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SONIC FOOTPRINTS OF WEB TRACKING

Otto Hans-Martin Lutz, Manfred Hauswirth
2019 Zenodo  
Web tracking is found on 90% of common websites. It facilitates online behavior analysis which can reveal insights into sensitive personal data of an individual. Most users are not aware of the amount of web tracking happening in the background. We present an interactive demonstration of web tracker sonification which is designed to promote awareness for online privacy issues by disclosing the amount of web tracking through sound. While the user is browsing the web, data exchanged with web
more » ... anged with web tracking hosts is transformed into sonic events. In the demonstration, users can try out different websites testing several browsers, with and without ad blocking addons, and compare the different sonic experiences. Additionally, we provide a Wi-Fi access point to which users can connect with their mobile devices so they can listen to the data transferred to third-party tracking providers from their own devices. This demonstration aims to spark discussion not only regarding the sonification design, but to widen the discourse into a critical reflection of online privacy and surveillance issues.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.3743406 fatcat:uhvyfjyyzbbi3gr44rmyuiauxe

Peer-to-peer information systems

Karl Aberer, Manfred Hauswirth
2001 Software engineering notes  
doi:10.1145/503271.503268 fatcat:psbizdwoxrf4phnxz4zukm6cti

NetTopo

Lei Shu, Chun Wu, Yan Zhang, Jiming Chen, Lei Wang, Manfred Hauswirth
2008 ACM SIGBED Review  
Simulators are needed for testing algorithms of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for large scale scenarios. Deploying real WSN testbed provides a more realistic testing environment, and allows users to get more accurate test results. However, deploying real testbed is highly constrained by the available budget when the test needs a large scale WSN environment. By leveraging the advantages of both simulators and real testbed, an approach that integrates simulation environment and testbed can
more » ... nd testbed can effectively solve both scalability and accuracy issues. Hence, the simulation of virtual WSN, the visualization of real testbed, and the interaction between simulated WSN and testbed emerge as three key challenges. In this paper, we present NetTopo for providing both simulation and visualization functions to assist the investigation of algorithms in WSNs. Two case studies are described to prove the effectiveness of NetTopo.
doi:10.1145/1534490.1534492 fatcat:geky354lqjddvhf3j3u5lxzqwi

A framework for semantic gossiping

Karl Aberer, Philippe Cudré-Mauroux, Manfred Hauswirth
2002 SIGMOD record  
Today the problem of semantic interoperability in information search on the Internet is solved mostly by means of centralization, both at a system and at a logical level. This approach has been successful to a certain extent. Peer-to-peer systems as a new brand of system architectures indicate that the principle of decentralization might offer new solutions to many problems that scale well to very large numbers of users. In this paper we outline how the peer-to-peer system architectures can be
more » ... chitectures can be applied to tackle the problem of semantic interoperability in the large, driven in a bottom-up manner by the participating peers. Such a system can readily be used to study semantic interoperability as a global scale phenomenon taking place in a social network of information sharing peers.
doi:10.1145/637411.637419 fatcat:64vubdzup5eipjaq7ir2vh7aeq

Efficient Floating Point Arithmetic for Quantum Computers [article]

Raphael Seidel, Nikolay Tcholtchev, Sebastian Bock, Colin Kai-Uwe Becker, Manfred Hauswirth
2021 arXiv   pre-print
for Quantum Computers Raphael Seidel† , Nikolay Tcholtchev† , Sebastian Bock† , Colin Kai-Uwe Becker† , Manfred  ...  Hauswirth, “Automatic generation of grover quantum 2018. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature25737 oracles for arbitrary data structures,” 2021. [Online].  ... 
arXiv:2112.10537v1 fatcat:du7ma27u2jdwnjpgr7fmiyg7ry

P-Grid

Karl Aberer, Philippe Cudré-Mauroux, Anwitaman Datta, Zoran Despotovic, Manfred Hauswirth, Magdalena Punceva, Roman Schmidt
2003 SIGMOD record  
doi:10.1145/945721.945729 fatcat:jqedfgk6zrc4zmjreqikxw7lwe

Linked Stream Data Processing [chapter]

