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Principles of extinction learning of nonaversive experience

Metin Uengoer, Silke Lissek, Martin Tegenthoff, Denise Manahan-Vaughan, Harald Lachnit
2020 Neuroforum  
AbstractThis review outlines behavioral and neurobiological aspects of extinction learning, with a focus on nonaversive experience. The extinction of acquired behavior is crucial for readaptation to our environment and plays a central role in therapeutic interventions. However, behavior that has been extinguished can reappear owing to context changes. In the first part of the article, we examine experimental strategies aimed at reducing behavioral recovery after extinction of nonaversive
more » ... nce, focusing on extinction learning in multiple contexts, reminder cues, and the informational value of contexts. In the second part, we report findings from human imaging studies and studies with rodents on the neural correlates of extinction and response recovery in nonaversive learning, with a focus on ventromedial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and neurotransmitter systems.
doi:10.1515/nf-2020-0013 fatcat:yxv6ibyqqrhvjiaru5s7ujgjky

Auditory-visual localization in hemianopia

Jörg Lewald, Robert W. Kentridge, Sören Peters, Martin Tegenthoff, Charles A. Heywood, Markus Hausmann
2013 Neuropsychology  
In a more detailed study (Lewald, Peters, Tegenthoff, & Hausmann, 2009b) which focussed on the topography of auditory space in HA, there were statistically significant distortions of auditory space in  ...  employing visual pointing or adjustment tasks, the visual straight-ahead of HA patients was shown to be displaced toward the anopic side (Zihl & Von Cramon, 1986; Ferber & Karnath, 1999; Lewald, Peters, Tegenthoff  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0033451 pmid:23937478 fatcat:mhy3dfdqqzb7taghon4ju3wjxa

Evoking plasticity through sensory stimulation: Implications for learning and rehabilitation

Hubert R. Dinse, Martin Tegenthoff
2015 e-Neuroforum  
AbstractThe gold standard for improving sensory, motor and or cognitive abilities is longterm training and practicing. Recent work, however, suggests that intensive training may not be necessary. Improved performance can be effectively acquired by a complementary approach in which the learning occurs in response to mere exposure to repetitive sensory stimulation. Such training-independent sensory learning (TISL), which has been intensively studied in the somatosensory system, induces in humans
more » ... asting changes in perception and neural processing, without any explicit task training. It has been suggested that the effectiveness of this form of learning stems from the fact that the stimulation protocols used are optimized to alter synaptic transmission and efficacy. TISL provides novel ways to investigate in humans the relation between learning processes and underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, and to explore alternative strategies for intervention and therapy.
doi:10.1515/s13295-015-0003-1 fatcat:6rsagpbqhjgfzp4rjqdq6676gu

Age-Related Attenuation of Dominant Hand Superiority

Tobias Kalisch, Claudia Wilimzig, Nadine Kleibel, Martin Tegenthoff, Hubert R. Dinse, Chris Miall
2006 PLoS ONE  
Background. The decline of motor performance of the human hand-arm system with age is well-documented. While dominant hand performance is superior to that of the non-dominant hand in young individuals, little is known of possible age-related changes in hand dominance. We investigated age-related alterations of hand dominance in 20 to 90 year old subjects. All subjects were unambiguously right-handed according to the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. In Experiment 1, motor performance for aiming,
more » ... ostural tremor, precision of arm-hand movement, speed of arm-hand movement, and wrist-finger speed tasks were tested. In Experiment 2, accelerometer-sensors were used to obtain objective records of hand use in everyday activities. Principal Findings. Our data confirm previous findings of a general task-dependent decline in motor performance with age. Analysis of the relationship between right/left-hand performances using a laterality index showed a loss of right hand dominance with advancing age. The clear right-hand advantage present at younger ages changed to a more balanced performance in advanced age. This shift was due to a more pronounced age-related decline of right hand performance. Accelerometer-sensor measurements supported these findings by demonstrating that the frequency of hand use also shifted from a clear right hand preference in young adults to a more balanced usage of both hands in old age. Despite these agerelated changes in the relative level of performance in defined motor tasks and in the frequency of hand use, elderly subjects continued to rate themselves as unambiguous right-handers. Conclusion. The discrepancy between hand-specific practical performance in controlled motor tests as well as under everyday conditions and the results of questionnaires concerning hand use and hand dominance suggests that most elderly subjects are unaware of the changes in hand dominance that occur over their lifespan, i.e., a shift to ambidexterity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000090 pmid:17183722 pmcid:PMC1762407 fatcat:ggdugwqmabellj52gs5usq6w4m

