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Migration is a central determinant of population dynamics and structure. We examined whether three major temperament traits-sociability, emotionality, and activity-predicted migration propensity, selective urbanrural migration, and migration distance in a 9-year prospective study in Finland. The participants were Finnish women and men (N 5 1,733) ages 15 to 30 years at baseline. The home municipality's position on the urban-rural continuum was assessed on the basis of the municipality'sdoi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02164.x pmid:18947345 fatcat:qyxqngecejcerfibpfquhoey2u
more »... on density. We found that high sociability predicted migration to urban areas and longer migration distances. High activity increased general migration propensity (including migration to both urban and rural areas). High emotionality increased the likelihood of leaving the home municipality and decreased migration distances, but was not associated with selective urban-rural migration. These data suggest that temperament predicts the self-selection of environments on a demographic scale and may be relevant in understanding population dynamics.
People's threat perceptions play a role in influencing foreign policies towards perceived adversary countries. Earlier research has identified multiple components shaping mass-level threat perceptions including military power, adversary country's perceived intentions, and national identities. On the individual level, education, use of media, and interest in politics have been shown to influence threat perceptions. However, most studies on perceptions of security threats fail to include bothdoi:10.1111/pops.12630 fatcat:u5d3rwposralzok5d54ptsewc4
more »... extual and individual-level explanatory factors and to consider that different national threats may be constructed differently. This research bridges formation of threat perceptions on the individual level to wider societal processes and provides an empirical perspective to understanding threat perceptions among the educated section of the Chinese population. To analyze threat perceptions, students from leading Chinese universities (N = 771) took part in a survey in the autumn of 2011 and spring of 2012. Respondents who followed conventional media were more likely to perceive both the United States and Japan as threatening, and the effect of media consumption was particularly strong with regards to perceived threat from Japan. In addition, each threat perception was significantly associated with threatspecific explanatory factors. Potential explanatory factors of threat perceptions were explored with linear regression models.
Objectives We aimed to review evidence on the relationship between temporary employment and health, and to see whether the association is dependent on outcome measure, instability of employment, and contextual factors. Method We systematically searched for studies of temporary employment and various health outcomes and critically appraised 27 studies. Results The review suggests higher psychological morbidity among temporary workers compared with permanent employees. According to some studies,doi:10.1093/ije/dyi024 pmid:15737968 fatcat:ns2akzvyhvhm5feqde56ekziui
more »... emporary workers also have a higher risk of occupational injuries but their sickness absence is lower. Morbidity may be higher in temporary jobs with high employment instability and in countries with a lower number of temporary workers and unemployed workers. Conclusions The evidence indicates an association between temporary employment and psychological morbidity. The health risk may depend on instability of temporary employment and the context. Confounding by occupation may have biased some of the studies. Additional research to clarify the role of employment instability, hazard accumulation, and selection is recommended.
Objectives This study explored the health and sickness absences of contingent employees. Methods Analyses of self-reported health and recorded spells of sickness absence were based on a cohort of 5650 employees (674 men, 4976 women) in 10 Finnish hospitals. Results After adjustment for demographic and work-related characteristics, contingent employees had a better self-rated health status [odds ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62-0.94 of poor or average health status]. There weredoi:10.5271/sjweh.628 fatcat:iywlquwomvcfjodze3jqmywm2q
more »... o differences in the prevalence of diagnosed chronic diseases and minor psychiatric morbidity between the groups. After adjustment for self-rated health and confounding, female, but not male, contingent employees had a lower rate of self-certified (1-3 days) sickness absences than permanent employees (rate ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.85-0.95). Contingent employees, irrespective of gender, had a 0.77 (95% CI 0.71-0.84) times lower rate of medically certified (>3 days) sickness absence than permanent employees. Poor selfrated health status, reported diagnosed chronic diseases, and minor psychiatric morbidity were associated with medically certified absences to a less extent among contingent employees than among permanent employees. Conclusions These findings suggest better self-rated health and a lower sickness absence rate for contingent employees than for permanent employees. The difference in sickness absence between the groups seems not only to be associated with actual differences in health, but also with different thresholds of taking sick leave or working while ill.
During the past years, psychological diseases related to unhealthy work environments, such as burnouts, have drawn more and more public attention. One of the known causes of these affective problems is time pressure. In order to form a theoretical background for time pressure detection in software repositories, this paper combines interdisciplinary knowledge by analyzing 1270 papers found on Scopus database and containing terms related to time pressure. By clustering those papers based on theirarXiv:1703.04372v1 fatcat:d7dnbuyacfft5oxx2rakolvj44
more »... abstract, we show that time pressure has been widely studied across different fields, but relatively little in software engineering. From a literature review of the most relevant papers, we infer a list of testable hypotheses that we want to verify in future studies in order to assess the impact of time pressures on software developers mental health.
, our previous research in the present sample has shown that activity, a basic behavioral dimension of personality, may influence complex adult social behaviors such as residential mobility (Jokela, Elovainio ...doi:10.1037/a0014058 pmid:19210076 fatcat:bpmxm5os6fgz3iypqfodtmtxhu
Objective: To assess whether the association between cognitive ability (IQ) and early mortality is mediated by socioeconomic status (SES) or whether the association between SES and mortality reflects a spurious association caused by IQ. Methods: The participants were from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n ϭ 11,321). IQ was assessed at age 16 to 23 years and the participants were followed up to 40 to 47 years of age. Results: Controlling for sex, birth year, race/ethnicity,doi:10.1097/psy.0b013e31819b69f6 pmid:19251867 pmcid:PMC2851186 fatcat:y27syssixnfdzckkojiyivq4ci
more »... health, and parental education, higher IQ was associated with lower probability of death (odds ratio (OR) per 1-standard deviation increase in IQ ϭ 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) ϭ 0.66, 0.91). This association disappeared (OR ϭ 0.99, 95% CI ϭ 0.81, 1.20) when adjusted for education and household income. Adjustment for IQ had no effect on the association between SES and mortality. These findings were similar in Hispanic, Black, and White/other participants and in women and men. Parental education moderated the IQ-mortality association so that this association was not observed in participants with low parental education. Conclusions: Low IQ predicts early mortality in the US population and this association is largely explained by SES. The results do not support the alternative hypothesis that the socioeconomic gradient in early mortality would reflect IQ differences.