Danh Le-Phuoc, Josiane Xavier Parreira, Manfred Hauswirth
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Hauswirth CONSTRUCT {?person1 lv:reachable ?person2} FROM NAMED <http://deri.org/floorplan/> WHERE { STREAM <http://deri.org/streams/rfid> [NOW] {?person1 lv:detectedAt ?  ...  Hauswirth C ./ ./ [now ] [range 3s] G C ./ ./ [now ] [range 3s] G (a) From window now C ./ ./ [now ] [range 3s] G C ./ ./ [now ] [range 3s] G (b) From window  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-33158-9_7 fatcat:2brawn4cbrh35aueyuujdawydi

Virtual Location-Based Services: Merging the Physical and Virtual World [article]

Christian von der Weth, Vinod Hegde, Manfred Hauswirth
2013 arXiv   pre-print
Location-based services gained much popularity through providing users with helpful information with respect to their current location. The search and recommendation of nearby locations or places, and the navigation to a specific location are some of the most prominent location-based services. As a recent trend, virtual location-based services consider webpages or sites associated with a location as 'virtual locations' that online users can visit in spite of not being physically present at the
more » ... lly present at the location. The presence of links between virtual locations and the corresponding physical locations (e.g., geo-location information of a restaurant linked to its website), allows for novel types of services and applications which constitute virtual location-based services (VLBS). The quality and potential benefits of such services largely depends on the existence of websites referring to physical locations. In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of linking virtual and physical locations. For this, we analyze the presence and distribution of virtual locations, i.e., websites referring to places, for two Irish cities. Using simulated tracks based on a user movement model, we investigate how mobile users move through the Web as virtual space. Our results show that virtual locations are omnipresent in urban areas, and that the situation that a user is close to even several such locations at any time is rather the normal case instead of the exception.
arXiv:1310.2864v1 fatcat:yp2l44foujbqnbr2oessy2olra

Semanta – Semantic Email Made Easy [chapter]

Simon Scerri, Brian Davis, Siegfried Handschuh, Manfred Hauswirth
2009 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we present Semanta -a fullyimplemented system supporting Semantic Email Processes, integrated into the existing technical landscape and using existing email transport technology. By applying Speech Act Theory, knowledge about these processes can be made explicit, enabling machines to support email users with correctly interpreting, handling and keeping track of email messages, visualizing email threads and workflows, and extracting tasks and appointments from email messages.
more » ... ail messages. Whereas complex theoretical models and semantics are hidden beneath a simple user interface, the enabled functionalities are clear for the users to see and take advantage of. The system's evaluation proved that our experiment with Semanta has indeed been successful and that semantic technology can be applied as an extra layer to existing technology, thus bringing its benefits into everyday computer usage.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02121-3_7 fatcat:nas5sxgd2vg4fliut5aq2zdqoi

A component and communication model for push systems

Manfred Hauswirth, Mehdi Jazayeri
1999 Software engineering notes  
We present a communication and component model for push systems. Surprisingly, despite the widespread use of many push services on the Internet, no such models exist. Our communication model contrasts push systems with client-server and event-based systems. Our component model provides a basis for comparison and evaluation of different push systems and their design alternatives. We compare several prominent push systems using our component model. The component model consists of producers and
more » ... of producers and consumers, broadcasters and channels, and a transport system. We detail the concerns of each of these components. Finally, we discuss a number of open issues that challenge the widespread deployment of push or any other system on an Internet-wide scale. Payment models are the most important among these and are not adequately addressed by any existing system. We briefly present the payment approach in our Minstrel project. Consumer Infrastructure Producer Push Reply Consumer Request Producer Receive Subscribe Unsubscribe Announce Publish Fig. 1. Pull vs. push To show the wide applicability of the push model as a paradigm for building distributed applications, here we outline three distinct applications whose design can be decomposed in terms of push concepts. 1. Intra-company employee information system. Many organizations have proprietary and ad hoc systems for keeping their employees informed about their organizational news. This is sometimes viewed as one of the organization's most important and most difficult tasks. Such a system may be built as a standard push system. 2. Electronic maintenance manuals. Companies that produce appliances have maintenance manuals that are carried by their maintenance workers when they are called to repair appliances on site. The updating of such maintenance manuals is costly and dealing with the paper manuals is tedious. With a push system each product line could be associated with one channel and each maintenance worker subscribes to the desired channel. 3. Stock ticker system. This is a classic example for event-based and push models. The existence of such diverse applications, all of which can be designed as specific instances of push-based systems, argues for the inherent utility of the push model and concepts. In all of these systems, we can easily identify distinct producers and consumers, and also the necessity for a subscription phase. The goal of this paper is to contrast the push communication model with existing communication models and present a component model for push systems. The component model provides a basis for comparison and evaluation of different push systems and their design alternatives. Further, the component model may be used as a basis for a reference implementation and as a source of identifying some open issues. The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 compares the communication models for distributed systems and analyzes their impact on scalability, network load, and state maintenance. Section 3 presents our component model for push systems which is used in Sect. 4 for the comparison of representative push systems. Section 5 then discusses the relationship of push systems with mobile code and event-based systems. In Sect. 6 we present the main issues that push systems must address to become usable on an Internet scale. We summarize and give our conclusions in Sect. 7.
doi:10.1145/318774.318784 fatcat:ps4h643s25hjzlul56dr4a5cxi

