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Saccades and driving

G. Guidetti, R. Guidetti, Maurizio Manfredi, Marco Manfredi, A. Lucchetta, S. Livio
2019 Acta otorhinolaryngologica italica  
Driving is not only a physical task, but is also a mental task. Visual inputs are indispensable in scanning the road, communicating with other road users and monitoring in-vehicle devices. The probability to detect an object while driving (conspicuity) is very important for assessment of driving effectiveness, and correct choice of information relevant to the safety of driving determines the efficiency of a driver. Accordingly, eye fixation and eye movements are essential for attention and
more » ... e in decision making. Saccades are the most used and effective means of maintaining a correct fixation while driving. In order to identify the features of the most predisposed subjects at high driving performances and those of the high-level sportsmen, we used a special tool called Visual Exploration Training System. We evaluated by saccade and attentional tests various groups of ordinary drivers, past professional racing drivers, professional truck drivers and professional athletes. Males have faster reaction time compared to females and an age below 30 seems to guarantee better precision of performance and accuracy in achieving all visual targets. The effect on physical activity and sports is confirmed. The performances of the Ferrari Driver Academy (FDA) selected students who were significantly better than those of a group of aspiring students and amateur racing drivers probably thanks to individual predisposition, training and so-called 'neural efficiency'. KEY WORDS: Saccades • Driving • Racecar driver • Eye-tracking • High-level sportsmen RIASSUNTO Guidare non è solo un compito fisico, ma anche mentale. Gli input visivi sono indispensabili per la scansione della strada, la comunicazione con gli altri utenti della strada e il monitoraggio dei dispositivi di bordo. La probabilità di rilevare un oggetto mentre si guida (conspicuity) è molto importante per la valutazione dell'efficacia della guida e la scelta corretta delle informazioni rilevanti per la sicurezza determina l'efficienza di un conducente. Di conseguenza la fissazione visiva e il movimento degli occhi sono essenziali per l'attenzione e la scelta nel prendere decisioni. I movimenti saccadici sono il mezzo più usato ed efficace per mantenere una corretta fissazione durante la guida. Per identificare le caratteristiche dei soggetti più predisposti alle alte prestazioni di guida e quelle degli atleti di alto livello, abbiamo utilizzato il Visual Exploration Training System. Abbiamo studiato con test saccadici e attentivi vari gruppi di conducenti ordinari, di piloti professionisti, di camionisti professionisti e di altri atleti professionisti. I maschi hanno un tempo di reazione più veloce rispetto alle femmine e l'età inferiore ai 30 anni sembra garantire una migliore precisione delle prestazioni e nel raggiungere tutti gli obiettivi visivi. L'effetto dell'attività fisica e lo sport sono confermati. Le performance degli allievi selezionati della Ferrari Driver Academy sono significativamente migliori, in particolare rispetto al gruppo di aspiranti studenti e piloti dilettanti, probabilmente grazie alla predisposizione individuale e sulla cosiddetta 'efficienza neurale' dovuta sia ad un utilizzo ridotto delle risorse che al miglioramento nell'elaborazione delle informazioni, grazie a una migliore comunicazione tra le aree del cervello correlate alle attività. PAROLE CHIAVE: Saccadi • Guida • Piloti sportivi • Eye-tracking • Sportivi di alto livello
doi:10.14639/0392-100x-2176 fatcat:4grh7vzcenhetm5wqw4vcidq74

Shift Equivariance in Object Detection [article]

Marco Manfredi, Yu Wang
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Robustness to small image translations is a highly desirable property for object detectors. However, recent works have shown that CNN-based classifiers are not shift invariant. It is unclear to what extent this could impact object detection, mainly because of the architectural differences between the two and the dimensionality of the prediction space of modern detectors. To assess shift equivariance of object detection models end-to-end, in this paper we propose an evaluation metric, built upon
more » ... a greedy search of the lower and upper bounds of the mean average precision on a shifted image set. Our new metric shows that modern object detection architectures, no matter if one-stage or two-stage, anchor-based or anchor-free, are sensitive to even one pixel shift to the input images. Furthermore, we investigate several possible solutions to this problem, both taken from the literature and newly proposed, quantifying the effectiveness of each one with the suggested metric. Our results indicate that none of these methods can provide full shift equivariance. Measuring and analyzing the extent of shift variance of different models and the contributions of possible factors, is a first step towards being able to devise methods that mitigate or even leverage such variabilities.
arXiv:2008.05787v1 fatcat:6vmja2fymffdhdkpvqwl27trlu

Vestibular pathology and spatial working memory

G. Guidetti, R. Guidetti, Maurizio Manfredi, Marco Manfredi
2019 Acta otorhinolaryngologica italica  
Patologia vestibolare e memoria operativa spaziale.
doi:10.14639/0392-100x-2189 pmid:31388191 fatcat:fzr3jfuxlrc7remqakcr6pci3e