The use of guidelines has shown to improve clinical practice process and structure of health care, but health care providers don't always use and keep up-to-date with the new clinical practice guidelines. Nurses' attitudes towards guidelines have shown to be the most frequently identified factor affecting their actual use of clinical practice guidelines, but no instruments for measuring it are available in China. There are scales validated in the western countries, but there is no informationdoi:10.1186/s12874-019-0682-3 pmid:30795736 pmcid:PMC6387474 fatcat:5dgzcq7qfrfrjosrwpoa42owna
more »... out their validity in Chinese health care. The purpose of this study is to test the validity and reliability of Chinese Attitudes towards guidelines - scale for nurses.
make a further contribution in testing the network structure at the symptom-domain level in a sample of international adoptees, who have been shown to face an increased risk of psychiatric problems (Elovainio ...doi:10.1007/s10826-018-1046-z fatcat:mhzexfx62zhwnhby5jhys4nkli
Body weight is associated with reproduction and related behaviors, but it is unknown whether it has significance for fertility differences in the general population. We examined whether adolescent body mass index (BMI; kg/m 2 ) predicted the number of children in adulthood 21 years later. Methods: The participants were 1298 Finnish women and men (ages 12, 15, and 18 years at baseline) followed in a prospective population-based cohort study (the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns) from year 1980doi:10.1097/ede.0b013e3181257158 pmid:17700249 fatcat:f2vo5n5nfveddbem5mlcey5x5y
more »... to 2001. Results: There was an inverted J-shaped association between BMI and the number of children, such that underweight adolescents had 10 -16% fewer children in adulthood, overweight adolescents 4 -8% fewer, and obese adolescents 32-38% fewer than individuals with normal adolescent weight. This association was similar in women and men, and independent of age, education, urbanicity of residence, and timing of menarche (in women). Adolescents with low or high BMI were less likely to have lived with a partner in adulthood, which partly accounted for their decreased number of children. The influence of adolescent BMI was independent of adulthood BMI in women but not in men. Age at menarche also predicted the number of children, such that women with early or late menarche had more children than those with average age at menarche. Conclusion: Underweight and especially obesity may have a negative impact on fertility in the general population. The increasing prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents may represent a concern for future reproductive health.
Novelty seeking temperament has been associated with higher coronary heart disease risk factors, but the mechanism behind the association is open. Cardiac stress response is a potential candidate. Purpose Cardiac stress reactivity and recovery was studied in 29 healthy subjects (aged 22-37 years) scoring extremely high (n=16) or extremely low (n=13) on temperamental dimension of novelty seeking. Method Heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and preejection period were measured duringdoi:10.1007/s12529-009-9034-8 pmid:19333765 fatcat:vq6yyjh6incttfj77nroi2b7dm
more »... ing tasks. Differences in cardiac reactivity and recovery between the novelty seeking groups were examined with repeatedmeasures and univariate analyses. Results The main finding was that stress reactivity did not differ between high and low novelty seeking groups, but high novelty seekers tended to show faster recovery, which is likely to be parasympathetically mediated. Conclusion The findings suggest that high novelty seekers may be more stress resilient because they might have faster cardiac recovery after stress. Cardiac stress reactivity seems not to be among the explaining factors for the association between novelty seeking and coronary heart disease risk factors.
Supplemental material, USJ827521_supplemental_material for Involuntary staying and self-rated health: A multilevel study on housing, health and neighbourhood effects by Teemu Kemppainen, Marko Elovainio ...doi:10.25384/sage.7907861.v1 fatcat:gwsqxa66zzag7g73apstrtkkju
Personality is suggested to be a major risk factor for depression but large-scale individual participant meta-analyses on this topic are lacking. Method: Data from 10 prospective community cohort studies with 117,899 participants (mean age 49.0 years; 54.7% women) were pooled for individual participant meta-analysis to determine the association between personality traits of the five-factor model and risk of depressive symptoms. Results: In cross-sectional analysis, low extraversion (pooleddoi:10.1002/da.22376 pmid:26014798 pmcid:PMC4605994 fatcat:4jxhytpvd5d4tkwckyfl6bc3wm
more »... ardized regression coefficient (B) = -.08; 95% confidence interval = -0.11, -0.04), high neuroticism (B = .39; 0.32, 0.45), and low conscientiousness (B = -.09; -0.10, -0.06) were associated with depressive symptoms. Similar associations were observed in longitudinal analyses adjusted for baseline depressive symptoms (n = 56,735; mean follow-up of 5.0 years): low extraversion (B = -.03; -0.05, -0.01), high neuroticism (B = .12; 0.10, 0.13), and low conscientiousness (B = -.04; -0.06, -0.02) were associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms at follow-up. In turn, depressive symptoms were associated with personality change in extraversion (B = -.07; 95% CI = -0.12, -0.02), neuroticism (B = .23; 0.09, 0.36), agreeableness (B = -.09; -0.15, -0.04), conscientiousness (B = -.14; -0.21, -0.07), and openness to experience (B = -.04; -0.08, 0.00). Conclusions: Personality traits are prospectively associated with the development of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, in turn, are associated with changes in personality that may be temporary or persistent. Depression and Anxiety 32:461-470, 2015. C 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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