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Assessing metabolic rate and indoor air quality with passive environmental sensors

Iván Ruiz, Mark Sprowls, Yue Deng, Doina Kulick, Hugo Destaillats, Erica S Forzani
2018 Journal of Breath Research  
doi:10.1088/1752-7163/aaaec9 pmid:29434055 fatcat:wlcftazbdnbrjgnquifjwiacpq

A Smart System for the Contactless Measurement of Energy Expenditure

Mark Sprowls, Shaun Victor, Sabrina Jimena Mora, Oscar Osorio, Gabriel Pyznar, Hugo Destaillats, Courtney Wheatley-Guy, Bruce Johnson, Doina Kulick, Erica Forzani
2022 Sensors  
Energy Expenditure (EE) (kcal/day), a key element to guide obesity treatment, is measured from CO2 production, VCO2 (mL/min), and/or O2 consumption, VO2 (mL/min). Current technologies are limited due to the requirement of wearable facial accessories. A novel system, the Smart Pad, which measures EE via VCO2 from a room's ambient CO2 concentration transients was evaluated. Resting EE (REE) and exercise VCO2 measurements were recorded using Smart Pad and a reference instrument to study
more » ... duration's influence on accuracy. The Smart Pad displayed 90% accuracy (±1 SD) for 14–19 min of REE measurement and for 4.8–7.0 min of exercise, using known room's air exchange rate. Additionally, the Smart Pad was validated measuring subjects with a wide range of body mass indexes (BMI = 18.8 to 31.4 kg/m2), successfully validating the system accuracy across REE's measures of ~1200 to ~3000 kcal/day. Furthermore, high correlation between subjects' VCO2 and λ for CO2 accumulation was observed (p < 0.00001, R = 0.785) in a 14.0 m3 sized room. This finding led to development of a new model for REE measurement from ambient CO2 without λ calibration using a reference instrument. The model correlated in nearly 100% agreement with reference instrument measures (y = 1.06x, R = 0.937) using an independent dataset (N = 56).
doi:10.3390/s22041355 pmid:35214262 pmcid:PMC8963031 fatcat:q4c4i3oa6vbszdoryuletlfhum

An Unobstructive Sensing Method for Indoor Air Quality Optimization and Metabolic Assessment within Vehicles

Yue Deng, Mark Sprowls, S. Jimena Mora, Doina Kulick, Nongjian Tao, Hugo Destaillats, Erica Forzani
2020 Sensors  
This work investigates the use of an intelligent and unobstructive sensing technique for maintaining vehicle cabin's indoor air quality while simultaneously assessing the driver metabolic rate. CO2 accumulation patterns are of great interest because CO2 can have negative cognitive effects at higher concentrations and also since CO2 accumulation rate can potentially be used to determine a person's metabolic rate. The management of the vehicle's ventilation system was controlled by periodically
more » ... ternating the air recirculation mode within the cabin, which was actuated based on the CO2 levels inside the vehicle's cabin. The CO2 accumulation periods were used to assess the driver's metabolic rate, using a model that considered the vehicle's air exchange rate. In the process of the method optimization, it was found that the vehicle's air exchange rate (λ [h−1]) depends on the vehicle speeds, following the relationship: λ = 0.060 × (speed) − 0.88 when driving faster than 17 MPH. An accuracy level of 95% was found between the new method to assess the driver's metabolic rate (1620 ± 140 kcal/day) and the reference method of indirect calorimetry (1550 ± 150 kcal/day) for a total of N = 16 metabolic assessments at various vehicle speeds. The new sensing method represents a novel approach for unobstructive assessment of driver metabolic rate while maintaining indoor air quality within the vehicle cabin.
doi:10.3390/s20247202 pmid:33339222 pmcid:PMC7766572 fatcat:yz27holdtvgpxm6u62ewum2usu

Drug resistance occurred in a newly characterized preclinical model of lung cancer brain metastasis