Passive Auditory Stimulation Improves Vision in Hemianopia

Jörg Lewald, Martin Tegenthoff, Sören Peters, Markus Hausmann, Mark W. Greenlee
2012 PLoS ONE  
Techniques employed in rehabilitation of visual field disorders such as hemianopia are usually based on either visual or audio-visual stimulation and patients have to perform a training task. Here we present results from a completely different, novel approach that was based on passive unimodal auditory stimulation. Ten patients with either left or right-sided pure hemianopia (without neglect) received one hour of unilateral passive auditory stimulation on either their anopic or their intact
more » ... by application of repetitive trains of sound pulses emitted simultaneously via two loudspeakers. Immediately before and after passive auditory stimulation as well as after a period of recovery, patients completed a simple visual task requiring detection of light flashes presented along the horizontal plane in total darkness. The results showed that one-time passive auditory stimulation on the side of the blind, but not of the intact, hemifield of patients with hemianopia induced an improvement in visual detections by almost 100% within 30 min after passive auditory stimulation. This enhancement in performance was reversible and was reduced to baseline 1.5 h later. A non-significant trend of a shift of the visual field border toward the blind hemifield was obtained after passive auditory stimulation. These results are compatible with the view that passive auditory stimulation elicited some activation of the residual visual pathways, which are known to be multisensory and may also be sensitive to unimodal auditory stimuli as were used here.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031603 pmid:22666311 pmcid:PMC3362608 fatcat:nzt76rq5bbfpvaprup2u6gtuei

Age-Related Attenuation of Dominant Hand Superiority [chapter]

Tobias Kalisch, Claudia Wilimzig, Nadine Kleibel, Martin Tegenthoff, Hubert Dinse
2011 Social Work and Geriatric Services  
Background. The decline of motor performance of the human hand-arm system with age is well-documented. While dominant hand performance is superior to that of the non-dominant hand in young individuals, little is known of possible age-related changes in hand dominance. We investigated age-related alterations of hand dominance in 20 to 90 year old subjects. All subjects were unambiguously right-handed according to the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. In Experiment 1, motor performance for aiming,
more » ... ostural tremor, precision of arm-hand movement, speed of arm-hand movement, and wrist-finger speed tasks were tested. In Experiment 2, accelerometer-sensors were used to obtain objective records of hand use in everyday activities. Principal Findings. Our data confirm previous findings of a general task-dependent decline in motor performance with age. Analysis of the relationship between right/left-hand performances using a laterality index showed a loss of right hand dominance with advancing age. The clear right-hand advantage present at younger ages changed to a more balanced performance in advanced age. This shift was due to a more pronounced age-related decline of right hand performance. Accelerometer-sensor measurements supported these findings by demonstrating that the frequency of hand use also shifted from a clear right hand preference in young adults to a more balanced usage of both hands in old age. Despite these agerelated changes in the relative level of performance in defined motor tasks and in the frequency of hand use, elderly subjects continued to rate themselves as unambiguous right-handers. Conclusion. The discrepancy between hand-specific practical performance in controlled motor tests as well as under everyday conditions and the results of questionnaires concerning hand use and hand dominance suggests that most elderly subjects are unaware of the changes in hand dominance that occur over their lifespan, i.e., a shift to ambidexterity.
doi:10.1201/b13135-10 fatcat:yagko5xijzagjmqy3kdvluzjfe

Evoking plasticity through sensory stimulation: Implications for learning and rehabilitation

Hubert R. Dinse, Martin Tegenthoff
2015 e-Neuroforum  
It is generally agreed that processes allowing modification of synaptic efficacy are the neural substrates for learning. Synaptic plasticity mechanisms either facilitate or suppress transmission at synapses to alter communication between nerve cells. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission are leading candidate models allowing investigation of activity-dependent changes in synaptic connection strength [26] . Typically, high-frequency stimulation is
more » ... ed to induce LTP in brain slices, whereas LTD can be reliably evoked by low-frequency stimulation [3, 23, 24] . However, the lack of adequate input stimuli for the induction of LTP and LTD in humans has hindered direct evaluation of the impact of such protocols on human behaviour. Which role plays LTP or LTD in human learning? Are these relevant processes at all to understand what happens during everyday learning? Synaptic plasticity studies use temporally specific stimulation protocols to induce longlasting changes in synaptic transmission, but the implications of this requirement for temporally specific protocols in everyday learning remain unclear. For trainingand practice-based learning to occur, sensory inputs are modified in their frequency, temporal pattern, the number of stimuli and their duration, form, size and intensity [32, 33] . But it is difficult to exactly quantify the numerous changes in input parameters that occur during training. Therefore, linking the principles of synaptic learning that induce plasticity at the cellular level to the principles at the systems level is far from straightforward. Abstract e-Neuroforum 2015 · 6:11-20
doi:10.1007/s13295-015-0003-1 fatcat:j3luflzsjvbejibq3wm4v2ltlu

