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In addition to defense response, phytohormone jasmonate participates in various plant growth and developmental processes. Nonetheless, its role in the seedling stage is not well defined. We recently report that jasmonate suppresses hypocotyl elongation and promotes cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. The molecular basis underlying this phenotype is that jasmonate treatment reduces the biochemical activity of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) to stabilize severaldoi:10.1080/15592324.2017.1330239 pmid:28534718 pmcid:PMC5566255 fatcat:ewjte32pc5a5vbdyuskoodotku
more »... etted transcription factors for eliciting a proportion of light responsive transcriptome. We further reveal that jasmonate receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) and bHLH transcription factor MYC2 are required for the suppression of COP1 activity. Because elongated hypocotyl and closed cotyledons secure the success for seedling soil emergence, here we investigate seedling soil emergence under jasmonate treatment and find that jasmonate reduces the seedling emerging rates in the wild-type plants. Consistent with the largely insensitive to jasmonate in the suppression of skotomorphogenesis, the soil emerging rates in coi1 or myc2 mutants are almost not altered in the presence of jasmonate. Our data addendum describe that jasmonate-triggered inhibition of etiolation growth results in the defects in seedling soil emergence and suggest that defense-stimulated jasmonate biosynthesis might affect seedling germination in soil.
Author contributions Zheng J designed the project and Sun L synthesized and characterized the materials. ...doi:10.1007/s40843-018-9233-9 fatcat:tzkixfajbjayndrt2nmuvh7zye
Journal of Computers
Two new algorithms used in large-scope solution are put forward to solve nonlinear equations which were not solved by some traditional methods. The initial value was arbitrarily chosen in very large scope. The convergence theorem of the algorithm was presented and proved. The computation is carried out by simple steepest descent rule without evaluation of the derivative evaluation of f. Thus, computation time is saved. The specific examples showed that the proposed method can choose the initialdoi:10.4304/jcp.5.4.606-613 fatcat:wtfqur7545grxldab2bw7hivh4
more »... value in very large scope, without the derivative evaluation, and less computation with high precision and rapid convergence.
Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus which is the predominant cause of superficial and deep tissue fungal infections. This microorganism has developed efficient strategies to invade the host and evade host defense systems. However, the host immune system will be prepared for defense against the microbe by recognition of receptors, activation of signal transduction pathways and cooperation of immune cells. As a consequence, C. albicans could either be eliminated by immune cells rapidly ordoi:10.1080/21505594.2016.1138201 pmid:27078171 pmcid:PMC5026795 fatcat:xrzfwk3c3banhbnzllseynm42e
more »... seminate hematogenously, leading to life-threatening systemic infections. The interplay between Candida albicans and the host is complex, requiring recognition of the invaded pathogens, activation of intricate pathways and collaboration of various immune cells. In this review, we will focus on the effects of innate immunity that emphasize the first line protection of host defense against invaded C. albicans including the basis of receptor-mediated recognition and the mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity.
AbstractThe term 'ornamental plant' refers to all plants with ornamental value, which generally have beautiful flowers or special plant architectures. China is rich in ornamental plant resources and known as the "mother of gardens". Genomics is the science of studying genomes and is useful for carrying out research on genome evolution, genomic variations, gene regulation, and important biological mechanisms based on detailed genome sequence information. Due to the diversity of ornamental plantsdoi:10.1038/s41438-021-00499-x pmid:33790259 fatcat:p55yh2pf7bhehpkoxvmudx7zpq
more »... and high sequencing costs, the progress of genome research on ornamental plants has been slow for a long time. With the emergence of new sequencing technologies and a reduction in costs since the whole-genome sequencing of the first ornamental plant (Prunus mume) was completed in 2012, whole-genome sequencing of more than 69 ornamental plants has been completed in <10 years. In this review, whole-genome sequencing and resequencing of ornamental plants will be discussed. We provide analysis with regard to basic data from whole-genome studies of important ornamental plants, the regulation of important ornamental traits, and application prospects.
