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A Systematic Statistical Approach to Evaluating Evidence from Observational Studies

David Madigan, Paul E. Stang, Jesse A. Berlin, Martijn Schuemie, J. Marc Overhage, Marc A. Suchard, Bill Dumouchel, Abraham G. Hartzema, Patrick B. Ryan
2014 Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application  
Here, we review some of the challenges encountered in observational studies and review an alternative, data-driven approach to observational study design, execution, and analysis.  ...  Nonetheless, scholarly journals in fields such as medicine, education, and the social sciences feature many such studies, often with limited exploration of these threats, and the lay press is rife with  ...  In general, AUCs are highest for acute kidney injury and lowest for acute liver injury, with acute myocardial infarction and gastrointestinal bleeding in between.  ... 
doi:10.1146/annurev-statistics-022513-115645 fatcat:4dk2bgj4s5bwvch6tgjxlkuhzu

Population-based register of acute myocardial infarction: manual of operations

Mette Madsen, Vilmundur Gudnason, Andrzej Pająk, Luigi Palmieri, Evangelista C. Rocha, Veikko Salomaa, Susana Sans, Konrad Steinbach, Diego Vanuzzo
2007 European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation  
QUALITY CONTROL Quality control of registers is extremely important for a valid monitoring and comparison between regions and countries.  ...  Acute myocardial infarction is defined as myocardial cell death due to prolonged ischaemia [5, 25] .  ... 
doi:10.1097/01.hjr.0000277986.33343.94 pmid:18091134 fatcat:vbdx2kwexnetvcuzouqjjpr7bm

Data mining for improved cardiac care

R. Bharat Rao, Sriram Krishnan, Radu Stefan Niculescu
2006 SIGKDD Explorations  
via a probabilistic reasoning framework that overcomes the incomplete, inconsistent, and incorrect nature of data in medical patient records.  ...  We present REMIND, a Probabilistic framework for Reliable Extraction and Meaningful Inference from Nonstructured Data.  ...  Without their diligence, research and inventiveness, REMIND would have never transitioned from concept to product.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1147234.1147236 fatcat:e6wxljtdfnhpdkzksq4bvl4en4

Assessing the impact of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) on respiratory-cardiovascular chronic diseases in the New York City Metropolitan area using Hierarchical Bayesian Model estimates

Stephanie A. Weber, Tabassum Z. Insaf, Eric S. Hall, Thomas O. Talbot, Amy K. Huff
2016 Environmental Research  
) Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM) Myocardial infarction (MI) a b s t r a c t An enhanced research paradigm is presented to address the spatial and temporal gaps in fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) measurements  ...  data for asthma and inpatient hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF) using case-crossover analysis.  ...  The authors would like to thank Michele Morara for his work on updating the HBM and the two anonymous reviewers.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.012 pmid:27543787 fatcat:43ojxvuuvncudo7ms2mdgq25na

Age- and Sex-Specific Trends in the Incidence of Hospitalized Acute Coronary Syndromes in Western Australia

L. J. Nedkoff, T. G. Briffa, D. B. Preen, F. M. Sanfilippo, J. Hung, S. C. Ridout, M. Knuiman, M. Hobbs
2011 Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes  
However, there are limited population data measuring trends in acute coronary syndromes (ACS).  ...  We therefore examined temporal trends in the incidence of hospitalized ACS by age and sex in a population-based cohort.  ...  Acknowledgments We wish to acknowledge the Data Linkage Branch, Department of Health (WA), for the extraction and provision of the linked data used in this study.  ... 
doi:10.1161/circoutcomes.110.960005 pmid:21862718 fatcat:jzczehr6hbfnfezldsq5iqyaj4

Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices: A Health Technology Assessment

Health Quality Ontario
2017 Ontario health technology assessment series  
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-using a catheter to place a stent to keep blood vessels open-is increasingly used for high-risk patients who cannot undergo surgery.  ...  using a 10-year time horizon, and conducted sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the estimates.  ...  (acute myocardial infarction and stroke) from randomized controlled trials after 90 days  ... 
pmid:28232854 pmcid:PMC5313122 fatcat:qhqzecbbuvht7ncm3bdhch6sea

Probabilistic Cause-of-death Assignment using Verbal Autopsies [article]

Tyler H. McCormick and Zehang Li and Clara Calvert and Amelia C. Crampin and Kathleen Kahn and Samuel J. Clark
2015 arXiv   pre-print
In populations like this, verbal autopsy (VA) is a commonly used tool to assess cause of death and estimate cause-specific mortality rates and the distribution of deaths by cause.  ...  This paper develops a new statistical tool known as InSilicoVA to classify cause of death using information acquired through VA.  ...  In this paper we propose a probabilistic statistical framework for using VA data to infer an individual's cause of death and the population cause of death distribution and quantifying uncertainty in both  ... 
arXiv:1411.3042v3 fatcat:amesd2xdxrehbiruvunh6fomcu

Association Between a DASH-Like Diet and Mortality in Adults With Hypertension: Findings From a Population-Based Follow-Up Study

A. Parikh, S. R. Lipsitz, S. Natarajan
2009 American Journal of Hypertension  
Hypertension was determined by self-report, medication use, or BP measurement. Diet was ascertained by 24-h dietary recall using nine nutrient targets. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality.  ...  association between diet and mortality in 5,532 hypertensive adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  ...  Third, data were collected using a standardized, detailed, labor-intensive process with rigorous quality control.  ... 
doi:10.1038/ajh.2009.10 pmid:19197247 fatcat:q2q3ax6nlbg2dlrnkzzf2a5hke