An rTMS study into self-face recognition using video-morphing technique

Christine Heinisch, Hubert R. Dinse, Martin Tegenthoff, Georg Juckel, Martin Brüne
2010 Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience  
Self-face recognition is a sign of higher order self-awareness. Research into the neuronal network argues that the visual pathway of recognizing one's own face differs from recognizing others. The present study aimed at investigating the cortical network of self-other discrimination by producing virtual lesions over the temporo-parietal junction and the prefrontal cortex using low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in a sham-controlled design. Frontal and parietal
more » ... s were stimulated separately in consecutive sessions one week apart in 10 healthy subjects. We designed a video-task comprising morphings of famous, unfamiliar and the subjects' own faces that transformed into each other over a time period of six seconds. Reaction time (RT) was measured by pushing a mouse-button once a change of identity was recognized. rTMS over the right temporo-parietal junction led to a decrease in RT when a subject's own face emerged from a familiar face; a similar effect was observed after rTMS over right-prefrontal and left-parietal cortices, when the subjects' ratings of own likeability were taken into account. The transition from an unfamiliar face to one's own face indicated a left frontal lateralization.
doi:10.1093/scan/nsq062 pmid:20587597 pmcid:PMC3150855 fatcat:aiyxcrk4zjehtjcehrlofangzu

Stress-induced enhancement of response inhibition depends on mineralocorticoid receptor activation

Lars Schwabe, Oliver Höffken, Martin Tegenthoff, Oliver T. Wolf
2013 Psychoneuroendocrinology  
doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.05.001 pmid:23831264 fatcat:vcns3zrxwvg4fh6ktm2updnewq

Repetitive Electric Stimulation Elicits Enduring Improvement of Sensorimotor Performance in Seniors

Tobias Kalisch, Martin Tegenthoff, Hubert R. Dinse
2010 Neural Plasticity  
Age-related changes occur on all stages of the human somatosensory pathway, thereby deteriorating tactile, haptic, and sensorimotor performance. However, recent studies show that age-related changes are not irreversible but treatable through peripheral stimulation paradigms based on neuroplasticity mechanisms. We here applied repetitive electric stimulation (rES) to the fingers on a bi-weekly basis for 4 weeks to induce enduring amelioration of age-related changes in healthy individuals aged
more » ... 85 years. Tactile, haptic, and motor performance gradually improved over time of intervention. After termination of rES, tactile acuity recovered to baseline within 2 weeks, while the gains in haptic and motor performance were preserved for 2 weeks. Sham stimulation showed no comparable changes. Our data indicate that age-related decline of sensorimotor performance can be ameliorated by rES and can be stabilized by the repeated application. Thus, long-term application of rES appears as a prime candidate for maintaining sensorimotor functions in elderly individuals.
doi:10.1155/2010/690531 pmid:20414332 pmcid:PMC2855030 fatcat:aemuypfsendhrijgsmc3f6nbme

Cooperation and Deception Recruit Different Subsets of the Theory-of-Mind Network

Silke Lissek, Sören Peters, Nina Fuchs, Henning Witthaus, Volkmar Nicolas, Martin Tegenthoff, Georg Juckel, Martin Brüne, Edwin Robertson
2008 PLoS ONE  
The term "theory of mind" (ToM) describes an evolved psychological mechanism that is necessary to represent intentions and expectations in social interaction. It is thus involved in determining the proclivity of others to cooperate or defect. While in cooperative settings between two parties the intentions and expectations of the protagonists match, they diverge in deceptive scenarios, in which one protagonist is intentionally manipulated to hold a false belief about the intention of the other.
more » ... In a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm using cartoons showing social interactions (including the outcome of the interaction) between two or three story characters, respectively, we sought to determine those brain areas of the ToM network involved in reasoning about cooperative versus deceptive interactions. Healthy volunteers were asked to reflect upon the protagonists' intentions and expectations in cartoons depicting cooperation, deception or a combination of both, where two characters cooperated to deceive a third. Reasoning about the mental states of the story characters yielded substantial differences in activation patterns: both deception and cooperation activated bilateral temporoparietal junction, parietal and cingulate regions, while deception alone additionally recruited orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal regions. These results indicate an important role for prefrontal cortex in processing a mismatch between a character's intention and another's expectations as required in complex social interactions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002023 pmid:18431500 pmcid:PMC2295259 fatcat:dbqqlbo77jdstn5ulmgwmbdswu

