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Pitfalls in Designing Zero-Effort Deauthentication: Opportunistic Human Observation Attacks [article]

O. Huhta, P. Shrestha, S. Udar, M. Juuti, N. Saxena, N. Asokan
2016 arXiv   pre-print
We exploit this to break the scheme with a class of attacks that are much easier for a human to perform in a realistic adversary model, compared to the na\"ive attacks studied in the ZEBRA paper.  ...  Deauthentication is an important component of any authentication system. The widespread use of computing devices in daily life has underscored the need for zero-effort deauthentication schemes.  ...  Acknowledgments: This work was supported in part by the Academy of Finland "Contextual Security" project (274951), NSF grant CNS-1201927 and a Google Faculty Research Award.  ... 
arXiv:1505.05779v6 fatcat:mmh23cbnijdylh5crqvs7cvww4

Discerning truth from deception: Human judgments and automation efforts

Victoria L. Rubin, Niall Conroy
2012 First Monday  
The goal of this ongoing research is to inform creation of such automated capabilities. In this study we elicit a sample of 90 computer-mediated personal stories with varying levels of deception.  ...  Three approaches are taken to the data analysis of the sample: human judges, linguistic detection cues, and machine learning.  ...  Special thanks to Jacqueline Burkell for her methodological insights, to Martha Stortz for her efforts in data coding and classification, and to Jeff Taylor for running the WEKA experiments. Notes  ... 
doi:10.5210/fm.v17i3.3933 fatcat:3qutlzm6u5crpidetquletamr4

Ordinary Search Engine Users assessing Difficulty, Effort, and Outcome for Simple and Complex Search Tasks [article]

Georg Singer, Ulrich Norbisrath, Dirk Lewandowski
2012 arXiv   pre-print
The aim of this study was to get more insight into whether Web users manage to assess difficulty, time effort, query effort, and task outcome of search tasks, and if their judging performance relates to  ...  The results confirm that it is hard for normal Web users to judge the difficulty and effort to carry out complex search tasks. The judgments are more reliable for simple tasks than for complex ones.  ...  Acknowledgments This paper was supported by the European Union Regional Development Fund through the Estonian Centre of Excellence in Computer Science and by the target funding scheme SF0180008s12.  ... 
arXiv:1206.2528v1 fatcat:d3qrt4iitnei3p73lpv4lsddtu

Learning Choreography: An Investigation of Motor Imagery, Attentional Effort, and Expertise in Modern Dance

Katy Carey, Aidan Moran, Brendan Rooney
2019 Frontiers in Psychology  
) and attentional effort (as measured by pupil dilation) on dancers while they engaged in the processes of learning, performing, and imagining a dance movement.  ...  Further analysis suggested that the novice dancers' pupil dilation at the start of the performance may have been caused, in part, by the initial mental effort required to assess the cognitive demands of  ...  This is a common technique used by dancers when learning choreography (Nordin and Cumming, 2005) and increases the fidelity with which the learning condition represented a real-life, creative scenario.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00422 pmid:30881331 pmcid:PMC6405914 fatcat:b46lx6zaxnhi3noss7fxduot34

Why Standardization Efforts Fail

Carl F. Cargill
2011 Journal of Electronic Publishing  
This year's conference continues the tradition of hosting quality speakers and panellists on a wide range of topics related to technology for translators and terminologists, as well as for interpreters  ...  A special thank-you also to all the delegates who have come from so many countries to attend this conference and thus provide a living acknowledgement of this distinctive event.  ...  Acknowledgements Acknowledgements The author would like to thank the following MSc Trans students for their help in compiling the student data: Yuchen Chen, Kristina Sarning-Haigh and Davide Stroppiana  ... 
doi:10.3998/3336451.0014.103 fatcat:dmw2l6nx5vaola6zjohsfggg7m

Estimating causal strength: the role of structural knowledge and processing effort

Michael R Waldmann, York Hagmayer
2001 Cognition  
In causal structures involving a potential cause, an effect and a third related event, the assumed causal role of this third event crucially determines whether it is appropriate to control for this event  ...  This article focuses on the problem that there are multiple ways of extracting statistical information from a set of events.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank Merideth Gattis for helpful comments. Experiment 1 was presented at the 1995 meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Pittsburgh, PA.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0010-0277(01)00141-x pmid:11672704 fatcat:4k6ljpqh3fhu3g5gug6kitexua

Empirical Evaluation of Effort on Composing Design Models [article]

Kleinner Farias
2016 arXiv   pre-print
and qualitative empirical studies, about model composition effort and its influential factors, and (iii) insight about how to evaluate model composition efforts and tame the side effects of such influential  ...  The inability of evaluating composition effort is due to three key problems.  ...  It aims to provide a precise assessment of composition effort in real life context, quantifying effort and identifying the influential effort.  ... 
arXiv:1610.09012v1 fatcat:rrlhimyacndytjfz3xf77l7eru