Wie Marco Manfredi 25 Tonnen Abfall entsorgt

Jürg Zulliger
1992
PORTRAT Jürg Zulliger Wie Marco Manfredi 25 Tonnen Abfall entsorgt Seit zwei Jahren leitet der 34jährige gelernte Heizungsmonteur Marco Manfredi in Zürich-Schwamendingen eine vorbildliche Kompostieranlage  ...  Auf die Idee zu dem Projekt kam Marco Manfredi, weil er sich für den Umweltschutz engagieren will.  ... 
doi:10.5169/seals-105902 fatcat:sgkgvvryffhljino4ulmlxheai

Metabolic effects of 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine

Marco Giammanco, Manfredi Marco Giammanco, Gaetano Leto, Herbert R. Marini
2021 Journal of Biological Research  
Thyroid hormones have been proposed as anti obesity drugs due to their effects on basal metabolism and the ability to increase energy expenditure. However, their clinical use has been strongly curbed by the concomitant onset of thyrotoxicosis. In this setting, several studies have been undertaken to assess the role of 3,5 diiodo- L-thyronine (T2), an endogenous metabolite of thyroid hormone derived from the enzymatic deiodination of triodothyronine T3. The metabolic effects of T2 are similar to
more » ... those induced by T3. However, these effects appear to involve different and not welldefined mechanisms that make this molecule clinically useful as potential drug in the treatment of pathological conditions such as obesity and hepatic steatosis. The main pharmacological target of T2 appears to be the mitochondria. Therefore, the administration of T2 to obese subjects might improve the mitochondrial performance, which is generally recognized to be reduced in these subjects who must oxidize greater quantities of substrates. In this context, it can be hypothesized that T2, by acting mainly on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, might be able to prevent and revert the tissue damages and hepatic steatosis induced by a hyperlipidic diet and a concomitant reduction in the circulating levels LDL and triglycerides as well. This review the discuss the mechanisms of action of T2 and the possible, future clinical uses of T2 analogs for the treatment lipid dysmetabolism related to obesity and overweight.
doi:10.4081/jbr.2020.9182 fatcat:mixojf3i5vgvvkgepwx6yclb3m

A Giant Congenital Lobular Capillary Haemangioma

Marco Manfredi, Giuseppe Cerasoli
2015 Pediatrics & Therapeutics  
Lobular capillary haemangioma is a relatively common benign mucocutaneous lesion in paediatric age. The etiopathogenesis is not very clear, but it seems that lesions originate de novo from a process of lobular vascular proliferation that appears to be neoplastic. Congenital onset is usually very rare; it happens only in 1.1% in literature. We report a case of a newborn with a giant congenital lobular capillary haemangioma of the head (left occipital region) which increased rapidly with
more » ... al ulcers in the early days of life. The baby was operated on by full-thickness excision using the linear closure technique; this treatment allows histological examination, ensures the most efficacy aesthetic results and gives the lowest recurrence rate.
doi:10.4172/2161-0665.1000268 fatcat:5w3zit74mzhodlvigq2ytkbp7i

MRONJ and implants: the risk of developing necrosis away from surgery

Marco Frontera, Pierpaolo De Francesco, paolo vescovi, Maddalena Manfredi, Giulia Ghidini, Marco Meleti
2021 Qeios  
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MRONJ in patients treated with prosthetic implant rehabilitation. We evaluated the risk of MRONJ genesis comparing implant surgery with the development of necrosis after correct implant osteointegration. The implants' presence in these patients is a possible risk factor of necrosis development. The presence of implant might cause a reactivation of osteoclasts.
doi:10.32388/9a5288 fatcat:tuitkpciqjbavdxf7es25hvnfm

Which Treatment in Helicobacter pylori Infection?

Marco Manfredi
2013 Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology  
Manfredi Treatment failure increases the percentage of second-line and third-line therapies, raising the expense of treatment and the number of patients who have to undergo many antibiotic treatments  ... 
doi:10.4172/2161-1459.1000139 fatcat:jg4f74mptja7ngttp535vjdlf4

Adipokines in obesity and metabolic diseases

Marco Giammanco, Herbert R. Marini, Socrate Pallio, Manfredi Marco Giammanco, Giovanni Tomasello, Francesco Carini, Fabio Venturella, Gaetano Leto, Maurizio La Guardia
2021 Journal of Biological Research  
Adipose tissue secretes many adipokines that regulate important physiological functions. Growing studies have highlighted that these bioactive molecules may contribute to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Adipokines exert systemic metabolic effects and independent activity on numerous cells of the cardiovascular system, including cardiomyocytes and vascular cell walls. Adiponectin shows anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activity on blood vessels. Conversely,
more » ... stin is endowed with pro-inflammatory effects and stimulates the proliferation of smooth muscle cells, thus promoting the development of atherosclerotic plaque. Leptin plays an important role in cardiac remodeling and blood pressure regulation through the activation of the sympathetic system. Obesity is a pathological condition associated with hypertrophy of white adipose tissue, which stimulates the production of pro-inflammatory adipokines while, it reduces the production of anti-inflammatory adipokines. The delicate balance among the production of pro-and anti-inflammatory molecules generated by adipose tissue affects, not only the development of metabolic complications associated with obesity, but also the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. Therefore, adipokines may be regarded as potential agents of clinical interest in the treatment of a wide range of metabolic disorders and as potential biomarkers useful for early detection of metabolic, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases.
doi:10.4081/jbr.2020.8915 fatcat:526qrhutjfdz5bnub4mol7vzfi

