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Deception research today

Matthias Gamer, Wolfgang Ambach
2014 Frontiers in Psychology  
In line with the majority of neuroimaging studies in this domain (Gamer, 2011) , activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus was also modulated by deception.  ...  Furthermore, it was found that depth of encoding modulated electrodermal responses to crime-related details but did not affect P300 responses in the CIT (Gamer and Berti, 2012) .  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00256 pmid:24723905 pmcid:PMC3971159 fatcat:7qw3trhelfe63am2ixpbmft5lq

When Gaze-Pattern Similarity May Interfere With Future Memory [article]

Nathalie klein Selle, Matthias Gamer, Yoni Pertzov
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
AbstractHuman brains have a remarkable ability to separate streams of visual input into distinct memory-traces. It is unclear, however, how this ability relates to the way these inputs are explored via unique gaze-patterns. Moreover, it is yet unknown how motivation to forget or remember influences the gaze similarity and memory relationship. In two experiments, we therefore used a modified directed-forgetting paradigm and either showed blurred versions of the encoded scenes (Experiment 1) or
more » ... nk noise images (Experiment 2) during attempted memory control. Both experiments demonstrated that higher levels of across-stimulus gaze similarity relate to worse future memory. Although this across-stimulus interference effect was unaffected by motivation, it depended on the perceptual overlap between stimuli and was more pronounced for different scene comparisons, than scene-pink noise comparisons. Intriguingly, these findings echo the pattern similarity effects from the neuroimaging literature and pinpoint a mechanism that could aid the regulation of unwanted memories.
doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.134171 fatcat:yuvulk2cdnho5p6eymgzvgxu7y

Alcohol facilitates detection of concealed identity information

Kristina Suchotzki, Matthias Gamer
2018 Scientific Reports  
The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a well-validated means to detect whether someone possesses certain (e.g., crime-relevant) information. The current study investigated whether alcohol intoxication during CIT administration influences reaction time (RT) CIT-effects. Two opposing predictions can be made. First, by decreasing attention to critical information, alcohol intoxication could diminish CITeffects. Second, by hampering the inhibition of truthful responses, alcohol intoxication could
more » ... increase CIT-effects. A correlational field design was employed. Participants (n = 42) were recruited and tested at a bar, where alcohol consumption was voluntary and incidental. Participants completed a CIT, in which they were instructed to hide knowledge of their true identity. BAC was estimated via breath alcohol ratio. Results revealed that higher BAC levels were correlated with higher CIT-effects. Our results demonstrate that robust CIT effects can be obtained even when testing conditions differ from typical laboratory settings and strengthen the idea that response inhibition contributes to the RT-CIT effect. Published: xx xx xxxx OPEN www.nature.com/scientificreports/ 2 Scientific RepoRTS | (2018) 8:7825 |
doi:10.1038/s41598-018-25811-z pmid:29777122 pmcid:PMC5959938 fatcat:4ghsfe3byvay3jegpzqezmomtu

Desire thinking promotes decisions to game: The mediating role between gaming urges and everyday decision-making in recreational gamers

Annika Brandtner, Elisa Wegmann, Matthias Brand
2020 Addictive Behaviors Reports  
The pre-study revealed a catalogue of 18 conflicting situations that likely happen in the daily life of gamers, containing conflicting activities such as job/educational performance and meeting friends  ...  serial mediation model with urge to game as predictor, decision to game as dependent variable, and imaginal prefiguration and verbal perseveration as mediators was tested in a sample of 118 recreational gamers  ...  Therefore, a prestudy (Study 1) aims at exploring how conflicting decisional situations look like in the daily life of gamers.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.abrep.2020.100295 pmid:33364304 pmcid:PMC7752661 fatcat:c3ul4p3gvvb4fghw6qshbzwycq

Personality and Cognition in Gamers: Avoidance Expectancies Mediate the Relationship Between Maladaptive Personality Traits and Symptoms of Internet-Gaming Disorder