Neal Shah, Zhongwei Liu, Rachel M. Tallman, Afroz Mohammad, Samuel A. Sprowls, Pushkar A. Saralkar, Schuyler D. Vickers, Mark V. Pinti, Weimin Gao, Paul R. Lockman
2020 BMC Cancer  
Cancer metastasis and drug resistance have traditionally been studied separately, though these two lethal pathological phenomena almost always occur concurrently. Brain metastasis occurs in a large proportion of lung cancer patients (~ 30%). Once diagnosed, patients have a poor prognosis surviving typically less than 1 year due to lack of treatment efficacy. Human metastatic lung cancer cells (PC-9-Br) were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of female athymic nude mice. Brain lesions were
more » ... allowed to grow for 21 days, animals were then randomized into treatment groups and treated until presentation of neurological symptoms or when moribund. Prior to tissue collection mice were injected with Oregon Green and 14C-Aminoisobutyric acid followed by an indocyanine green vascular washout. Tracer accumulation was determined by quantitative fluorescent microscopy and quantitative autoradiography. Survival was tracked and tumor burden was monitored via bioluminescent imaging. Extent of mutation differences and acquired resistance was measured in-vitro through half-maximal inhibitory assays and qRT-PCR analysis. A PC-9 brain seeking line (PC-9-Br) was established. Mice inoculated with PC-9-Br resulted in a decreased survival time compared with mice inoculated with parental PC-9. Non-targeted chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide (51.5 days) significantly prolonged survival of PC-9-Br brain metastases in mice compared to vehicle control (42 days) or cisplatin and pemetrexed (45 days). Further in-vivo imaging showed greater tumor vasculature in mice treated with cisplatin and etoposide compared to non-tumor regions, which was not observed in mice treated with vehicle or cisplatin and pemetrexed. More importantly, PC-9-Br showed significant resistance to gefitinib by in-vitro MTT assays (IC50 > 2.5 μM at 48 h and 0.1 μM at 72 h) compared with parental PC-9 (IC50: 0.75 μM at 48 h and 0.027 μM at 72 h). Further studies on the molecular mechanisms of gefitinib resistance revealed that EGFR and phospho-EGFR were significantly decreased in PC-9-Br compared with PC-9. Expression of E-cadherin and vimentin did not show EMT in PC-9-Br compared with parental PC-9, and PC-9-Br had neither a T790M mutation nor amplifications of MET and HER2 compared with parental PC-9. Our study demonstrated that brain metastases of lung cancer cells may independently prompt drug resistance without drug treatment.
doi:10.1186/s12885-020-06808-2 pmid:32264860 fatcat:7ljkxepup5e6pnbp4p6rakk5a4

Total iron measurement in human serum with a novel smartphone-based assay

Michael Serhan, David Jackemeyer, Mindy Long, Mark Sprowls, Ismael Diez Perez, Wolfgang Maret, Fang Chen, Nongjian Tao, Erica Forzani
2020 IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine  
Average values are marked with +/− 1 standard deviation. The estimated limit of detection was 16.5 µg/dL, marked with a red asterisk.  ...  an estimated detection limit (LoD) of 16.5 µg/dL total iron concentration was calculated from the assessed sensitivity, and by assuming a signal equal to 3 times the noise level from 30 blank samples (marked  ... 
doi:10.1109/jtehm.2020.3005308 pmid:32832281 pmcid:PMC7433848 fatcat:bzqkyhnnqnahxkrod7pmzgrnli

A Handheld, Colorimetric Optoelectronic Dynamics Analyzer for Measuring Total Ammonia of Biological Samples

Nai-Yuan Liu, Pinar Cay-Durgun, Tianmiao Lai, Mark Sprowls, Leslie Thomas, Mary Laura Lind, Erica Forzani
2018 IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine  
This paper introduces a wireless, solid-state, portable, and automated device capable of measuring the total ammonia [ammonia (NH 3 ) and ammonium (NH + 4 )] levels of fluids, including biological samples. This device reliably measures the total ammonia of biological samples (e.g., urine) faster than the current ammonia quantification techniques. Medical professionals typically estimate NH4 + levels using error-prone indirect measurement techniques (i.e., urine anion gap), which are
more » ... ng and are seldom suitable for periodic measurements. Several instantaneous measurements of total ammonia levels in a patient urine could be utilized as an early warning for both acid-base and/or potassium disturbances. Given the device's operation mechanism, it is able to quantify the total ammonia concentration within a biological sample in only 5 s and can simultaneously transmit data to other devices via Bluetooth. The analytical operation demonstrated high sensitivity, high specificity, fast reversibility, rapid response time, and has enabled the accurate determination of total ammonia concentration in urine samples produced by subjects who had consumed diets of variable protein compositions. INDEX TERMS Biosensors, chemical sensors, clinical diagnosis, medical diagnosis, optoelectronic devices.
doi:10.1109/jtehm.2018.2840678 pmid:30112251 pmcid:PMC6092083 fatcat:f3kce2nvpngbtlehsos3qtanxe

Investigational chemotherapy and novel pharmacokinetic mechanisms for the treatment of breast cancer brain metastases

