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Modeling Traffic on the Web Graph [chapter]

Mark R. Meiss, Bruno Gonçalves, José J. Ramasco, Alessandro Flammini, Filippo Menczer
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Analysis of aggregate and individual Web requests shows that Page-Rank is a poor predictor of traffic. We use empirical data to characterize properties of Web traffic not reproduced by Markovian models, including both aggregate statistics such as page and link traffic, and individual statistics such as entropy and session size. As no current model reconciles all of these observations, we present an agent-based model that explains them through realistic browsing behaviors: (1) revisiting
more » ... ed pages; (2) backtracking; and (3) seeking out novel pages of topical interest. The resulting model can reproduce the behaviors we observe in empirical data, especially heterogeneous session lengths, reconciling the narrowly focused browsing patterns of individual users with the extreme variance in aggregate traffic measurements. We can thereby identify a few salient features that are necessary and sufficient to interpret Web traffic data. Beyond the descriptive and explanatory power of our model, these results may lead to improvements in Web applications such as search and crawling.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-18009-5_6 fatcat:5kfaaffemvfhllybn35fr2gvh4

Remembering what we like: Toward an agent-based model of Web traffic [article]

Bruno Goncalves, Mark R. Meiss, Jose J. Ramasco, Alessandro Flammini, Filippo Menczer
2009 arXiv   pre-print
BOOKRANK MODEL The introduction of PageRank [2] and the subsequent development of Google marked a turning point in the history of the Web.  ... 
arXiv:0901.3839v1 fatcat:3ssuvvjarbeundvek6hjbpxfyi

Mapping the diffusion of scholarly knowledge among major U.S. research institutions

Katy Börner, Shashikant Penumarthy, Mark Meiss, Weimao Ke
2006 Scientometrics  
., communication among mobile robots 2 ; social network analysis 3, 4 Börner, Katy, Penumarthy, Shashikant, Meiss, Mark and Ke, Weimao.  ...  , Mark and Ke, Weimao.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11192-006-0120-2 fatcat:vobozmff5zaebmjnuh3rvvrmmm

Truthy

Jacob Ratkiewicz, Michael Conover, Mark Meiss, Bruno Gonçalves, Snehal Patil, Alessandro Flammini, Filippo Menczer
2011 Proceedings of the 20th international conference companion on World wide web - WWW '11  
Upon examining these features, the user can choose to mark the meme as 'truthy.'  ...  Some examples of popular tags are #gop and #obama, marking discussion about the Republican party and President Obama, respectively.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1963192.1963301 dblp:conf/www/RatkiewiczCMGPFM11 fatcat:qz2x6uscwvhlnfsddicwb7yumi

On the lack of typical behavior in the global Web traffic network

Mark Meiss, Filippo Menczer, Alessandro Vespignani
2005 Proceedings of the 14th international conference on World Wide Web - WWW '05  
We find that client-server interaction patterns show marked scalefree properties, with statistical distributions of traffic properties varying over a wide range of length scales.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1060745.1060820 dblp:conf/www/MeissMV05 fatcat:tvoqoyo2j5aw5jxfbfwiueilke

Sustained activation of AMP-activated protein kinase induces c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and apoptosis in liver cells

Delphine Meisse, Mark Van de Casteele, Christophe Beauloye, Isabelle Hainault, Benjamin A Kefas, Mark H Rider, Fabienne Foufelle, Louis Hue
2002 FEBS Letters  
Meisse).  ...  Meisse et al./FEBS Letters 526 (2002) 38^42  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(02)03110-1 pmid:12208500 fatcat:v7ztkc5m3nftpbomqc3366ovka

What's in a session

Mark Meiss, John Duncan, Bruno Gonçalves, José J. Ramasco, Filippo Menczer
2009 Proceedings of the 20th ACM conference on Hypertext and hypermedia - HT '09  
We examine the properties of all HTTP requests generated by a thousand undergraduates over a span of two months. Preserving user identity in the data set allows us to discover novel properties of Web traffic that directly affect models of hypertext navigation. We find that the popularity of Web sites -- the number of users who contribute to their traffic -- lacks any intrinsic mean and may be unbounded. Further, many aspects of the browsing behavior of individual users can be approximated by
more » ... -normal distributions even though their aggregate behavior is scale-free. Finally, we show that users' click streams cannot be cleanly segmented into sessions using timeouts, affecting any attempt to model hypertext navigation using statistics of individual sessions. We propose a strictly logical definition of sessions based on browsing activity as revealed by referrer URLs; a user may have several active sessions in their click stream at any one time. We demonstrate that applying a timeout to these logical sessions affects their statistics to a lesser extent than a purely timeout-based mechanism.
doi:10.1145/1557914.1557946 dblp:conf/ht/MeissDGRM09 fatcat:fmyhk3gcb5bfpa7tj23pgy7ppu