Background/Aims: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that play diverse roles in pancreatic carcinogenesis. In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), NF-kB is constitutively activated in most patients and is linked to a mutation in KRAS via IkB kinase complex 1 (IKK1, also known as IKKa). We investigated the link between PDAC aggressiveness and miR-1290. Methods: We used miRCURY™ LNA Array and in situ hybridization to investigate candidate miRNAs and validated the findings withdoi:10.1159/000495328 pmid:30463064 fatcat:ziabynpoyvakne3ab5kca2u7ie
more »... R. The malignant behavior of cell lines was assessed with Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation, and Transwell assays. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to evaluate the interaction between miR-1290 and IKK1. Protein expression was observed by western blotting. Results: In this study, 36 miRNAs were dysregulated in high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and PDAC tissues compared with low-grade PanIN tissues. The area under the curve values of miR-1290 and miR-31-5p were 0.829 and 0.848, respectively (95% confidence interval, 0.722-0.936 and 0.749-0.948, both P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between miR-1290 and histological differentiation (P = 0.029), pT stage (P = 0.006), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). In addition, the in vitro work showed that miR-1290 promoted PDAC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. Western blotting and the dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-1290 promoted cancer aggressiveness by directly targeting IKK1. The synergist effect of miR-1290 on the proliferation and metastasis of PDAC cells was attenuated and enhanced by IKK1 overexpression and knockdown, respectively. Consistent with the in vitro results, a subcutaneous tumor mouse model showed that miR-1290 functioned as a potent promoter of PDAC in vivo. Conclusion: MiR-1290 may act as an oncogene by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region of IKK1, and the miR-1290/IKK1 pathway may prove to be a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for PDAC.
Contribution of individual authors: Data from eligible studies were extracted by six independent reviewers: Lulu Zheng, Bei Zheng, Shen Zeng, Jingjing Li, Bingqing Liang & Jun Zhu. ... Table 1 . 1 Studies meeting inclusion criteria Wenjuan Yang, Lulu Zheng, Bei Zheng, Shen Zeng, Jingjing Li, Bingqing Liang, Jun Zhu & Meiling Zhang: A META-ANALYSIS OF ABNORMAL GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN FIRST-EPISODE ... About 1% of the population worldwide suffering from schizophrenia (Zheng et al. 2018) . ...doi:10.24869/psyd.2020.46 pmid:32303029 fatcat:v4jegjkxkrdjnjl5sc6wbwnbt4
An intriguing area of research in type 2 diabetes recently discovered association of metformin therapy with thyroid functional and morphological changes. We aimed to evaluate the external symptoms and biochemical indicators concerning thyroid function in rats treated with metformin. Male wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group (D-/M-), Group (D-/M+), Group (D+/M-), and Group (D+/M+), according to whether they were induced to diabetic model or placed on metformin.doi:10.18632/oncotarget.22536 pmid:29296189 pmcid:PMC5746091 fatcat:xnfmpwvnf5cfjlchdayljhgz2m
more »... s of food intake, body weight, and other external symptoms were recorded. Thyroid function, concluding serum thyrotropin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), were measured. We found a significantly higher TSH and lower FT4 in rats in Group (D+/M-), compared with rats in Group (D-/M-), but no significant change in FT3 level. Rats on metformin treatment exhibited relatively lower body weight and symptoms like irritability and diarrhea, concomitant with marked increase in FT3 and FT4 , no matter if they were induced to diabetic model or not . A slight but significant reduction in TSH concentration was also observed in rats received metformin. These data reveal that metformin can modify thyroid function with corresponding clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism in male rats. Metformin's contribution to suppress TSH and increase FT3, FT4 should arise our attention to its treatment interference in clinical practice. www.impactjournals.com/oncotarget/
The internally cured material known as superabsorbent polymer (SAP) is an important innovation in concrete engineering technology. This paper investigates the effect of adding a polymer with superabsorbent capabilities on the physical and mechanical performance of concrete. The microstructure of the new hybrid concrete was also studied, and the influence of the polymer particle size and volume on the mechanical durability was evaluated. The mechanical properties of the new hybrid concrete, suchdoi:10.3390/ma14123232 fatcat:jhsqqpbqerabbdvjssbi2d2wmu
more »... as compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, and splitting tensile strength, were measured through laboratory experiments. The microstructure characteristics of the concrete were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that shrinkage was reduced, while the volume stability of the concrete improved. Moreover, we found that cracking was reduced, while issues such as chloride penetration and freeze-thaw resistance were also improved. In addition, the SAP could effectively improve the microstructure of the concrete and refine the pore structure, as seen in the microscopic test. This paper helps to promote the development of internally cured material and improve technology for the prevention of concrete construction cracks.
