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Plain Language Assessment of Statutes [chapter]

Wolfgang Alschner, Daniel D'Alimonte, Giovanni C. Giuga, Sophie Gadbois
2020 Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications  
Future machine-learning classifications promise to further improve the detection of complex features, such as nominalizations.  ...  Legislative drafters use plain language drafting techniques to increase the readability of statutes in several Anglo-American jurisdictions.  ...  The results illustrate that our metrics offer a more holistic understanding of readability compared to traditional measures, but also point to the need for future research to combine rules-based and machine-learning  ... 
doi:10.3233/faia200865 fatcat:a5dpx7dmkrhvfcakezfzhvtu4i

The Legislative Recipe: Syntax for Machine-Readable Legislation [article]

Megan Ma, Bryan Wilson
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Importantly, this study hopes to highlight the challenges encountered in this burgeoning ecosystem of machine-readable legislation against existing human-readable counterparts.  ...  In doing so, the paper seeks to move beyond existing literature to discuss the implications of various approaches to machine-readable legislation.  ...  . 109 This is not to say there is no place for machine-readable legislation.  ... 
arXiv:2108.08678v1 fatcat:4miawd56gbgrfmzqubtnorck7q

Automated Readability Assessment for Spanish e-Government Information

Jorge Morato, Ana Iglesias, Adrián Campillo, Sonia Sanchez-Cuadrado
2021 Journal of Information Systems Engineering & Management  
At a later stage, automatic learning methods are used to apply algorithms to predict the difficulty of the text.  ...  The results of the study show that government web pages show high values for comprehension difficulty. This work proposes a new Spanish-language corpus of official e-government websites.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Work supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, (CSO2017-86747-R). We also want to thank Plena Inclusion Association for their advice.  ... 
doi:10.29333/jisem/9620 fatcat:mrmjly3wdvh37bpb6yszjwjuu4

Stylene: an Environment for Stylometry and Readability Research for Dutch [chapter]

2017 CLARIN in the Low Countries  
The Stylene system consists of a popularisation interface for learning about stylometric analysis, and of web-based interfaces to so ware for readability and stylometry research aimed at researchers from  ...  readability research for Dutch) project.  ...  Acknowledgements Apart from the authors, several people participated in the development of the Stylene system components and implementation. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Philip van  ... 
doi:10.5334/bbi.16 fatcat:e4v6z5p4dncetfk2gvrjyn4fdm

Assessing the Readability of Policy Documents on the Digital Single Market of the European Union [article]

Jukka Ruohonen
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Given this motivation, this paper evaluates the readability of 201 legislations and related policy documents in the European Union (EU).  ...  The digital single market (DSM) provides the context and five classical readability indices the methods.  ...  Applications of the newer machine learning methods to the domain of law would be a good topic for further research.  ... 
arXiv:2102.11625v1 fatcat:ygjkhjojpzheboxf3an76lwame

A data science approach to 138 years of congressional speeches

Ethan C. Tucker, Colton J. Capps, Lior Shamir
2020 Heliyon  
The analysis reveals that the readability index of congressional speeches increased consistently until the 96th congress, and then started to decline.  ...  Here we apply a quantitative analysis to a large dataset of USA congressional speeches made over a period of 138 years.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank the two knowledgeable anonymous reviewers for the comments that helped to improve the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04417 pmid:32904137 pmcid:PMC7452432 fatcat:g2zvtpjdljdfboexpom23ezi4a

An overview of information extraction techniques for legal document analysis and processing

Ashwini V. Zadgaonkar, Avinash J. Agrawal
2021 International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IJPEDS)  
In this paper, we are exploring the recent advances in the field of legal text processing and provide a comparative analysis of approaches used for it.  ...  We finally discuss some of the possible future research directions for legal document analysis and processing.</span>  ...  for the machine learning model.  ... 
doi:10.11591/ijece.v11i6.pp5450-5457 fatcat:cigtd4kh4vc4hhfnl32sss25ye

Page 219 of Psychological Abstracts Vol. 54, Issue 1 [page]

1975 Psychological Abstracts  
; (c) application aids, for both manual and machine use; and (d) predictions of readability for foreign languages.  ...  list formulas, and (e) sentence length vs sentence complexity.  ... 