Behavioral Compatibility of Web Services [chapter]

Zhangbing Zhou, Sami Bhiri, Walid Gaaloul, Lei Shu, Manfred Hauswirth
2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Current methods for compatibility analysis consider only direct service interactions where no mismatches are allowed. However mismatches usually exist among Web services, and their interactions are often carried out with the help of mediators. In addition, current approaches don't give precise evaluation of partial compatibility which is useful for ranking and selecting candidate services. In this paper, we consider compatibility beyond direct service interaction where mediation can be applied.
more » ... ion can be applied. We present an approach to check if two business processes can be mediated or not. Our approach also enables better evaluation of compatibility by quantifying the degree of compatibility as a number between 0 and 1.
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-88875-8_13 fatcat:zjtymylbjfhq3gkizio7zlculy

A Component and Communication Model for Push Systems [chapter]

Manfred Hauswirth, Mehdi Jazayeri
1999 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We present a communication and component model for push systems. Surprisingly, despite the widespread use of many push services on the Internet, no such models exist. Our communication model contrasts push systems with client-server and event-based systems. Our component model provides a basis for comparison and evaluation of different push systems and their design alternatives. We compare several prominent push systems using our component model. The component model consists of producers and
more » ... of producers and consumers, broadcasters and channels, and a transport system. We detail the concerns of each of these components. Finally, we discuss a number of open issues that challenge the widespread deployment of push or any other system on an Internet-wide scale. Payment models are the most important among these and are not adequately addressed by any existing system. We briefly present the payment approach in our Minstrel project. Consumer Infrastructure Producer Push Reply Consumer Request Producer Receive Subscribe Unsubscribe Announce Publish Fig. 1. Pull vs. push To show the wide applicability of the push model as a paradigm for building distributed applications, here we outline three distinct applications whose design can be decomposed in terms of push concepts. 1. Intra-company employee information system. Many organizations have proprietary and ad hoc systems for keeping their employees informed about their organizational news. This is sometimes viewed as one of the organization's most important and most difficult tasks. Such a system may be built as a standard push system. 2. Electronic maintenance manuals. Companies that produce appliances have maintenance manuals that are carried by their maintenance workers when they are called to repair appliances on site. The updating of such maintenance manuals is costly and dealing with the paper manuals is tedious. With a push system each product line could be associated with one channel and each maintenance worker subscribes to the desired channel. 3. Stock ticker system. This is a classic example for event-based and push models. The existence of such diverse applications, all of which can be designed as specific instances of push-based systems, argues for the inherent utility of the push model and concepts. In all of these systems, we can easily identify distinct producers and consumers, and also the necessity for a subscription phase. The goal of this paper is to contrast the push communication model with existing communication models and present a component model for push systems. The component model provides a basis for comparison and evaluation of different push systems and their design alternatives. Further, the component model may be used as a basis for a reference implementation and as a source of identifying some open issues. The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 compares the communication models for distributed systems and analyzes their impact on scalability, network load, and state maintenance. Section 3 presents our component model for push systems which is used in Sect. 4 for the comparison of representative push systems. Section 5 then discusses the relationship of push systems with mobile code and event-based systems. In Sect. 6 we present the main issues that push systems must address to become usable on an Internet scale. We summarize and give our conclusions in Sect. 7.
doi:10.1007/3-540-48166-4_3 fatcat:ptct7bwn4re63mcf3367ikhz2a

