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Neural Alignment for Face De-pixelization [article]

Maayan Shuvi, Noa Fish, Kfir Aberman, Ariel Shamir, Daniel Cohen-Or
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We present a simple method to reconstruct a high-resolution video from a face-video, where the identity of a person is obscured by pixelization. This concealment method is popular because the viewer can still perceive a human face figure and the overall head motion. However, we show in our experiments that a fairly good approximation of the original video can be reconstructed in a way that compromises anonymity. Our system exploits the simultaneous similarity and small disparity between
more » ... video frames depicting a human face, and employs a spatial transformation component that learns the alignment between the pixelated frames. Each frame, supported by its aligned surrounding frames, is first encoded, then decoded to a higher resolution. Reconstruction and perceptual losses promote adherence to the ground-truth, and an adversarial loss assists in maintaining domain faithfulness. There is no need for explicit temporal coherency loss as it is maintained implicitly by the alignment of neighboring frames and reconstruction. Although simple, our framework synthesizes high-quality face reconstructions, demonstrating that given the statistical prior of a human face, multiple aligned pixelated frames contain sufficient information to reconstruct a high-quality approximation of the original signal.
arXiv:2009.13856v1 fatcat:reritceiczellbkhbwsvzms37m

Parallel Virtual Machines Placement with Provable Guarantees [article]

Itamar Cohen, Gil Einziger, Maayan Goldstein, Yaniv Sa'ar, Gabriel Scalosub, Erez Waisbard
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Network Function Virtualization (NFV) carries the potential for on-demand deployment of network algorithms in virtual machines (VMs). In large clouds, however, VM resource allocation incurs delays that hinder the dynamic scaling of such NFV deployment. Parallel resource management is a promising direction for boosting performance, but it may significantly increase the communication overhead and the decline ratio of deployment attempts. Our work analyzes the performance of various placement
more » ... ithms and provides empirical evidence that state-of-the-art parallel resource management dramatically increases the decline ratio of deterministic algorithms but hardly affects randomized algorithms. We, therefore, introduce APSR -- an efficient parallel random resource management algorithm that requires information only from a small number of hosts and dynamically adjusts the degree of parallelism to provide provable decline ratio guarantees. We formally analyze APSR, evaluate it on real workloads, and integrate it into the popular OpenStack cloud management platform. Our evaluation shows that APSR matches the throughput provided by other parallel schedulers, while achieving up to 13x lower decline ratio and a reduction of over 85% in communication overheads.
arXiv:2202.07710v1 fatcat:enrlxjqnm5bh7j2tyfjxrlgm3y

Incorporation of iridium into electrodeposited rhenium–nickel alloys

Maayan Cohen Sagiv, Noam Eliaz, Eliezer Gileadi
2013 Electrochimica Acta  
Rhenium (Re), a refractory metal that has gained significant recognition as a high performance engineering material, is mostly used in military, aircraft and aerospace applications, as well as for catalysis in the petrochemical industry. However, its performance at high temperature in humid air is limited by the formation of rhenium heptoxide (Re 2 O 7 ), which penetrates the grain boundaries and causes brittleness. Improvement of this is being sought through the incorporation of iridium (Ir)
more » ... to Re deposits. To this end, suitable plating baths for Re-Ir-Ni coatings were developed. These alloys were deposited from different aqueous solutions on copper substrates under galvanostatic conditions, in a three-electrode cell. The plating bath consisted of iridium tri-chloride, ammonium perrhenate and nickel sulfamate as the electroactive species, and citric acid as the complexing agent. The effects of bath composition and operating conditions on the Faradaic efficiency (FE), partial current densities, as well as on the thickness of the coatings and their composition were studied. Re-Ir-Ni coatings as thick as 18 m, with Re-content as high as 73 at.% and Ir-content as high as 29 at.%, were obtained, using different plating baths. A mechanism of the electrochemical process was suggested. It was found that both an HCP Ir 0.4 Re 0.6 phase and an HCP Ni phase with nanometric crystallites were formed, possibly together with a hexagonal nickel hydride (Ni 2 H) phase.
doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2012.10.094 fatcat:dhifkfan3bh7hiiors6tx3n6te

VEGFA′s distal enhancer regulates its alternative splicing in CML [article]