Optimizing Statistical Machine Translation for Text Simplification

Wei Xu, Courtney Napoles, Ellie Pavlick, Quanze Chen, Chris Callison-Burch
2016 Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics  
Most recent sentence simplification systems use basic machine translation models to learn lexical and syntactic paraphrases from a manually simplified parallel corpus.  ...  In this paper, we conduct an indepth adaptation of statistical machine translation to perform text simplification, taking advantage of large-scale paraphrases learned from bilingual texts and a small amount  ...  The views and conclusions contained in this publication are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing official policies or endorsements of the NSF or the U.S. Government.  ... 
doi:10.1162/tacl_a_00107 fatcat:mdqn6uqfcjc5homhuci4m77ubq

Page 738 of Psychological Abstracts Vol. 64, Issue 3 [page]

1980 Psychological Abstracts  
, Legislative Processes, Parole, Probation] 5411, 5459, 5460, 5463, 5464, 5467, 5470, 5796, 5810, 5854, 5878, 6365, 6407 Legislative Processes 5469, 5695, 6423 Lemurs 4857 Lens (Eye) 4677 Lesbianism 5476  ...  , 5889, 5890, 5895, 5896, 5897, 5900, 5906, 5908, 6498, 6499, 6506, 6510, 6511 Learning Disorders [See Also Dyslexia, Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities] 5904 Learning Rate 4610, 4799, 4814 Learning  ... 

Page 1302 of Psychological Abstracts Vol. 70, Issue 5 [page]

1983 Psychological Abstracts  
, Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities] 9670, 10333 Learning Rate 11356 Learning Theory 11438 Learning [See Also Related Terms] 9269, 9431, 9495, 9496, 9511, 9512, 9562, 9670, 10153, 11154, 11295  ...  , Semantics, Sentence Struc- ture, Sentences, Sign Language, Syllables, Synonyms, Syntax, Verbs, Vocabulary, Words (Phonetic Units), Written Language] 9223, 9235, 9886, 9893, 9967, 10522, 10734 Language  ... 

Learning an English-Chinese Lexicon from a Parallel Corpus

Dekai Wu, Xuanyin Xia
1994 Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas  
To our knowledge, these are the first empirical results of the kind between an Indo-European and non-Indo-European language for any significant corpus size with a non-toy vocabulary.  ...  We then introduce a significance filtering method that is fully automatic, yet still yields a weighted precision of 86.0%. Learning of translations is adaptive to the domain.  ...  Acknowledgements We are indebted to Kenneth Church, William Gale, Pascale Fung, and the anonymous reviewers for helpful comments and suggestions, and to Eva Fong, Cindy Ng, and Derek Ngok for general contributions  ... 
dblp:conf/amta/WuX94 fatcat:erfzlk474vdlzeuiqecyyndgsi

Cross-Language Document Summarization Based on Machine Translation Quality Prediction

Xiaojun Wan, Huiying Li, Jianguo Xiao
2010 Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics  
Existing methods simply use machine translation for document translation or summary translation.  ...  However, current machine translation services are far from satisfactory, which results in that the quality of the cross-language summary is usually very poor, both in readability and content.  ...  We thank the students for participating in the user study. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their useful comments.  ... 
dblp:conf/acl/WanLX10 fatcat:c4awhlpzmfdw7epygugdmu53bq

Towards Natural-Language Understanding and Automated Enforcement of Privacy Rules and Regulations in the Cloud: Survey and Bibliography [chapter]

Nick Papanikolaou, Siani Pearson, Marco Casassa Mont
2011 Communications in Computer and Information Science  
in a logical form that is machine readable and automatically enforceable.  ...  SACD was used to process the National Building Code of Canada, so that its stipulations could be represented in a machine-readable, indexable and searchable form.  ...  Towards Natural-Language Understanding and Automated Enforcement of Privacy Rules and Regulations in the Cloud: Survey and Bibliography 7  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-22365-5_20 fatcat:ospsjr5wofeireovbnvhkje2ee

Samanantar: The Largest Publicly Available Parallel Corpora Collection for 11 Indic Languages [article]

Gowtham Ramesh, Sumanth Doddapaneni, Aravinth Bheemaraj, Mayank Jobanputra, Raghavan AK, Ajitesh Sharma, Sujit Sahoo, Harshita Diddee, Mahalakshmi J, Divyanshu Kakwani, Navneet Kumar, Aswin Pradeep (+6 others)
2021 arXiv   pre-print
representation models for aligning sentences, and (d) approximate nearest neighbor search for searching in a large collection of sentences.  ...  Human evaluation of samples from the newly mined corpora validate the high quality of the parallel sentences across 11 languages.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank EkStep Foundation for their generous grant which went into hiring human resources as well as cloud resources needed for this work.  ... 
arXiv:2104.05596v3 fatcat:zlq7dmu4w5hyljqz7slqsqf2rm
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