An interoceptive neuroanatomical perspective on feelings, energy, and effort

A. D. Craig
2013 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
Feelings are the "common currency" which enable optimal utilization in the physical and mental behavior of a highly social primate. This model offers a different perspective.  ...  AbstractA homeostatic energy model of awareness proposes that the anterior insular cortex engenders feelings that provide an amodal valuation of homeostatic energy utilization in an opponent, bivalent  ...  The restaurant scenario introduced above is no longer problematic, since it features no demand for cognitive control, and therefore predicts no sense of effort.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x13001489 pmid:24304783 fatcat:4qwjdvxrl5d2pc5orz6hdkl22y

Ordinary search engine users assessing difficulty, effort, and outcome for simple and complex search tasks

Georg Singer, Ulrich Norbisrath, Dirk Lewandowski
2012 Proceedings of the 4th Information Interaction in Context Symposium on - IIIX '12  
The aim of this study was to get more insight into whether Web users manage to assess difficulty, time effort, query effort, and task outcome of search tasks, and if their judging performance relates to  ...  The results confirm that it is hard for normal Web users to judge the difficulty and effort to carry out complex search tasks. The judgments are more reliable for simple tasks than for complex ones.  ...  Acknowledgments This paper was supported by the European Union Regional Development Fund through the Estonian Centre of Excellence in Computer Science and by the target funding scheme SF0180008s12.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2362724.2362746 dblp:conf/iiix/SingerNL12 fatcat:jvd7uykdyzdzhldanspfur463a

Best Practices and Advice for Using Pupillometry to Measure Listening Effort: An Introduction for Those Who Want to Get Started

Matthew B. Winn, Dorothea Wendt, Thomas Koelewijn, Stefanie E. Kuchinsky
2018 Trends in Hearing  
Within the field of hearing science, pupillometry is a widely used method for quantifying listening effort.  ...  Hence, there is a growing need for a methods paper on pupillometry covering topics spanning from experiment logistics and timing to data cleaning and what parameters to analyze.  ...  of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.  ... 
doi:10.1177/2331216518800869 pmid:30261825 pmcid:PMC6166306 fatcat:xx5karsnzfcn3b4camjcaan6x4

An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance

Robert Kurzban, Angela Duckworth, Joseph W. Kable, Justus Myers
2013 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time.  ...  We propose an alternative explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance.  ...  The restaurant scenario introduced above is no longer problematic, since it features no demand for cognitive control, and therefore predicts no sense of effort.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x12003196 pmid:24304775 pmcid:PMC3856320 fatcat:yfoebeojrvb5nlpfgzu2shfktu

Reducing users' perceived mental effort due to interruptive notifications in multi-device mobile environments

Tadashi Okoshi, Julian Ramos, Hiroki Nozaki, Jin Nakazawa, Anind K. Dey, Hideyuki Tokuda
2015 Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing - UbiComp '15  
It is therefore important to minimize a user's mental effort due to notifications, especially in situations where users are mobile and using multiple wearable and mobile devices.  ...  Attelia II works in real-time and uses only the mobile and wearable devices that users naturally use and wear, without any modifications to applications, and without any dedicated psycho-physiological  ...  The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the students and staffs of Hide Tokuda Lab in Keio University and Ubicomp Lab in Carnegie Mellon University for continuous discussion, collaboration and  ... 
doi:10.1145/2750858.2807517 dblp:conf/huc/OkoshiRNNDT15 fatcat:rtn4rlnt65gz5ieqlmfoazxcem

Opportunity cost calculations only determine justified effort – Or, What happened to the resource conservation principle?

Guido H. E. Gendolla, Michael Richter
2013 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
AbstractWe welcome the development of a new model on effort and performance and the critique on existing resource-based models.  ...  However, considering the vast evidence for the significant impact of experienced task demand on resource allocation, we conclude that Kurzban et al.'  ...  The restaurant scenario introduced above is no longer problematic, since it features no demand for cognitive control, and therefore predicts no sense of effort.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x13000988 pmid:24304784 fatcat:jm7iorlosrfu5fjpnx35463fsu

Measuring Cognitive Load Using In-Game Metrics of a Serious Simulation Game

Natalia Sevcenko, Manuel Ninaus, Franz Wortha, Korbinian Moeller, Peter Gerjets
2021 Frontiers in Psychology  
According to Barrouillets' time-based resource-sharing model, particularly relevant for measuring cognitive load in time-critical situations, cognitive load does not depend solely on the complexity of  ...  In this context, determining the user's cognitive load during (game-based) training seems crucial for predicting performance and potential adaptation of the training environment to improve training effectiveness  ...  Importantly, though, the current study demonstrated that assessment/prediction of cognitive load using simple in-game metrics is feasible.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.572437 pmid:33841227 pmcid:PMC8024627 fatcat:6mldxcthzjfazee6xqezkbnj6i

Integrated learning: ways of fostering the applicability of teachers' pedagogical and psychological knowledge

Nora Harr, Andreas Eichler, Alexander Renkl
2015 Frontiers in Psychology  
Pro| Mat| Nat is a project of the Competence Network Empirical Research in Education and Teaching (KeBU) of the University of Freiburg and the University of Education, Freiburg.  ...  The Graduate School was funded by the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.  ...  Mental Load and Mental Effort Mental load and mental effort are considered to be two aspects of cognitive load (Paas and van Merriënboer, 1994) .  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00738 pmid:26082740 pmcid:PMC4451582 fatcat:h4dtbjlqdfdirklkeqzl5l5iaq
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