Information Retrieval Performance of Probabilistically Generated, Problem-Specific Computerized Provider Order Entry Pick-Lists: A Pilot Study

A. S. Rothschild
2005 JAMIA Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association  
Further research is necessary to determine the usefulness of this approach in real-world settings. j J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2005;12:322-330.  ...  Design: In a pilot retrospective validation, physicians reviewed internal medicine cases consisting of the admission history and physical examination and orders placed using CPOE during the first 24 hours  ...  infarction'' and ''history of myocardial infarction'').  ... 
doi:10.1197/jamia.m1670 pmid:15684134 pmcid:PMC1090464 fatcat:2gczx4fojbaknnbqxluc6hloey

Using computable knowledge mined from the literature to elucidate confounders for EHR-based pharmacovigilance [article]

Scott Alexander Malec, Elmer Victor Bernstam, Peng Wei, Trevor Cohen, Richard David Boyce
2020 medRxiv   pre-print
data to predict and estimate causal effects in light of the literature-derived confounders.  ...  In previous work, we have shown that semantic constraint search over computable knowledge extracted from the literature can be useful for reducing confounding bias in statistical models of EHR-derived  ...  We bring the case of ketorolac and acute myocardial infarction to attention.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.07.08.20113035 fatcat:symhqu3l25ayjdoxy457del6jq

Rationale and design of perioperative myocardial ischemia: a protocol for troponin monitoring, prognostic thresholds, economic analysis and further insights into pathophysiology for non-cardiac surgery patients

Ekaterine Popova, Pilar Paniagua Iglesias, Jesus Alvarez Garcia, Miguel Vives Borras, Francesc Carreras Costa, Xavier García-Moll Marimón, Mercedes Pilar Rivas Lasarte, Aranzazu Gonzalez Osuna, Cecilia Martinez Bru, Adria Font Gual, Ruben Diaz Jover, Inmaculada India Aldana (+6 others)
2019 F1000Research  
Worldwide, near 200 million adults undergo major non cardiac surgery each year, and 10 million of them are estimated to suffer a myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS), defined as an elevated  ...  Troponin levels need to be monitored in order to diagnose MINS, high sensitive cardiac Troponin T (hs-cTnT) assays being currently the most frequently used.  ...  In both studies an absolute delta cut-off was used/found, which is in line with the agreed upon criteria for the definition of acute myocardial infarction.  ... 
doi:10.12688/f1000research.18980.1 fatcat:xycr6o3rmzgc7n2va65kqrnn54

Allocating scarce resources in real-time to reduce heart failure readmissions: a prospective, controlled study

Ruben Amarasingham, Parag C Patel, Kathleen Toto, Lauren L Nelson, Timothy S Swanson, Billy J Moore, Bin Xie, Song Zhang, Kristin S Alvarez, Ying Ma, Mark H Drazner, Usha Kollipara (+1 others)
2013 BMJ Quality and Safety  
Contributors RA, BX and YM had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.  ...  We also thank the Dallas-Fort Worth Hospital Council Foundation for assisting in the collection of post-hospitalisation data through their information sharing initiative.  ...  To control for secular trends, we compare concurrent rates of 30-day readmission for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and pneumonia (PNA), two measures that are also the subject of intense  ... 
doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2013-001901 pmid:23904506 pmcid:PMC3888600 fatcat:d6uvw7di45gsfi2o32qbthn36i

Using nationwide 'big data' from linked electronic health records to help improve outcomes in cardiovascular diseases: 33 studies using methods from epidemiology, informatics, economics and social science in the ClinicAl disease research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records (CALIBER) programme

Harry Hemingway, Gene S Feder, Natalie K Fitzpatrick, Spiros Denaxas, Anoop D Shah, Adam D Timmis
2017 Programme Grants for Applied Research  
Second, there is a need for scaled approaches to using EHRs to design and carry out trials, and interpret the implementation of trial results.  ...  Prognostic models using real-world data validly discriminated risk of death and events, and were used in cost-effectiveness decision models.ConclusionsEmerging 'big data' opportunities arising from the  ...  ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION NIHR Journals Library www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.uk We have presented our findings at key conferences (see Appendix 9).  ... 
doi:10.3310/pgfar05040 fatcat:cmr7uusu6bddzaklhp34zsspju

Mining Electronic Health Records (EHRs)

Pranjul Yadav, Michael Steinbach, Vipin Kumar, Gyorgy Simon
2018 ACM Computing Surveys  
In this manuscript, we provide a structured and comprehensive overview of data mining techniques for modeling EHR data.  ...  Next, we describe major approaches used for EHR mining, the metrics associated with EHRs, and the various study designs.  ...  In their approach, they used both categorical variables (diagnosis codes) and continuous variables (vitals and laboratories test results) for clustering.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3127881 fatcat:xil7qev3xbf3pmfv5vtak4f2jq

Abstracts From the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research in Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke Conference 2009

2009 Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes  
Background: Results of randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing health status outcomes in non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients treated with Invasive (INV) vs. conservative (CON) therapy  ...  Of these, 238 (37%) received an INV approach and 412 (63%) received a CON approach to managing their NSTEMI.  ...  We tested the accuracy of diagnostic coding in commercially insured patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) according to claims data.  ... 
doi:10.1161/circoutcomes.109.191960 fatcat:55m4jhyhqjdbvccugo5s4pxyma
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