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Ajaykumar, Steele, and Huang ...arXiv:2105.01757v1 fatcat:wx27myh5gffhxf3usmxzxbv4kq
Norovirus (NoV) is recognised as a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide across all age groups. The prevalence and diversity of NoVs in many African countries is still unknown, although early sero-prevalence studies indicated widespread early infection. Reports on NoVs in Africa vary widely in terms of study duration, population groups and size, inclusion of asymptomatic controls, as well as genotyping information. This review provides an estimate of NoV prevalence and distribution ofdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146280 pmid:27116615 pmcid:PMC4846019 fatcat:zzj4pexlqjhbtpg42acg6edxem
more »... ypes of NoVs in Africa. Inclusion criteria for the review were study duration of at least 6 months, population size of >50 and diagnosis by RT-PCR. As regions used for genotyping varied, or genotyping was not always performed, this was not considered as an inclusion criteria. A literature search containing the terms norovirus+Africa yielded 74 publications. Of these 19 studies from 14 out of the 54 countries in Africa met the inclusion criteria. Data from studies not meeting the inclusion criteria, based on sample size or short duration, were included as discussion points. The majority of studies published focused on children, under five years of age, hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis. The mean overall prevalence was 13.5% (range 0.8-25.5%) in children with gastroenteritis and 9.7% (range 7-31%) in asymptomatic controls, where tested. NoV GII.4 was the predominant genotype identified in most of the studies that presented genotyping data. Other prevalent genotypes detected included GII.3 and GII.6. In conclusion, NoV is a common pathogen in children with diarrhoea in Africa, with considerable carriage in asymptomatic children. There is however, a paucity of data on NoV infection in adults.
and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and less commonly used synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffraction, we characterized nitrogen-atomized 17-4 precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steel ... This conclusion is not limited to Fe (steel). ... Most steels are highly weldable, which makes them prime candidates for AM processing. In fact, steel represents the most widely used class of AM alloys. ...doi:10.3390/met11121924 fatcat:dzvqfi2rgjfgzgwlmm6d3h3hkq
Statistical pitfall Simple solution September 2013 v Volume 4(9) v Article 115 September 2013 v Volume 4(9) v Article 115 STEEL ET AL. ...doi:10.1890/es13-00160.1 fatcat:dfhakuxjtvboncodudcdjguscu
The parametric addition of eggshell ash nanoparticles (ESAnp) and palm kernel shell ash nanoparticle (PKSAnp) in epoxy for the coating of mild steel was studied. ... Epoxy has been widely used as a coating material to protect the steel reinforcement in concrete structures, because of its outstanding processability, excellent chemical resistance, good electrical insulating ... The low weight retained for the mild steel at 1000°C could be attributed to that fact that scaling of the mild steel occurs at higher temperature due to decarburization of the mild steel. ...doi:10.34248/bsengineering.910691 fatcat:vbu7hxtj2ngzfceyghvqjmdham
mitigation may appear to be small (a 10% increase for the 'Plus ethanol' trend in Figure 2 ) largely because of the high substitution leverage when structural wood products substitute for fossil intensive steel ...doi:10.3390/f2040861 fatcat:nsnsepm74nhjnjwggwc4wlsobm
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable disorder of impaired behavioral inhibition, increased motor activity, and inattention. The norepinephrine transporter (NET, SLC6A2) represents an important candidate gene for contribution to ADHD because it regulates catecholamine extracellular and tissue concentrations and contributes to executive functions disrupted in ADHD, and NET is a target for most effective ADHD therapeutics. We identified four NET coding singledoi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2009.08.002 pmid:19698724 pmcid:PMC2801604 fatcat:nusqgsa3ejbjbhrnayt3rxahy4
more »... tide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two ADHD sample sets, two SNPs produce protein variants (T283M, V245I), one of which, T283M, is a novel variant. Examination of the maternal family members through whom the T283M mutation was transmitted, provided no additional ADHD diagnoses. Given the previous identification of a NET mutation that contributes to a familial tachycardia syndrome, we examined autonomic function to reveal in the proband the highest standing-induced increase in heart rate among the ADHD subjects examined. We measured [ 3 H]NE and [ 3 H]dopamine transport for T283M, V245I, and a previously identified NET variant, T283R. T283M and V245I demonstrated decreased substrate transport, as did T283R, suggesting that the T283 residue is sensitive to mutation. Identification of polymorphic sites within NET, specifically those that produce functional consequences, is one critical step in elucidating the genetic variation contributing to the heritable component of diseases such as ADHD.