The chatty web

Karl Aberer, Philippe Cudré-Mauroux, Manfred Hauswirth
2003 Proceedings of the twelfth international conference on World Wide Web - WWW '03  
This paper describes a novel approach for obtaining semantic interoperability among data sources in a bottom-up, semiautomatic manner without relying on pre-existing, global semantic models. We assume that large amounts of data exist that have been organized and annotated according to local schemas. Seeing semantics as a form of agreement, our approach enables the participating data sources to incrementally develop global agreement in an evolutionary and completely decentralized process that
more » ... zed process that solely relies on pairwise, local interactions: Participants provide translations between schemas they are interested in and can learn about other translations by routing queries (gossiping). To support the participants in assessing the semantic quality of the achieved agreements we develop a formal framework that takes into account both syntactic and semantic criteria. The assessment process is incremental and the quality ratings are adjusted along with the operation of the system. Ultimately, this process results in global agreement, i.e., the semantics that all participants understand. We discuss strategies to efficiently find translations and provide results from a case study to justify our claims. Our approach applies to any system which provides a communication infrastructure (existing websites or databases, decentralized systems, P2P systems) and offers the opportunity to study semantic interoperability as a global phenomenon in a network of information sharing parties.
doi:10.1145/775152.775180 dblp:conf/www/AbererCH03 fatcat:7hfkhacpovafreb6zw3pim5g3y

Finding Information Through Integrated Ad-Hoc Socializing in the Virtual and Physical World [article]

Christian von der Weth, Manfred Hauswirth
2013 arXiv   pre-print
Despite the services of sophisticated search engines like Google, there are a number of interesting information sources which are useful but largely inaccessible to current Web users. These information sources are often ad-hoc, location-specific and only useful for users over short periods of time, or relate to tacit knowledge of users or implicit knowledge in crowds. The solution presented in this paper addresses these problems by introducing an integrated concept of "location" and "presence"
more » ... on" and "presence" across the physical and virtual worlds enabling ad-hoc socializing of users interested in, or looking for similar information. While the definition of presence in the physical world is straightforward - through a spatial location and vicinity at a certain point in time - their definitions in the virtual world are neither obvious nor trivial. Based on a detailed analysis we provide an integrated spatial model spanning both worlds which enables us to define presence of users in a unified way. This integrated model allows us to enable ad-hoc socializing of users browsing the Web with users in the physical world specific to their joint information needs and allows us to unlock the untapped information sources mentioned above. We describe a proof-of-concept implementation of our model and provide an empirical analysis based on real-world experiments.
arXiv:1307.1543v1 fatcat:qyurclfpgfg23m4wsidfbraqka

Analysing Parallel and Passive Web Browsing Behavior and its Effects on Website Metrics [article]

Christian von der Weth, Manfred Hauswirth
2014 arXiv   pre-print
Getting deeper insights into the online browsing behavior of Web users has been a major research topic since the advent of the WWW. It provides useful information to optimize website design, Web browser design, search engines offerings, and online advertisement. We argue that new technologies and new services continue to have significant effects on the way how people browse the Web. For example, listening to music clips on YouTube or to a radio station on Last.fm does not require users to sit
more » ... uire users to sit in front of their computer. Social media and networking sites like Facebook or micro-blogging sites like Twitter have attracted new types of users that previously were less inclined to go online. These changes in how people browse the Web feature new characteristics which are not well understood so far. In this paper, we provide novel and unique insights by presenting first results of DOBBS, our long-term effort to create a comprehensive and representative dataset capturing online user behavior. We firstly investigate the concepts of parallel browsing and passive browsing, showing that browsing the Web is no longer a dedicated task for many users. Based on these results, we then analyze their impact on the calculation of a user's dwell time -- i.e., the time the user spends on a webpage -- which has become an important metric to quantify the popularity of websites.
arXiv:1402.5255v1 fatcat:kwmsb6xmerdmtdwyhw6qg7i4ia
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