Sara Dahan, Klil Cohen, Mercedes Dentata, Eden Engal, Ahmad Siam, Gillian Kay, Yotam Drier, Shlomo Elias, Maayan Salton
2021 bioRxiv   pre-print
Enhancer demethylation in leukemia and lymphoma was shown to lead to overexpression of genes which promote cancer characteristics. The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) enhancer, located 157 Kb downstream of its promoter, is demethylated in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). VEGFA has several alternative splicing isoforms with different roles in vascularization and cancer progression. Since transcription and splicing are coupled in space and time, we hypothesized that the VEGFA enhancer
more » ... can also regulate the gene′s alternative splicing to contribute to the pathology of CML. Our results show that mutating the VEGFA +157 enhancer promotes exclusion of exons 6b and 7 and activating the enhancer by tethering a chromatin activator has the opposite effect. In line with these results, CML patients display high enhancer activity and inclusion of VEGFA exons 6b and 7. To search for a key protein connecting transcription with alternative splicing, we analyzed 161 chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-seq experiments for DNA binding proteins and found that PML and CCNT2 bind VEGFA′s promoter and enhancer. CCNT2 is a positive regulator of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription elongation and indeed its silencing promotes exclusion of exons 6b and 7. Slowing down RNAPII elongation promotes exclusion of exons 6b and 7. Thus our results suggest that VEGFA′s +157 enhancer regulates its alternative splicing by increasing RNAPII elongation rate via CCNT2. Our work demonstrates the importance of the interplay between transcription and alternative splicing.
doi:10.1101/2021.01.09.426072 fatcat:nzissml4l5c2vfgu74h3bezb6y

Alone in the campaign: Distrust in regulators and the coping of front‐line workers

Maayan Davidovitz, Nissim Cohen
2021 Regulation & Governance  
Cohen Distrust in Regulators © 2021 The Authors. Regulation & Governance published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd. Distrust in RegulatorsM.Davidovitz, and N. Cohen  ...  Since Israel's establishment, there has been politicization and centralized control of public administration (Galnoor et al. 1998; Cohen 2016) .  ... 
doi:10.1111/rego.12396 fatcat:x6ypv2x26fgsbpmxzk2f3djgmy

Coronacept - a potent immunoadhesin against SARS-CoV-2 [article]

Hadas Cohen-Dvashi, Jonathan Weinstein, Michael Katz, Maayan Eilon, Yuval Mor, Amir Shimon, Romano Strobelt, Maya Shemesh, Sarel J Fleishman, Ron Diskin
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Computational analysis of mammalian ACE2 orthologues suggests various residues at the interface with the viral receptor-binding domain that could facilitate tighter interaction compared to the human-ACE2. Introducing several mutations to the human-ACE2 resulted in significantly augmented affinity to the viral spike complex. This modified human-ACE2 fused to an Fc
more » ... ion of an antibody makes a potent immunoadhesin that effectively targets SARS-CoV-2.
doi:10.1101/2020.08.12.247940 fatcat:w5zmitswabe4zfu7t6ncflzrly

Vertigo in Children and Adolescents: Characteristics and Outcome

Maayan Gruber, Raanan Cohen-Kerem, Margalit Kaminer, Avi Shupak
2012 The Scientific World Journal  
Objectives. To describe the characteristics and outcome of vertigo in a pediatric population.Patients. All children and adolescents presenting with vertigo to a tertiary otoneurology clinic between the years 2003–2010 were included in the study.Results. Thirty-seven patients with a mean age of 14 years were evaluated. The most common etiology was migraine-associated vertigo (MAV) followed by acute labyrinthitis/neuritis and psychogenic dizziness. Ten patients (27%) had pathological findings on
more » ... he otoneurological examination. Abnormal findings were documented in sixteen of the twenty-three (70%) completed electronystagmography evaluations. Twenty patients (54%) were referred to treatment by other disciplines than otology/otoneurology. A follow-up questionnaire was filled by twenty six (70%) of the study participants. While all patients diagnosed with MAV had continuous symptoms, most other patients had complete resolution.Conclusions. Various etiologies of vertigo may present with similar symptoms and signs in the pediatric patient. Yet, variable clinical courses should be anticipated, depending on the specific etiology. This is the reason why treatment and follow up should be specifically tailored for each case according to the diagnosis. Close collaboration with other medical disciplines is often required to reach the correct diagnosis and treatment while avoiding unnecessary laboratory examinations.
doi:10.1100/2012/109624 pmid:22272166 pmcid:PMC3259473 fatcat:ljogux3kvrfidd35nimdyodpvu

OneSpace

Maayan Cohen, Kody R. Dillman, Haley MacLeod, Seth Hunter, Anthony Tang
2014 Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI '14  
Children engage in free play for emotional, physical and social development; researchers have explored supporting free play between physically remote playmates using videoconferencing tools. We show that the configuration of the video conferencing setup affects play. Specifically, we show that a shared visual scene configuration promotes fundamentally active forms of engaged, co-operative play.
doi:10.1145/2556288.2557117 dblp:conf/chi/CohenDMHT14 fatcat:mcs7myctn5dndg5cmbed4zruxa

sj-pdf-1-ppa-10.1177_09520767211024033 - Supplemental material for Politicians' involvement in street-level policy implementation: Implications for social equity