Christian Laier, Elisa Wegmann, Matthias Brand
2018 Frontiers in Psychiatry  
Therefore, 103 male and female regular Internet gamers were investigated with questionnaires assessing maladaptive personality traits in accordance to DSM-5, gaming-related positive and avoidance Internet-use  ...  Moreover gamer who have the experience-based expectancy that gaming helps them to avoid these aversive feelings report highest symptom severity of IGD.  ...  The authors concluded that dissociation due to gaming might distract gamers from memories of loss, neglect and abuse experienced in the attachment relationships.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00304 pmid:30042702 pmcid:PMC6048288 fatcat:65sjdmgqzvexjcztrnusvkavpe

Freezing of gaze during action preparation under threat imminence

Lara Rösler, Matthias Gamer
2019 Scientific Reports  
freezing of gaze during action preparation under threat imminence Lara Rösler * & Matthias Gamer When confronted with threatening stimuli, animals typically respond with freezing behavior characterized  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41598-019-53683-4 pmid:31748589 pmcid:PMC6868270 fatcat:6mdcjg37hnehvo7vihs6ds4qcy

Measuring Emotions in Electronic Markets

Marc Thomas Philipp Adam, Matthias Gamer, Jan Krämer, Christof Weinhardt
2011 International Conference on Information Systems  
Although the importance of emotions in economic decision-making is being widely accepted, it is still unclear how and to what extent emotional processing affects economic behavior. In this paper, we propose a new methodological framework for behavioral IS studies that we call physioeconomics, by which it is possible to measure psychophysiological correlates of human emotions during controlled laboratory experiments. In contrast to brain imaging technologies as in NeuroIS, the analysis of
more » ... ic physiological parameters can be achieved with a comparatively low amount of measurement overhead and, thus, allows collecting empirical data for much larger sample sizes. Therefore, this approach is particularly qualified for the study of emotions in electronic markets. In order to show that physioeconomics is able to provide insightful results we apply this method in an exemplary auction experiment in which we compare bidders' arousal throughout the bidding process and in response to winning or losing.
dblp:conf/icis/AdamGKW11 fatcat:c2hhvn5bzfgenbaljwi67mcnzi

Diagnostic Features of Emotional Expressions Are Processed Preferentially

Elisa Scheller, Christian Büchel, Matthias Gamer, David Whitney
2012 PLoS ONE  
Diagnostic features of emotional expressions are differentially distributed across the face. The current study examined whether these diagnostic features are preferentially attended to even when they are irrelevant for the task at hand or when faces appear at different locations in the visual field. To this aim, fearful, happy and neutral faces were presented to healthy individuals in two experiments while measuring eye movements. In Experiment 1, participants had to accomplish an emotion
more » ... fication, a gender discrimination or a passive viewing task. To differentiate fast, potentially reflexive, eye movements from a more elaborate scanning of faces, stimuli were either presented for 150 or 2000 ms. In Experiment 2, similar faces were presented at different spatial positions to rule out the possibility that eye movements only reflect a general bias for certain visual field locations. In both experiments, participants fixated the eye region much longer than any other region in the face. Furthermore, the eye region was attended to more pronouncedly when fearful or neutral faces were shown whereas more attention was directed toward the mouth of happy facial expressions. Since these results were similar across the other experimental manipulations, they indicate that diagnostic features of emotional expressions are preferentially processed irrespective of task demands and spatial locations. Saliency analyses revealed that a computational model of bottom-up visual attention could not explain these results. Furthermore, as these gaze preferences were evident very early after stimulus onset and occurred even when saccades did not allow for extracting further information from these stimuli, they may reflect a preattentive mechanism that automatically detects relevant facial features in the visual field and facilitates the orientation of attention towards them. This mechanism might crucially depend on amygdala functioning and it is potentially impaired in a number of clinical conditions such as autism or social anxiety disorders.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041792 pmid:22848607 pmcid:PMC3405011 fatcat:pxkwfrvhyvasvdeujhcj7eefly