Agents, bookmarks and clicks

Mark R. Meiss, Bruno Gonçalves, José J. Ramasco, Alessandro Flammini, Filippo Menczer
2010 Proceedings of the 21st ACM conference on Hypertext and hypermedia - HT '10  
Analysis of aggregate and individual Web traffic has shown that PageRank is a poor model of how people navigate the Web. Using the empirical traffic patterns generated by a thousand users, we characterize several properties of Web traffic that cannot be reproduced by Markovian models. We examine both aggregate statistics capturing collective behavior, such as page and link traffic, and individual statistics, such as entropy and session size. No model currently explains all of these empirical
more » ... ervations simultaneously. We show that all of these traffic patterns can be explained by an agent-based model that takes into account several realistic browsing behaviors. First, agents maintain individual lists of bookmarks (a non-Markovian memory mechanism) that are used as teleportation targets. Second, agents can retreat along visited links, a branching mechanism that also allows us to reproduce behaviors such as the use of a back button and tabbed browsing. Finally, agents are sustained by visiting novel pages of topical interest, with adjacent pages being more topically related to each other than distant ones. This modulates the probability that an agent continues to browse or starts a new session, allowing us to recreate heterogeneous session lengths. The resulting model is capable of reproducing the collective and individual behaviors we observe in the empirical data, reconciling the narrowly focused browsing patterns of individual users with the extreme heterogeneity of aggregate traffic measurements. This result allows us to identify a few salient features that are necessary and sufficient to interpret the browsing patterns observed in our data. In addition to the descriptive and explanatory power of such a model, our results may lead the way to more sophisticated, realistic, and effective ranking and crawling algorithms.
doi:10.1145/1810617.1810658 dblp:conf/ht/MeissGRFM10 fatcat:7uch2vwyovgqjajdie5fpncjwu

Long-term real-world experience with ipilimumab and non-ipilimumab therapies in advanced melanoma: the IMAGE study

Stéphane Dalle, Laurent Mortier, Pippa Corrie, Michal Lotem, Ruth Board, Ana María Arance, Frank Meiss, Patrick Terheyden, Ralf Gutzmer, Brian Buysse, Kelly Oh, Jane Brokaw (+7 others)
2021 BMC Cancer  
Background Ipilimumab has shown long-term overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced melanoma in clinical trials, but robust real-world evidence is lacking. We present long-term outcomes from the IMAGE study (NCT01511913) in patients receiving ipilimumab and/or non-ipilimumab (any approved treatment other than ipilimumab) systemic therapies. Methods IMAGE was a multinational, prospective, observational study assessing adult patients with advanced melanoma treated with ipilimumab or
more » ... imumab systemic therapies between June 2012 and March 2015 with ≥3 years of follow-up. Adjusted OS curves based on multivariate Cox regression models included covariate effects. Safety and patient-reported outcomes were assessed. Results Among 1356 patients, 1094 (81%) received ipilimumab and 262 (19%) received non-ipilimumab index therapy (systemic therapy [chemotherapy, anti–programmed death 1 antibodies, or BRAF ± MEK inhibitors], radiotherapy, and radiosurgery). In the overall population, median age was 64 years, 60% were male, 78% were from Europe, and 78% had received previous treatment for advanced melanoma. In the ipilimumab-treated cohort, 780 (71%) patients did not receive subsequent therapy (IPI-noOther) and 314 (29%) received subsequent non-ipilimumab therapy (IPI-Other) on study. In the non-ipilimumab–treated cohort, 205 (78%) patients remained on or received other subsequent non-ipilimumab therapy (Other-Other) and 57 (22%) received subsequent ipilimumab therapy (Other-IPI) on study. Among 1151 patients who received ipilimumab at any time during the study (IPI-noOther, IPI-Other, and Other-IPI), 296 (26%) reported CTCAE grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events, most occurring in year 1. Ipilimumab-treated and non-ipilimumab–treated patients who switched therapy (IPI-Other and Other-IPI) had longer OS than those who did not switch (IPI-noOther and Other-Other). Patients with prior therapy who did not switch therapy (IPI-noOther and Other-Other) showed similar OS. In treatment-naive patients, those in the IPI-noOther group tended to have longer OS than those in the Other-Other group. Patient-reported outcomes were similar between treatment cohorts. Conclusions With long-term follow-up (≥ 3 years), safety and OS in this real-world population of patients treated with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg were consistent with those reported in clinical trials. Patient-reported quality of life was maintained over the study period. OS analysis across both pretreated and treatment-naive patients suggested a beneficial role of ipilimumab early in treatment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01511913. Registered January 19, 2012 – Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01511913
doi:10.1186/s12885-021-08032-y pmid:34051732 fatcat:74v4fkx2qrcdvo74acdktnbkim

