Independent Flash Device [article]

Bo Chen, Radu Sion
2015 arXiv   pre-print
However, HIFS cannot provide history independence when deployed on top of flash devices, as flash memory manages its own internal block placement, which is often inherently history dependent.  ...  Flash Memory. Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage medium which can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.  ...  NAND flash has several known limitations: block erasure, memory wear, and read/program disturb. (a) Block erasure: Flash memory must be erased before it can be re-written (i.e., erase-then-write).  ... 
arXiv:1511.05180v1 fatcat:sxgbfj6iofc3ljgx3lcivjwjby

Write amplification analysis in flash-based solid state drives

Xiao-Yu Hu, Evangelos Eleftheriou, Robert Haas, Ilias Iliadis, Roman Pletka
2009 Proceedings of SYSTOR 2009: The Israeli Experimental Systems Conference on - SYSTOR '09  
Write amplification is a critical factor limiting the random write performance and write endurance in storage devices based on NAND-flash memories such as solid-state drives (SSD).  ...  In this paper, we present a novel probabilistic model of write amplification for log-structured flash-based SSDs.  ...  When a flash memory page has been written, it is no longer available for writ-ing until its block is erased.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1534530.1534544 dblp:conf/systor/HuEHIP09 fatcat:xsngnf2xs5bblnjnv64yyl3sxe

Wear Leveling for PCM Using Hot Data Identification [chapter]

Inhwan Choi, Dongkun Shin
2011 Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering  
the page cannot be overwritten without erasing the corresponding flash memory block.  ...  That is called write amplification.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-94-007-2911-7_12 fatcat:cbcmdwzuqngjneabo6pdapdthu
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