Artificial Faces Predict Gaze Allocation in Complex Dynamic Scenes

Lara Rösler, Marius Rubo, Matthias Gamer
2019 Frontiers in Psychology  
., 2015; End and Gamer, 2017; Flechsenhar and Gamer, 2017; Rösler et al., 2017) and, although to a slightly reduced extent, in real-life social interactions Laidlaw et al., 2011; Freeth et al., 2013)  ...  Similar to our previous studies (e.g., End and Gamer, 2017; Rubo and Gamer, 2018) , baseline outliers were identified by an iterative outlier removal procedure which was conducted separately for x-and  ...  Copyright © 2019 Rösler, Rubo and Gamer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02877 pmid:31920893 pmcid:PMC6930810 fatcat:x5vujobsq5at7igdj2kjv5qzjq

Social content and emotional valence modulate gaze fixations in dynamic scenes

Marius Rubo, Matthias Gamer
2018 Scientific Reports  
Previous research has shown that low-level visual features (i.e., low-level visual saliency) as well as socially relevant information predict gaze allocation in free viewing conditions. However, these studies mainly used static and highly controlled stimulus material, thus revealing little about the robustness of attentional processes across diverging situations. Secondly, the influence of affective stimulus characteristics on visual exploration patterns remains poorly understood. Participants
more » ... n the present study freely viewed a set of naturalistic, contextually rich video clips from a variety of settings that were capable of eliciting different moods. Using recordings of eye movements, we quantified to what degree social information, emotional valence and low-level visual features influenced gaze allocation using generalized linear mixed models. We found substantial and similarly large regression weights for low-level saliency and social information, affirming the importance of both predictor classes under ecologically more valid dynamic stimulation conditions. Differences in predictor strength between individuals were large and highly stable across videos. Additionally, low-level saliency was less important for fixation selection in videos containing persons than in videos not containing persons, and less important for videos perceived as negative. We discuss the generalizability of these findings and the feasibility of applying this research paradigm to patient groups. Like most vertebrates, humans can only obtain a part of their visual field at a high acuity and therefore repeatedly move their eyes in order to construct a representation of their environment with sufficiently high resolution 1 . Controlling gaze along with retrieving and filtering relevant signals from the environment is a central task of the attentional system 2 . In the past, various lines of research have addressed the mechanisms driving such attentional control. As sociability is one of human's key features 3 , a large body of research has assessed how we gather social information in order to infer other persons' intentions and feelings. For instance, it was shown that socially relevant features like human heads and eyes 4,5 , gaze direction of depicted people 6 , people who are talking 7 and people with high social status 8 attract attention when freely viewing images or dynamic scenes. However, non-social cues like text 9,10 and the center of the screen 11-13 can also serve as predictors for gaze behavior. Another line of research has focused on the predictive value of low-level image features such as contrast, color, edge density and, for dynamic scenes, motion. A range of algorithms exists to extract these features in images and videos and condense them into one low-level saliency value between 0 and 1 for each pixel, resulting in topographic low-level saliency maps 14 . Low-level saliency has been shown to explain fixation patterns for a variety of naturalistic and abstract images 15,16 , as well as naturalistic videos 12,17,18 and has been argued to be a biologically plausible model of early visual processing 19 . The influence of social stimuli and visual low-level saliency on eye movements have only recently been studied within the same datasets, and rarely in direct juxtaposition. During face perception, it was shown that facial regions diagnostic for emotional expressions received enhanced attention irrespective of their physical low-level saliency 20 . Birmingham and colleagues found social areas in an image to be a better predictor for fixation behavior than low-level saliency 21, 22 . Other studies found faces to outperform low-level saliency on gaze prediction in dynamic scenes showing conversations between persons 7 and documented higher predictive power for faces than for low-level saliency for adult participants watching a comic clip, although faces were not controlled for low-level saliency in this particular analysis 23 . Several studies reported an improvement of low-level saliency-based models by including faces as predictors 9,24,25 . Xu and colleagues included a variety of predictors at pixel level (color,
doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22127-w pmid:29491440 pmcid:PMC5830578 fatcat:3yydrmb2izdhnp4va63acllj3i