Maayan Davidovitz, Nissim Cohen
2021 Figshare  
Supplemental material, sj-pdf-1-ppa-10.1177_09520767211024033 for Politicians' involvement in street-level policy implementation: Implications for social equity by Maayan Davidovitz and Nissim Cohen in  ... 
doi:10.25384/sage.14832416.v1 fatcat:execp22y5jg7nir7kgnvtnjn4q

Structure and receptor recognition by the Lassa virus spike complex

Michael Katz, Jonathan Weinstein, Maayan Eilon-Ashkenazy, Katrin Gehring, Hadas Cohen-Dvashi, Nadav Elad, Sarel J. Fleishman, Ron Diskin
2022 Nature  
Lassa virus (LASV) is a human pathogen, causing substantial morbidity and mortality1,2. Similar to other Arenaviridae, it presents a class-I spike complex on its surface that facilitates cell entry. The virus's cellular receptor is matriglycan, a linear carbohydrate that is present on α-dystroglycan3,4, but the molecular mechanism that LASV uses to recognize this glycan is unknown. In addition, LASV and other arenaviruses have a unique signal peptide that forms an integral and functionally
more » ... tant part of the mature spike5-8; yet the structure, function and topology of the signal peptide in the membrane remain uncertain9-11. Here we solve the structure of a complete native LASV spike complex, finding that the signal peptide crosses the membrane once and that its amino terminus is located in the extracellular region. Together with a double-sided domain-switching mechanism, the signal peptide helps to stabilize the spike complex in its native conformation. This structure reveals that the LASV spike complex is preloaded with matriglycan, suggesting the mechanism of binding and rationalizing receptor recognition by α-dystroglycan-tropic arenaviruses. This discovery further informs us about the mechanism of viral egress and may facilitate the rational design of novel therapeutics that exploit this binding site.
doi:10.1038/s41586-022-04429-2 pmid:35173332 fatcat:vb42u45qpva3pnmdelebityxpe

Preliminary evidence for obesity-associated insulin resistance in adolescents without elevations of inflammatory cytokines

Jessica I Cohen, Lawrence Maayan, Antonio Convit
2012 Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome  
To ascertain whether the associations between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance established in human adult studies are found among adolescents. Methods: We contrasted 36 obese and 24 lean youth on fasting glucose, insulin levels, lipid profile, hemoglobin A1C, markers of hepatic function, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen levels. The cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-4 and the adipokines leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were also compared
more » ... en the two groups. The fasting glucose and insulin values were used to estimate the degree of insulin resistance with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). T-tests and correlations were run to examine group differences and associations between groups. In addition, regression analyses were used to ascertain whether the markers of inflammation were predictive of the degree of insulin resistance. Results: Although obese adolescents had clear evidence of insulin resistance, only CRP, fibrinogen and leptin were elevated; there were no group differences in pro-or anti-inflammatory cytokines nor adiponectin and resistin. Anthropometric measures of obesity and level of insulin resistance were highly correlated to the acute phase reactants CRP and fibrinogen; however, the degree of insulin resistance was not predicted by the pro-or anti-inflammatory cytokine markers. Obese adolescents had higher white blood cell counts. In addition they had higher circulating alanine aminotransferase concentrations and lower circulating albumin and total protein than lean adolescents, possibly as a result of hepatocyte damage from fatty liver. Conclusion: Unlike rodent or adult studies, we found that wide-spread systemic inflammation is not necessarily associated with insulin resistance among adolescents. This finding does not support the current paradigm that the associations between obesity and insulin resistance are, to a significant degree, mediated by low grade systemic inflammation. These data support the need for further adolescent studies to explore these associations.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-4-26 pmid:22682228 pmcid:PMC3509401 fatcat:zxjgjiywjzcfjfw3dbxljf6mve

IKAP/Elp1 involvement in cytoskeleton regulation and implication for familial dysautonomia