Intestinal Microbiota: A Big World of Evolving Knowledge

Marco Manfredi
2014 Clinical Microbiology: Open Access  
Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis is the most common Clinical Microbiology: Open Access Manfredi complication in HD patients and it represents the greatest cause of morbidity and mortality in children  ... 
doi:10.4172/2327-5073.1000e121 fatcat:n7k6biyhjzdkbcb7cbl3gtgvw4

Helicobacter pyloriInfection

Ping-I Hsu, Yoshio Yamaoka, Khean-Lee Goh, Marco Manfredi, Deng-Chyang Wu, Varocha Mahachai
2015 BioMed Research International  
Ping-I Hsu Yoshio Yamaoka Khean-Lee Goh Marco Manfredi Deng-Chyang Wu Varocha Mahachai Article ID 278308, 2 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/278308 Hindawi Publishing Corporation BioMed Research International  ... 
doi:10.1155/2015/278308 pmid:26078943 pmcid:PMC4454713 fatcat:oq6xfmppxvaozfor7w7lhyh2i4

Scrotal Abscess Drained by Iatrogenic Urethral Fistula in an Adult Diabetic Male

Marco Stizzo, Davide Arcaniolo, Carmelo Quattrone, Raffaele Balsamo, Marco Terribile, Celeste Manfredi, Vincenzo Mirone, Paolo Verze, Marco De Sio
2017 Case Reports in Urology  
A 46-year-old Caucasian male has been transferred to our urology department with a history of septic fever, uncompensated diabetes, pain, and scrotal swelling. On clinical examination, the left inguinal and scrotal area was swollen, tender, and painful; scrotal MR had been performed, showing the catheter tip in scrotal cavity and presence of gas. The case was diagnosed as scrotal abscess with urethroscrotal fistula. He was successfully treated with scrotal incision, drainage, catheter
more » ... ing under fluoroscopic control, antibiotics, and insulin. This patient developed an infection of scrotum, which led to subcutaneous abscess getting worse by a poorly controlled glycemia. In this case, an iatrogenic fistula, caused by wrong catheterization, stops the evolving to a Fournier's Gangrene. Early detection and intervention provide opportunities to improve outcome of this disease.
doi:10.1155/2017/9820245 pmid:28798881 pmcid:PMC5535698 fatcat:aowgfcxjirektg7pesoamgcx6i

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Long Duration and Bleeding Ulcer

Marco Manfredi, Silvia Iuliano,
2016 Clinical Microbiology: Open Access  
Leishmaniasis may cause visceral, cutaneous and/or mucocutaneous diseases. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms are caused by a single celled parasite transmitted by sand fly bites. Although the cutaneous form of the disease is often self-limiting, it results in significant scarring and can spread to more invasive, mucocutaneous disease. Therefore, treatment may be considered to prevent these complications. We describe a case report of cutaneous leishmaniasis contracted in a healthy man in Italy
more » ... milian Apennines). This cutaneous ulcer healed only with intralesional injection of meglumine antimoniate. After about 18 and 30 months a scar area is still present and no satellite lesion appeared. We have had no side effects or complications due to therapy.
doi:10.4172/2327-5073.1000229 fatcat:dnz2s4qeavfcbf7b5zumbr6ebm

Image Classification with Multivariate Gaussian Descriptors [chapter]

Costantino Grana, Giuseppe Serra, Marco Manfredi, Rita Cucchiara
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Techniques based on Bag Of Words approach represent images by quantizing local descriptors and summarizing their distribution in a histogram. Differently, in this paper we describe an image as multivariate Gaussian distribution, estimated over the extracted local descriptors. The estimated distribution is mapped to a high-dimensional descriptor, by concatenating the mean vector and the projection of the covariance matrix on the Euclidean space tangent to the Riemannian manifold. To deal with
more » ... ge scale datasets and high dimensional feature spaces the Stochastic Gradient Descent solver is adopted. The experimental results on Caltech-101 and ImageCLEF2011 show that the method obtains competitive performance with state-of-the art approaches.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-41184-7_12 fatcat:hjdmqyui2jedfgwru2c3y6trlu

Second-generation fluorous chiral (salen) manganese complexes

Marco Cavazzini, Amedea Manfredi, Fernando Montanari, Silvio Quici, Gianluca Pozzi
2000 Chemical Communications  
First published as an Advance Article on the web Sterically hindered chiral (salen)manganese complexes bearing long perfluoroalkyl substituents are synthesized and successfully employed as catalysts in the enantioselective (ee = 50-87%) epoxidation of alkenes under fluorous biphasic conditions.
doi:10.1039/b007053j fatcat:3a6olut465gu3ceohncvy5rfyi
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