Surface Lightness Influences Perceived Room Height

Daniel Oberfeld, Heiko Hecht, Matthias Gamer
2010 Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology  
Original manuscript received 20 July 2009 Accepted revision received 18 January 2010 First published online 16 April 2010 this Article Oberfeld, Daniel , Hecht, Heiko and Gamer, Matthias(2010) 'Surface  ... 
doi:10.1080/17470211003646161 pmid:20401809 fatcat:lndz2p3c4fazblqjf2ktbo2ehe

Orienting towards social features in naturalistic scenes is reflexive

Lara Rösler, Albert End, Matthias Gamer, Markus Lappe
2017 PLoS ONE  
Author Contributions Conceptualization: Lara Rösler, Albert End, Matthias Gamer.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182037 pmid:28742873 pmcid:PMC5526566 fatcat:rh2oo7xnr5fo7b4cciudedayy4

Brain Responses during the Anticipation of Dyspnea

M. Cornelia Stoeckel, Roland W. Esser, Matthias Gamer, Christian Büchel, Andreas von Leupoldt
2016 Neural Plasticity  
Dyspnea is common in many cardiorespiratory diseases. Already the anticipation of this aversive symptom elicits fear in many patients resulting in unfavorable health behaviors such as activity avoidance and sedentary lifestyle. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying these anticipatory processes. We induced dyspnea using resistive-load breathing in healthy subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blocks of severe and mild dyspnea alternated, each preceded by
more » ... n periods. Severe dyspnea activated a network of sensorimotor, cerebellar, and limbic areas. The left insular, parietal opercular, and cerebellar cortices showed increased activation already during dyspnea anticipation. Left insular and parietal opercular cortex showed increased connectivity with right insular and anterior cingulate cortex when severe dyspnea was anticipated, while the cerebellum showed increased connectivity with the amygdala. Notably, insular activation during dyspnea perception was positively correlated with midbrain activation during anticipation. Moreover, anticipatory fear was positively correlated with anticipatory activation in right insular and anterior cingulate cortex. The results demonstrate that dyspnea anticipation activates brain areas involved in dyspnea perception. The involvement of emotion-related areas such as insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala during dyspnea anticipation most likely reflects anticipatory fear and might underlie the development of unfavorable health behaviors in patients suffering from dyspnea.
doi:10.1155/2016/6434987 pmid:27648309 pmcid:PMC5018326 fatcat:ryeuhmw7t5auzozanixebo3glm

The human amygdala drives reflexive orienting towards facial features

Matthias Gamer, Anna Katharina Schmitz, Marc Tittgemeyer, Leonhard Schilbach
2013 Current Biology  
The human amygdala drives reflexive orienting towards facial features Matthias Gamer 1 , Anna Katharina Schmitz 2 , Marc Tittgemeyer 2 , and Leonhard Schilbach 3 The human amygdala is reliably activated  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.09.008 pmid:24156808 fatcat:32qb3jr4f5hvpox2s6xr4omlbi

Gaze-pattern similarity at encoding may interfere with future memory

Nathalie klein Selle, Matthias Gamer, Yoni Pertzov
2021 Scientific Reports  
AbstractHuman brains have a remarkable ability to separate streams of visual input into distinct memory-traces. It is unclear, however, how this ability relates to the way these inputs are explored via unique gaze-patterns. Moreover, it is yet unknown how motivation to forget or remember influences the link between gaze similarity and memory. In two experiments, we used a modified directed-forgetting paradigm and either showed blurred versions of the encoded scenes (Experiment 1) or pink noise
more » ... mages (Experiment 2) during attempted memory control. Both experiments demonstrated that higher levels of across-stimulus gaze similarity relate to worse future memory. Although this across-stimulus interference effect was unaffected by motivation, it depended on the perceptual overlap between stimuli and was more pronounced for different scene comparisons, than scene–pink noise comparisons. Intriguingly, these findings echo the pattern similarity effects from the neuroimaging literature and pinpoint a mechanism that could aid the regulation of unwanted memories.
doi:10.1038/s41598-021-87258-z pmid:33833314 fatcat:v5vk6kuypjhuteuqwun5ggj3ii
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