D. Cheishvili, C. Maayan, R. Cohen-Kupiec, S. Lefler, M. Weil, G. Ast, A. Razin
2011 Human Molecular Genetics  
Deficiency in the IKAP/Elp1 protein leads to the recessive sensory autosomal congenital neuropathy which is called familial dysautonomia (FD). This protein was originally identified as a role player in transcriptional elongation being a subunit of the RNAPII transcriptional Elongator multi-protein complex. Subsequently, IKAP/Elp1 was shown to play various functions in the cytoplasm. Here, we describe experiments performed with IKAP/Elp1 downregulated cell lines and FD-derived cells and tissues.
more » ... Immunostaining of the cytoskeleton component a-tubulin in IKAP/Elp1 downregulated cells revealed disorganization of the microtubules (MTs) that was reflected in aberrant cell shape and process formation. In contrast to a recent report on the decrease in a-tubulin acetylation in IKAP/Elp1 downregulated cells, we were unable to observe any effect of IKAP/Elp1 deficiency on a-tubulin acetylation in the FD cerebrum and in a variety of IKAP/Elp1 downregulated cell lines. To explore possible candidates involved in the observed aberrations in MTs, we focused on superior cervical ganglion-10 protein (SCG10), also called STMN2, which is known to be an MT destabilizing protein. We have found that SCG10 is upregulated in the IKAP/Elp1-deficient FD cerebrum, FD fibroblasts and in IKAP/Elp1 downregulated neuroblastoma cell line. To better understand the effect of IKAP/Elp1 deficiency on SCG10 expression, we investigated the possible involvement of RE-1-silencing transcription factor (REST), a known repressor of the SCG10 gene. Indeed, REST was downregulated in the IKAP/Elp1-deficient FD cerebrum and IKAP/Elp1 downregulated neuroblastoma cell line. These results could shed light on a possible link between IKAP/Elp1 deficiency and cytoskeleton destabilization.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr036 pmid:21273291 fatcat:sacovqbl75gk5dhhyu4vaj6qme

Appendix_interview_guides – Supplemental material for "Why Come for Treatment?" Clients' and Therapists' Accounts of the Presenting Problems When Seeking Mental Health Care

Ora Nakash, Michal Cohen, Maayan Nagar
2018 Figshare  
Clients' and Therapists' Accounts of the Presenting Problems When Seeking Mental Health Care by Ora Nakash, Michal Cohen, and Maayan Nagar in Qualitative Health Research  ... 
doi:10.25384/sage.6397601.v1 fatcat:mf4vqetzdffendhmaulavct4n4

Pogz deficiency leads to abnormal behavior, transcription dysregulation and impaired cerebellar physiology [article]

Reut Suliman, Ben Title, Yahel Cohen, Maayan Tal, Nitzan Tal, Bjorg Gudmundsdottir, Kristbjorn O. Gudmundsson, Jonathan R Keller, Guo-Jen Huang, Yosef Yarom, Sagiv Shifman
2018 bioRxiv   pre-print
AbstractGenes implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are enriched with chromatin regulators, but the mechanisms leading to the abnormal behavior and cognition are still unclear. Animal models are crucial for studying the effects of mutations on brain function and behavior. We generated conditional knockout mice with brain-specific mutation in Pogz, a heterochromatin regulator recurrently mutated in ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders, and demonstrated that these mice display
more » ... pes that resemble the human condition. Pogz deficiency led to smaller brain, growth impairment, motor learning deficits, and increased social interactions that mimic the human overly friendly phenotype. At the molecular level, reporter assay indicated that POGZ functions as a negative regulator of transcription through its interaction with HP1 proteins. In accordance, we found a significant upregulation of gene expression, most notably in the cerebellum. Furthermore, Pogz deficiency was associated with a significant reduction in the firing frequency of simple and complex spikes in cerebellar Purkinje cells with no changes in their intrinsic properties. Overall, our findings support a mechanism linking heterochromatin dysregulation to cerebellar circuit dysfunction and to motor and social abnormalities in ASD.
doi:10.1101/437442 fatcat:vf2nl7y7zvhkhhrg5haouissme

VEGFA's distal enhancer regulates its alternative splicing in CML

Sara Dahan, Aveksha Sharma, Klil Cohen, Mai Baker, Nadeen Taqatqa, Mercedes Bentata, Eden Engal, Ahmad Siam, Gillian Kay, Yotam Drier, Shlomo Elias, Maayan Salton
2021 NAR Cancer  
Enhancer demethylation in leukemia has been shown to lead to overexpression of genes which promote cancer characteristics. The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) enhancer, located 157 Kb downstream of its promoter, is demethylated in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). VEGFA has several alternative splicing isoforms with different roles in cancer progression. Since transcription and splicing are coupled, we wondered whether VEGFA enhancer activity can also regulate the gene's alternative
more » ... plicing to contribute to the pathology of CML. Our results show that mutating the VEGFA +157 enhancer promotes exclusion of exons 6a and 7 and activating the enhancer by tethering a chromatin activator has the opposite effect. In line with these results, CML patients present with high expression of +157 eRNA and inclusion of VEGFA exons 6a and 7. In addition, our results show that the positive regulator of RNAPII transcription elongation, CCNT2, binds VEGFA's promoter and enhancer, and its silencing promotes exclusion of exons 6a and 7 as it slows down RNAPII elongation rate. Thus our results suggest that VEGFA's +157 enhancer regulates its alternative splicing by increasing RNAPII elongation rate via CCNT2. Our work demonstrates for the first time a connection between an endogenous enhancer and alternative splicing regulation of its target gene.
doi:10.1093/narcan/zcab029 fatcat:ldkq5z3aija2pnzhvcp5nxh3iy
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