Editorial People Protected—Public Health Prepared Through a Competent Workforce Maureen Lichtveld, Joan Cioffi, Joseph Henderson, Michael Sage, and Lynn Steele The events of 9/11 and the anthrax outbreaks ... The guiding vision and mission for CDC’s national public health Maureen Lichtveld, MD, MPH, is Associate Director for Workforce Development, Public Health Practice Program Office, Centers for Dis- ease ...doi:10.1097/00124784-200309000-00002 pmid:15503596 fatcat:qay4x4ho5bhbddzu4uxvxp4ase
., Steel This file was created by scanning the printed publication. Text errors identified by the software have been corrected: however, some errors may remain. et at., 2009) . ...doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.08.031 fatcat:hllmg6tiyzarzkoemctpsz4qmm
., 1997; Steele et al., 2009 ). ...doi:10.1016/j.virol.2010.08.016 pmid:20850165 fatcat:gtqtcf6x7vbpvdeu7rwu2p276a
Steele who declares his work as Director of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme. Craigie, Martine Stead, and Maureen Macleod drafted the paper which was revised by all authors. ...doi:10.1155/2015/871613 pmid:26504842 pmcid:PMC4609381 fatcat:nchexaqnxvfxvg3cogci4gtiwi
A techno-economic analysis was performed for a 100 dry-ton/day (90,719 kg/day) fast pyrolysis transportable plant. Renewable Oil International® LLC provided the life cycle cost of operating a 100 dry-ton/day fast pyrolysis system using southern pine wood chips as feedstock. Since data was not available from an actual large-scale plant, the study examined data obtained from an actual 15 dry-ton/day pilot plant and from several smaller plants. These data were used to obtain base figures to aid indoaj:42da333068264b23be3a9b588cd26e15 fatcat:ucwqtsrapneenhfmreouardeg4
more »... the development of models to generate scaled-up costs for a larger 100 dry-ton/day facility. Bio-oil represented 60% of mass of product yield. The cost for the bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was valued at $0.94/gal. Energy cost bio-oil and char was valued at $6.35/MMBTU. Costs associated with purchasing feedstocks can drastically influence the final cost of the bio-oil. The assumed cost of feedstocks was $25/wet ton or $50/dry ton. This paper is part of a larger study investigating the economic and environmental impacts for producing bio-oil / biocide wood preservatives.
The innate recognition of fungal pathogens is a crucial first step in the induction of protective antifungal immunity. Complement is thought to be one key component in this process, facilitating fungal recognition and inducing early inflammation. However, the roles of the individual complement components have not been examined extensively. Here we have used mice lacking C3 to examine its role in immunity to opportunistic fungal pathogens and show that this complement component is essential fordoi:10.1016/j.cyto.2009.07.358 fatcat:iwl52opn25gqrf2wnw73zeadsm
more »... esistance to infections with Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. We demonstrate that the absence of C3 impairs fungal clearance but does not affect inflammatory responses. We also show that the presence of C3 contributes to mortality in mice challenged with very high doses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, although these effects were found to be mouse strain dependent.
English, Maureen K. Hahn and Ian R.Gizer have contributed equally to this study. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article ( ...doi:10.1007/s11689-009-9033-8 pmid:21547719 pmcid:PMC3164006 fatcat:7bpjq7ryd5aeznpv563dzc55me
hatchery broodstock and known-origin juveniles Beginning in 2008, fin tissue was sampled from nearly all adult steelhead broodstock returning to Snake River hatcheries in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington (Steele ... parental genotypes from several hatchery populations for the pilot study described above, we also sampled and genotyped the majority of steelhead broodstocks spawned during 2008 in the Snake River basin (Steele ...doi:10.1139/cjfas-2012-0451 fatcat:bux3b5vhgzbrzhpxrbfyqqnnxe
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