While the prevalence of cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs) has become a worldwide epidemic, much attention is paid to managing CMDs effectively. A ketogenic diet (KD) constitutes a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet with appropriate protein content and calories. KD has drawn the interests of clinicians and scientists regarding its application in the management of metabolic diseases and related disorders; thus, the current review aimed to examine the evidences surrounding KD and the CMDs to drawdoi:10.3389/fendo.2021.753039 pmid:34795641 pmcid:PMC8594484 fatcat:ht7siailbbesfjcshnjjbyvyaa
more »... e clinical implications. Overall, KD appears to play a significant role in the therapy of various CMDs, which is manifested by the effects of KDs on cardio-metabolic outcomes. KD therapy is generally promising in obesity, heart failure, and hypertension, though different voices still exist. In diabetes and dyslipidemia, the performance of KD remains controversial. As for cardiovascular complications of metabolic diseases, current evidence suggests that KD is generally protective to obese related cardiovascular disease (CVD), while remaining contradictory to diabetes and other metabolic disorder related CVDs. Various factors might account for the controversies, including genetic background, duration of therapy, food composition, quality, and sources of KDs. Therefore, it's crucial to perform more rigorous researches to focus on clinical safety and appropriate treatment duration and plan of KDs.
Efficient exploration in deep cooperative multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) still remains challenging in complex coordination problems. In this paper, we introduce a novel Episodic Multi-agent reinforcement learning with Curiosity-driven exploration, called EMC. We leverage an insight of popular factorized MARL algorithms that the "induced" individual Q-values, i.e., the individual utility functions used for local execution, are the embeddings of local action-observation histories, andarXiv:2111.11032v1 fatcat:r5kbcl6imvg2rkaeczi7gnyc24
more »... an capture the interaction between agents due to reward backpropagation during centralized training. Therefore, we use prediction errors of individual Q-values as intrinsic rewards for coordinated exploration and utilize episodic memory to exploit explored informative experience to boost policy training. As the dynamics of an agent's individual Q-value function captures the novelty of states and the influence from other agents, our intrinsic reward can induce coordinated exploration to new or promising states. We illustrate the advantages of our method by didactic examples, and demonstrate its significant outperformance over state-of-the-art MARL baselines on challenging tasks in the StarCraft II micromanagement benchmark.
Previous dialogue summarization datasets mainly focus on open-domain chitchat dialogues, while summarization datasets for the broadly used task-oriented dialogue haven't been explored yet. Automatically summarizing such task-oriented dialogues can help a business collect and review needs to improve the service. Besides, previous datasets pay more attention to generate good summaries with higher ROUGE scores, but they hardly understand the structured information of dialogues and ignore thearXiv:2110.12680v1 fatcat:3ghiu44txbdudebsb4723np6ka
more »... lity of summaries. In this paper, we introduce a large-scale public Task-Oriented Dialogue Summarization dataset, TODSum, which aims to summarize the key points of the agent completing certain tasks with the user. Compared to existing work, TODSum suffers from severe scattered information issues and requires strict factual consistency, which makes it hard to directly apply recent dialogue summarization models. Therefore, we introduce additional dialogue state knowledge for TODSum to enhance the faithfulness of generated summaries. We hope a better understanding of conversational content helps summarization models generate concise and coherent summaries. Meanwhile, we establish a comprehensive benchmark for TODSum and propose a state-aware structured dialogue summarization model to integrate dialogue state information and dialogue history. Exhaustive experiments and qualitative analysis prove the effectiveness of dialogue structure guidance. Finally, we discuss the current issues of TODSum and potential development directions for future work.
ORCID iDs Xuebao Li https:/ /orcid.org/0000-0003-0397-4372 Yanfang Zheng https:/ /orcid.org/0000-0003-0229-3989 ...doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab6d04 fatcat:tiuq253q6nf4zkh3b7jxf26tb4
, D., No. 0202002131604]; Major Science and Technology Project of Sichuan Province [Zheng, D., No. 8ZDZX0143]; Ministry of Education Collaborative Education Project of China [Zheng, D., No. 952]; Fundamental ... Research Project [Zheng, D., Nos.549, 550].The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to report regarding the present study.(2019): The application of BP neural networks to analysis the ...doi:10.32604/cmc.2020.010102 fatcat:c4x2gwgy6rewjcg3likvprngm4
, Zhoulin and Lulu Zhang revised the paper. ... Author Contributions: Yongqiang Lv developed the original idea; Yongqiang Lv and Xinqi Zheng designed this study; Yongqiang Lv collected and analyzed the data; Yongqiang Lv wrote the paper; Xinqi Zheng ...doi:10.3390/su9101880 fatcat:w3ce2kcsc5h23a6lnxxid57zhi
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