Neal Shah, Afroz S. Mohammad, Pushkar Saralkar, Samuel A. Sprowls, Schuyler D. Vickers, Devin John, Rachel M. Tallman, Brandon P. Lucke-Wold, Katherine E. Jarrell, Mark Pinti, Richard L. Nolan, Paul R. Lockman
2018 Pharmacological Research  
In women, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis and second most common cause of cancer death. More than half of breast cancer patients will develop metastases to the bone, liver, lung, or brain. Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) confers a poor prognosis, as current therapeutic options of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy rarely significantly extend life and are considered palliative. Within the realm of chemotherapy, the last decade has seen an explosion of novel
more » ... tics involving targeting agents and unique dosage forms. We provide a historical overview of BCBM chemotherapy, review the mechanisms of new agents such as poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors, cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors, phosphatidyl inositol 3kinaseinhibitors, estrogen pathway antagonists for hormone-receptor positive BCBM; tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibodies, and conjugates for HER2 + BCBM; repurposed cytotoxic chemotherapy for triple negative BCBM; and the utilization of these new agents and formulations in ongoing clinical trials. The mechanisms of novel dosage formulations such as nanoparticles, liposomes, pegylation, the concepts of enhanced permeation and retention, and drugs utilizing these concepts involved in clinical trials are also discussed. These new treatments provide a promising outlook in the treatment of BCBM. EPIDEMIOLOGY Second only to heart disease, cancer accounted for 23% of recorded deaths in 2014. In women, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, followed by breast cancer, and then colorectal cancer. It is estimated in 2018 there will be more than 260,000 new cases of breast cancer and more than 40,000 deaths as a result of the disease [1]. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer diagnoses in women, with a 1-in-8 total lifetime risk for diagnosis [2] . Though breast cancer may be diagnosed at any age, a recently published report placed the average age of diagnosis at 50 years old [3] . This report also found that in those cases in which information on ethnicity was available, 68% were Caucasian, 17% were African American, and 11% were Hispanic. Although not as common in men, breast cancer incidence within this population is increasing. The incidence in men is typically associated with factors such as a high body mass index, Klinefelter syndrome, gynecomastia, liver disease, testicular disease, alcoholism, and radiation exposure. Male breast cancer is most comparable to breast cancer that presents in postmenopausal women, but with a few distinct differences. In men, breast cancer is typically discovered at an older age and presents at a more advanced stage. In addition, male breast cancer has higher rates of estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity than female breast cancer. There is also evidence that genetic predisposition plays a larger role in developing breast cancer in males [4]. One of the biggest challenges of treating breast cancer is its propensity to metastasize to other areas of the body, including liver, bone, lung, and brain. After lung cancer, breast cancer is the second most common source of brain metastases [5] (Figure 1 ). Of patients diagnosed with breast cancer, between 10-15% will develop brain metastases [6] with the median time of presentation 2-3 years after initial diagnosis [7] . In about 30% of breast cancer patients, metastatic lesions in the brain were found post-mortem [8] [9] [10] [11] . Brain metastases of breast cancer are associated with limited survival and a lower quality of life. Some risk factors that have been associated with the development of brain metastases in women include: diagnosis of breast cancer at a younger age, tumors that are large or high grade, presence of lymph node metastases, and certain subtypes of breast cancer. The subtypes that have been shown to preferentially metastasize to the brain include estrogenreceptor negative, estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptor negative (triple negative), and HER2 + breast cancers [3] . Survival for patients that have developed brain metastases is low, ranging from 2 to 16 months after diagnosis. Current treatment strategies for breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) include surgery, whole brain radiation or stereotactic radiosurgery, chemotherapy, and biological therapy [3] . Although these methods increase survival, the prognosis for patients with metastatic breast Shah et al.
doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2018.03.021 pmid:29604436 pmcid:PMC5997530 fatcat:otzulyyvhvdbpowxiznbjvqsvu

Integrated Sensing Systems for Monitoring Interrelated Physiological Parameters in Young and Aged Adults