OSoMe: the IUNI observatory on social media

Clayton A. Davis, Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia, Luca Maria Aiello, Keychul Chung, Michael D. Conover, Emilio Ferrara, Alessandro Flammini, Geoffrey C. Fox, Xiaoming Gao, Bruno Gonçalves, Przemyslaw A. Grabowicz, Kibeom Hong (+17 others)
2016 PeerJ Computer Science  
; Mike Conover is an employee of LinkedIn; Mark Meiss, Jacob Ratkiewicz, and Alex Rudnick are employees of Google; Lilian Weng is an employee of Affirm; and Tak-Lon Wu is an employee of Amazon.  ... 
doi:10.7717/peerj-cs.87 fatcat:pnvw3l4jpba4jcpobftugkjv7m

The Undergraduate Training in Genomics (UTRIG) Initiative: early & active training for physicians in the genomic medicine era

Rebecca L Wilcox, Patricia V Adem, Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, James B Atkinson, Leah W Burke, Hoiwan Cheung, Shoumita Dasgupta, Julia DeLaGarza, Loren Joseph, Robin LeGallo, Madelyn Lew, Christina M Lockwood (+10 others)
2018 Personalized Medicine  
Genomic medicine is transforming patient care. However, the speed of development has left a knowledge gap between discovery and effective implementation into clinical practice. Since 2010, the Training Residents in Genomics (TRIG) Working Group has found success in building a rigorous genomics curriculum with implementation tools aimed at pathology residents in postgraduate training years 1-4. Based on the TRIG model, the interprofessional Undergraduate Training in Genomics (UTRIG) Working
more » ... was formed. Under the aegis of the Undergraduate Medical Educators Section of the Association of Pathology Chairs and representation from nine additional professional societies, UTRIG's collaborative goal is building medical student genomic literacy through development of a ready-to-use genomics curriculum. Key elements to the UTRIG curriculum are expert consensus-driven objectives, active learning methods, rigorous assessment and integration.
doi:10.2217/pme-2017-0077 pmid:29843583 pmcid:PMC6008245 fatcat:mqkjqmarc5hz3n2ejic6ucnhn4

Blueberries improve biomarkers of cardiometabolic function in participants with metabolic syndrome—results from a 6-month, double-blind, randomized controlled trial

Peter J Curtis, Vera van der Velpen, Lindsey Berends, Amy Jennings, Martin Feelisch, A Margot Umpleby, Mark Evans, Bernadette O Fernandez, Mia S Meiss, Magdalena Minnion, John Potter, Anne-Marie Minihane (+3 others)
2019 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition  
Anthocyanin-rich blueberry intake is associated with reduced type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in prospective studies, although long-term randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have not been conducted in at-risk populations.
doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqy380 pmid:31136659 pmcid:PMC6537945 fatcat:3ajyezzlrbclvg7udu3ko2gc7q

Page 415 of The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism Vol. 11, Issue 4 [page]

1953 The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism  
Meiss would accept such a verdict.  ...  To the German historian the plague only marks the final culmination of these waves of mysticism and hysteria, a culmination which is at the same time the turning point towards a more optimistic and shallow  ... 

Denosumab and surgery for the treatment of Perthes' disease in a 9-year-old boy: favorable course documented by comprehensive imaging— a case report

A. Ludwig Meiss, Florian Barvencik, Kornelia Babin, Gerald Eggers-Stroeder
2017 Figshare  
Meiss D.indd SD1 11100 Meiss D.indd SD1 2/22/2017 5:43:26 PM 2/22/2017 5:43:26 PM Supplementary data (2/4) Acta Orthopaedica 2017; 88 (DOI: 10.1080/17453674.2017.1298020) Meiss D.indd SD2 11100 Meiss  ...  Marked synovitis. Simultaneous radiographs still showed no sclerosis of the epiphysis, but a slight reduction in epiphyseal height and some anterior fl attening.  ... 
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.4751182 fatcat:zhozejuhmzhlrichxtybaiw6em

Accounting for Dante: Urban Readers and Writers in Late Medieval Italy. Justin Steinberg

John A. Scott
2008 Speculum  
The epilogue describes the meeting with Beatrice in Eden as initially constituting "a violent and realistic contrasto," marked by "colloquial forms," which exemplifies "the extent to which the poet was  ...  Meiss explained the shift toward artistic conservatism in the latter half of the century as, in Steinhoff's phrase, a religion-driven backlash.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0038713400015281 fatcat:wrxkq7yeerb4vme5pstia6g62q
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