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Measuring the Carbon Intensity of AI in Cloud Instances [article]

Jesse Dodge, Taylor Prewitt, Remi Tachet Des Combes, Erika Odmark, Roy Schwartz, Emma Strubell, Alexandra Sasha Luccioni, Noah A. Smith, Nicole DeCario, Will Buchanan
2022 arXiv   pre-print
of day, and dynamically pausing cloud instances when the marginal carbon intensity is above a certain threshold.  ...  We confirm previous results that the geographic region of the data center plays a significant role in the carbon intensity for a given cloud instance, and find that choosing an appropriate region can have  ...  the Software Carbon Intensity (SCI) specification, Abhishek Gupta for his work on the SCI specification, and Ananya Ganesh (CU Boulder) for help in obtaining the  ... 
arXiv:2206.05229v1 fatcat:od75dlinkzam5nnji7qlkda36e

Measuring the Carbon Intensity of AI in Cloud Instances

Jesse Dodge, Taylor Prewitt, Remi Tachet des Combes, Erika Odmark, Roy Schwartz, Emma Strubell, Alexandra Sasha Luccioni, Noah A. Smith, Nicole DeCario, Will Buchanan
2022 2022 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency  
We then evaluate a suite of approaches for reducing emissions on the Microsoft Azure cloud compute platform: using cloud instances in different geographic regions, using cloud instances at different times  ...  of day, and dynamically pausing cloud instances when the marginal carbon intensity is above a certain This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution International 4.0 License.  ...  , and Ananya Ganesh (CU Boulder) for help in obtaining the measurements included in Table 1 .  ... 
doi:10.1145/3531146.3533234 fatcat:n3es433rr5hdzeyxugq7df5uj4

Ultraviolet, Visible, and Infrared Spectroscopy of Interstellar Molecules

John H. Black
1989 Highlights of Astronomy  
Significant recent developments include the application of optical absorption line techniques to the study of thick molecular clouds and the improvements in infrared detectors that will eventually lead  ...  ABSTRACTAbsorption line spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions can provide important probes of interstellar chemistry.  ...  The new spectroscopic data have already been applied to theoretical models of the CO chemistry in circumstellar envelopes (Mamon et ai. 1988) and in interstellar clouds (Viala et ai. 1988; van Dishoeck  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1539299600007954 fatcat:d2pw63yks5d5tfn3cybs2so7fm

Estimating Carbon Emissions of Artificial Intelligence [Opinion]

Alexandra Luccioni, Alexandre Lacoste, Victor Schmidt
2020 IEEE technology & society magazine  
While many of us hear about the latest and greatest breakthrough in AI technology, what we hear less about is its environmental impact.  ...  And this all comes at a cost -while currently cloud computing represents roughly 0.5% of the world's energy  ...  Author Information Alexandra Luccioni is with Mila, and with the Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Alexandre Lacoste is with Element AI, Montreal, Canada.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mts.2020.2991496 fatcat:7bjkxqgblvcnhijhovak4mbi2u

Green IoT and Edge AI as Key Technological Enablers for a Sustainable Digital Transition towards a Smart Circular Economy: An Industry 5.0 Use Case

Paula Fraga-Lamas, Sérgio Ivan Lopes, Tiago M. Fernández-Caramés
2021 Sensors  
In fact, such a sector has a significant carbon footprint due to the use of scarce raw materials and its energy consumption in manufacturing, operating, and recycling processes.  ...  Intelligence (Edge AI), which imposes the consumption of additional energy.  ...  equal to VWW or IC) is the consumed energy (in KWh) and I N is the carbon intensity (in grams of emitted CO 2 per KWh).  ... 
doi:10.3390/s21175745 pmid:34502637 fatcat:eciidtfsbvgdjimnhzxrnnerjq

Satellite-based evidence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in biomass burning smoke inferred from Ozone Monitoring Instrument

H. Jethva, O. Torres
2011 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  
This capability can be explored further for the use in the identification of the black carbon and organics in the biomass burning aerosols.</p>  ...  A number of studies have revealed strong spectral dependence in carbonaceous aerosol absorption in the near-UV region suggesting the presence of organic carbon in biomass burning generated aerosols.  ...  We thank NASA's GES-DISC and OMI aerosol research team for their free online support of OMIIOMAERUV aerosol database.  ... 
doi:10.5194/acp-11-10541-2011 fatcat:nxvxohvol5csviyplhtv2kxu2i

Satellite-based evidence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in biomass burning smoke inferred from ozone monitoring instrument

H. Jethva, O. Torres
2011 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions  
This capability can be explored further for the use in the identification of the black carbon and organics in the biomass burning aerosols.  ...  A number of studies have revealed strong spectral dependence in carbonaceous aerosol absorption in the near-UV region suggesting the presence of organic carbon in biomass burning generated aerosols.  ...  We thank NASA's GES-DISC and OMI aerosol research team for their free online support of OMIIOMAERUV aerosol database.  ... 
doi:10.5194/acpd-11-7291-2011 fatcat:5fykurxrh5gthfkhbiww4sqn3q

Great Power, Great Responsibility: Recommendations for Reducing Energy for Training Language Models [article]