Fluoxetine facilitates use-dependent excitability of human primary motor cortex

Burkhard Pleger, Peter Schwenkreis, Christian Grünberg, Jean-Pierre Malin, Martin Tegenthoff
2004 Clinical Neurophysiology  
., 1999; Tegenthoff et al., 1999 Tegenthoff et al., , 2004 .  ...  al., 1999 (Tegenthoff et al., , 2004 .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2004.04.015 pmid:15294219 fatcat:6d45zehijfgivgfmy7tbz2d7tq

Effects of Cortisol on Reconsolidation of Reactivated Fear Memories

Shira Meir Drexler, Christian J Merz, Tanja C Hamacher-Dang, Martin Tegenthoff, Oliver T Wolf
2015 Neuropsychopharmacology  
Tegenthoff, O.T.  ... 
doi:10.1038/npp.2015.160 pmid:26058664 pmcid:PMC4864639 fatcat:keny5wrr3zeuhc54dq5f75nhny

An fMRI study of theory of mind in schizophrenic patients with "passivity" symptoms

Martin Brüne, Silke Lissek, Nina Fuchs, Henning Witthaus, Sören Peters, Volkmar Nicolas, Georg Juckel, Martin Tegenthoff
2008 Neuropsychologia  
Several studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia underactivate brain regions involved in theory of mind relative to controls during functional brain imaging. However, in most studies the samples were fairly heterogeneous in terms of clinical symptomatology. We examined a group of nine patients with first episode or recurrent episodes, who clinically presented with predominant "passivity" symptoms such as third-person auditory hallucinations or delusion of control, using a
more » ... d theory of mind task and compared activation patterns with a group of 13 healthy controls. All patients responded well to antipsychotic treatment and were only mildly symptomatic at the time of testing. The patient group showed significantly less activation of the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right insula compared with controls, but greater activation in dorsal areas of the medial prefrontal cortex, right temporal areas and left temporo-parietal junction. Patients with schizophrenia with predominant "passivity" symptoms and good response to antipsychotic treatment show a markedly diverging pattern of brain activation during theory of mind task performance compared with healthy controls. These findings suggest abnormal activation of those brain areas involved in the evaluation of self-reference during mental state attribution.
doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.01.023 pmid:18329671 fatcat:wc52cneg6zfqljlleyjcmehxcq

Differential effects of synchronous and asynchronous multifinger coactivation on human tactile performance

Tobias Kalisch, Martin Tegenthoff, Hubert R Dinse
2007 BMC Neuroscience  
Repeated execution of a tactile task enhances task performance. In the present study we sought to improve tactile performance with unattended activation-based learning processes (i.e., focused stimulation of dermal receptors evoking neural coactivation (CA)). Previous studies show that the application of CA to a single finger reduced the stationary two-point discrimination threshold and significantly increased tactile acuity. These changes were accompanied by an expansion of the cortical finger
more » ... representation in primary somatosensory cortex (SI). Here we investigated the effect of different types of multifinger CA on the tactile performance of each finger of the right hand. Results: Synchronous and asynchronous CA was applied to all fingers of a subject's dominant hand. We evaluated changes in absolute touch thresholds, static two-point discrimination thresholds, and mislocalization of tactile stimuli to the fingertips. After synchronous CA, tactile acuity improved (i.e., discrimination thresholds decreased) and the frequency of mislocalization of tactile stimuli changed from directly neighboring fingers to more distant fingers. On the other hand, asynchronous CA did not significant improve tactile acuity. In fact, there was evidence of impaired tactile acuity. Multifinger CA with synchronous or asynchronous stimulation did not significantly alter absolute touch thresholds. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that it is possible to extend tactile CA to all fingers of a hand. The observed changes in mislocalization of tactile stimuli after synchronous CA indicate changes in the topography of the cortical hand representation. Although single-finger CA has been shown to improve tactile acuity, asynchronous CA of all fingers of the hand had the opposite effect, suggesting the need for synchrony in multifinger CA for improving tactile acuity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2202-8-58 pmid:17663778 pmcid:PMC1949832 fatcat:tcz6cp6c3zdvdaxrjnbbeuok7e
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