Mark Sprowls, Michael Serhan, En-Fan Chou, Lancy Lin, Christopher Frames, Ivan Kucherenko, Keyvan Mollaeian, Yang Li, Varun Jammula, Dhenugen Logeswaran, Michelle Khine, Yezhou Yang (+11 others)
2021 International Journal of Prognostics and Health Management  
Acute injury to aged individuals represents a significant challenge to the global healthcare community as these injuries are frequently treated in a reactive method due to the infeasibility of frequent visits to the hospital for biometric monitoring. However, there is potential to prevent a large number of these cases through passive, at-home monitoring of multiple physiological parameters related to various causes that are common to aged adults in general. This research strives to implement
more » ... rable devices, ambient "smart home" devices, and minimally invasive blood and urine analysis to test the feasibility of implementation of a multitude of research-level (i.e. not yet clinically validated) methods simultaneously in a "smart system". The system comprises measures of balance, breathing, heart rate, metabolic rate, joint flexibility, hydration, and physical performance functions in addition to lab testing related to biological aging and mechanical cell strength. A proof-of-concept test is illustrated for two adult males of different ages: a 22-year-old and a 73-year-old matched in body mass index (BMI). The integrated system is test in this work, a pilot study, demonstrating functionality and age-related clinical relevance. The two subjects had physiological measurements taken in several settings during the pilot study: seated, biking, and lying down. Balance measurements indicated changes in sway area of 45.45% and 25.44%, respectively for before/after biking. The 22-year-old and the 73-year-old saw heart rate variabilities of 0.11 and 0.02 seconds at resting conditions, and metabolic rate changes of 277.38% and 222.23%, respectively, in comparison between the biking and seated conditions. A smart camera was used to assess biking speed and the 22- and 73-year-old subjects biked at 60 rpm and 28.5 rpm, respectively. The 22-year-old subject saw a 7 times greater electrical resistance change using a joint flexibility sensor inside of their index finger in comparison with the 73-year-old male. The 22 and 73-year-old males saw respective 28% and 48% increases in their urine ammonium concentration before/after the experiment. The average lengths of the telomere DNA from the two subjects were measured to be 12.1 kb (22-year-old) and 6.9 kb (73-year-old), consistent with their biological ages. The study probed feasibility of 1) multi-metric assessment under free living conditions, and 2) tracking of the various metrics over time.
doi:10.36001/ijphm.2021.v12i4.2914 fatcat:wm6kmhmwtbbe3ehtktkjqnsumq

Page 1244 of The Insurance Law Journal Vol. 91, Issue 5 [page]

1938 The Insurance Law Journal  
Sprowls in failing to reveal to his company the information sought by his examination could have been for no other purpose than to benefit Mark H Bamford and his wife.  ...  Sprowls’ office and that the only persons present during the examination were the insured, Dr. Sprowls and herself.  ... 

Page 226 of Academe Vol. 10, Issue 4 [page]

1924 Academe  
that Sprowls had been unjustly dropped.  ...  The letter concluded by requesting advice as to whether the local chapter ought to ask for an investigation by the Association at once, and it added: “Unless we can bring about some marked changes in the  ... 

Page 382 of Alabama. Supreme Court. Reports Vol. 4, Issue [page]

1833 Alabama. Supreme Court. Reports  
CASES DETERMINED SPROWL et al. vs. KELLAR. SPROWL et al. vs. KELLAR. ae .  ...  voyage, now lying in the Tennessee river, bound for New Or- leans—to say, two hundred and fifty-three bales of cotton, weighing one hundred and four thousand, nine hundred and nineteen pounds, being marked  ... 

The Rise of Information Systems at the Graduate School of Management, UCLA

E. Burton Swanson
2016 Communications of the Association for Information Systems  
Sprowls ultimately became its director. By 1960, Sprowls was thoroughly engaged in the field that would subsequently emerge as information systems.  ...  The C&IS group was also augmented by new junior faculty, with Lynne Markus joining in 1985 and Mark Silver arriving in 1987.  ...  Clay Sprowls' personal history was also invaluable and is a reminder of how deep the roots of IS at UCLA went; namely, to the early days of electronic computing itself. About the Author E.  ... 
doi:10.17705/1cais.03832 fatcat:vtoq77juhndtfaqpv7muox7xni

Page 4 of National Police Gazette Vol. 41, Issue 275 [page]

1882 National Police Gazette  
His every appearance was marked by dense crowds who cheered him to the echo. The stal- lion Rescue and the famous pacer Rowdy Boy were next campaigned by Mr. Wade.  ...  The pacer Gray Jo he drove in 2:24, his fastest mark. Com- ing down to 1882 he had Winder, pacer, whom he drove in 2:20 at Chicago in the race with Flora Belle.  ... 

Page 924 of The Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology Vol. 37, Issue 3 [page]

1928 The Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology  
Sprowl showed marked swelling and edema of the right upper lid and extreme tenderness over the right frontal and ethmoid areas. There was edema of the bulbar conjunctiva on the temporal side.  ...  SPROWL. The gauze packing was used, and carried into the nose. lower angle of the wound was closed.  ... 

Page 144 of Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology Vol. 13, Issue 4 [page]

1981 Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology  
MANAGEMENT — /V (DM-IV) GENERALISED /NFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) GENERALISED PLANNING SYSTEM (GPLAN) INQUIRE INTERACTIVE QUERY FACILITY (IQF) MANAGE/QUERY MONASH /NTERACTIVE NAVIGATIONAL ENQUIRY SYSTEM (MINES) MARK  ...  Systems Development Corporation Sprowls, 1976 Tsichritzis and Lochovsky, 1977 Codd, 1974; Date, 1977 Calson and Kaplan, 1976 Heindel and Roberto, 1973 Shu, et. al., 1975 Data General, 1980 Burroughs, 1977  ... 
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