Joseph McDonald, Baolin Li, Nathan Frey, Devesh Tiwari, Vijay Gadepally, Siddharth Samsi
2022 arXiv   pre-print
In this article, we investigate techniques that can be used to reduce the energy consumption of common NLP applications.  ...  cloud computing platforms.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Supercomputing Center (LLSC) for providing HPC resources that have contributed to the research results reported in this paper.  ... 
arXiv:2205.09646v1 fatcat:3jrkrp4ez5edpenkje5vp2xyki

DETERMINATION OF IONIZATION ENERGIES OF CnN (n= 4-12): VACUUM ULTRAVIOLET PHOTOIONIZATION EXPERIMENTS AND THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS

Oleg Kostko, Jia Zhou, Bian Jian Sun, Jie Shiuan Lie, Agnes H.H. Chang, Ralf I. Kaiser, Musahid Ahmed
2010 Astrophysical Journal  
Comparison with calculated results also shed light on the energetics of the linear C n N clusters, particularly in the trends of the even-carbon and the odd-carbon series.  ...  Results from single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of astrophysically relevant C n N clusters, n = 4 -12, in the photon energy range of 8.0 eV to 12.8 eV are presented.  ...  (b) Peak intensity vs. Figure 3 : 3 PIE curves of C n N (n=3-10), measured from 8.5 eV to 12.8 eV in 0.1 eV steps. Signal intensity normalized for comparison purpose.  ... 
doi:10.1088/0004-637x/717/2/674 fatcat:mp4yddiabbhgln2zhq733vrl7e

SECure: A Social and Environmental Certificate for AI Systems [article]

Abhishek Gupta
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In a world increasingly dominated by AI applications, an understudied aspect is the carbon and social footprint of these power-hungry algorithms that require copious computation and a trove of data for  ...  This work proposes an ESG-inspired framework combining socio-technical measures to build eco-socially responsible AI systems.  ...  Research on the environmental impacts of AI offers both short-term and long-term suggestions to make AI less carbon intensive.  ... 
arXiv:2006.06217v2 fatcat:euvzvy6h3zdovm64chix6pzlr4

Artificial Intelligence (AI)-Centric Management of Resources in Modern Distributed Computing Systems [article]

Shashikant Ilager, Rajeev Muralidhar, Rajkumar Buyya
2020 arXiv   pre-print
The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) due to data availability and processing capabilities manifested into possibilities of exploring data-driven solutions in RMS tasks that are adaptive, accurate  ...  On the other hand, the Internet of Things (IoT)-driven applications are producing a huge amount of data that requires real-time processing and fast response.  ...  In addition, it can also be effectively used in minimising the carbon-footprints by forecasting renewable energy and shifting the workloads across clouds accordingly.  ... 
arXiv:2006.05075v2 fatcat:tck54mz4yff3deesetflj34wke

Colors of Artificial Intelligence

Hsiao-Ying Lin, Hsiao-Ying Lin
2021 Computer  
Conversely, according to a 2019 estimation, in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), the carbon footprint of training a state-of-the-art language model equates to that of five U.S. cars' entire  ...  It was announced that, by 2030, the United States would cut its greenhouse gas emissions by 50%. The European Union targeted a 55% reduction in net greenhouse gases by 2030.  ...  lifetimes, 1 as depicted in Figure 1 . Moreover, the carbon footprint of AI models is still increasing at a fast pace. Energy consumption is a key factor.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mc.2021.3102359 fatcat:4iwxm5ukpvgc7kgzkn6ast7xni

Quantifying the Carbon Emissions of Machine Learning [article]

Alexandre Lacoste, Alexandra Luccioni, Victor Schmidt, Thomas Dandres
2019 arXiv   pre-print
From an environmental standpoint, there are a few crucial aspects of training a neural network that have a major impact on the quantity of carbon that it emits.  ...  In order to approximate these emissions, we present our Machine Learning Emissions Calculator, a tool for our community to better understand the environmental impact of training ML models.  ...  Google Cloud Platform Figure 1 : 1 Variation of the Average Carbon Intensity of Servers Worldwide, by Region. (Vertical bars represent regions with a single available data point.)  ... 
arXiv:1910.09700v2 fatcat:qkz3ocbbmjcotiplxivccdm7ey

Chasing Carbon: The Elusive Environmental Footprint of Computing [article]

Udit Gupta, Young Geun Kim, Sylvia Lee, Jordan Tse, Hsien-Hsin S. Lee, Gu-Yeon Wei, David Brooks, Carole-Jean Wu
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Our analysis, built on industry-reported characterization, quantifies the environmental effects of computing in terms of carbon emissions.  ...  Although carbon emissions from the former are decreasing thanks to algorithmic, software, and hardware innovations that boost performance and power efficiency, the overall carbon footprint of computer  ...  To model the impact of renewable energy, we vary the carbon intensity of the energy consumed.  ... 
arXiv:2011.02839v1 fatcat:as2uwcvymncklarrmi3dhzk7b4

IoT and AI-based Plant Monitoring System

Bhuvan Puri
2020 International Journal of Machine Learning and Networked Collaborative Engineering  
Real-time values stored in the cloud server and applied the machine learning models to predict the plant's growth.  ...  Plants plays a vital role in the environment because it provides the health support through absorbing the carbon dioxide and releasing the oxygen to the atmosphere.  ...  Author [4] proposed an IoT-based solution for the plant monitoring system. The parameters used in this study are temperature, humidity, and intensity of light.  ... 
doi:10.30991/ijmlnce.2020v04i03.005 fatcat:qiuh32ccr5eerkvrwlnsd7xbwa
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