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Low-complexity sphere decoding algorithm for quasi-orthogonal space-time block codes

A.Y.-C. Peng, Il-Min Kim, S. Yousefi
2006 IEEE Transactions on Communications  
Space-time codes can be decoded by the sphere decoding (SD) algorithm to reduce the complexity and retain maximum-likelihood (ML) performance.  ...  In this letter, the ML metric of quasi-orthogonal space-time block codes is written into two independent Euclidean norms, thus SD can be applied to each function independently.  ...  Quasi-orthogonal space-time block codes (QOSTBCs) have been designed to provide the full transmission rate for complex symbols.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tcomm.2006.869881 fatcat:3srqicyd6bh4bozprennh7yjji

Fast Optimal Decoding of Multiplexed Orthogonal Designs by Conditional Optimization

Songsri Sirianunpiboon, Yiyue Wu, A. Robert Calderbank, Stephen D. Howard
2010 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory  
It is independent of implementation and is more general in that it can be applied to space-time codes such as the Golden Code and perfect space-time block codes, that are not assisted by quasi-orthogonality  ...  The methods are applied to several block space-time codes obtained by multiplexing Alamouti blocks where it leads to ML decoding with complexity O(N 2 ) where N is the size of the underlying QAM signal  ...  Note that this decoding primitive also applies to space-time codes that are not assisted by quasi-orthogonality, such as the Golden Code [10] and perfect space-time codes to give essentially ML performance  ... 
doi:10.1109/tit.2009.2039069 fatcat:z7zotzbrvfcu7b3alzmoytztb4

A new non-orthogonal space-time code with low decoding complexity

M.A. Maddah-Ali, A.K. Khandani
2006 IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications  
A full diversity block space-time code over two transmit antennas and two symbol periods is introduced.  ...  In this method, each code is equal to the addition of two matrices; ¢ ¤ £ and ¥ ¦ ¢ § , where ¢ and ¥ are the two constant matrices and © and are the two data symbols.  ...  Block orthogonal space-time coding is another method of designing full diversity space-time codes with an orthogonality property which simplifies decoding [5] [15] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/twc.2006.1633364 fatcat:gggymcp66fczplv4heoosrtrey

Single-block coded modulation for MINO systems

Mohammad Janani, Aria Nosratinia
2009 IEEE Transactions on Communications  
This method can be applied to a wide variety of space-time block codes, including orthogonal codes and quasi-orthogonal codes.  ...  A multi-stage design algorithm is presented, and for orthogonal parent codes, an efficient decoding algorithm is developed, and its decoding complexity is analyzed.  ...  For codes with quasi-orthogonal parents, we can employ the sphere decoding method suggested by [13] incorporated in the same decoding algorithm seen earlier.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tcomm.2009.02.070032 fatcat:6ulug4rnczgrhj3vgdmvkndwim

Efficient Space-Time Block Codes Derived from Quasi-Orthogonal Structures

Mohammad Janani, Aria Nosratinia
2007 IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications  
We propose a new class of block codes that outperforms known space-time block codes at low rates.  ...  We also provide an efficient maximum likelihood (ML) decoding algorithm for the new code.  ...  Quasi-orthogonal space-time codes (QOSTC) [1] were designed with an eye towards low-SNR performance while having simple decoding complexity. However, QOSTC could not achieve full diversity.  ... 
doi:10.1109/twc.2007.360365 fatcat:kobrxztqhvguhdcvzf4hjbkiyi

A fast sphere decoding framework for space-frequency block codes

Z. Safar, Weifeng Su, K.J. Ray Liu
2004 2004 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37577)  
In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient decoding algorithm for space-frequency block codes.  ...  The central part of the algorithm is a complex-domain, modulation-independent sphere decoding framework.  ...  For ST block codes transmitted over temporally evolving channels and for SF block-coded MIMO-OFDM systems, where the channel changes along the frequency axis, low complexity decoding algorithms still do  ... 
doi:10.1109/icc.2004.1313000 dblp:conf/icc/SafarSL04 fatcat:eftvciabsfafrgyazdrtwmsxsy

Two Quasi Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes with Better Performance and Low Complexity Decoder [article]

Ali Lotfi-Rezaabad, Siamak Talebi, Ata Chizari
2016 arXiv   pre-print
This paper presents two new space time block codes (STBCs) with quasi orthogonal structure for an open loop multi-input single-output (MISO) systems.  ...  This is followed by the demonstration of how the decoder decodes half of transmitted symbols independent of the other half.  ...  Although orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBCs) decoder is much simpler than quasi-orthogonal space-time block codes (QOSTBCs) one, the rate of QOSTBCs is higher than that of OSTBCs for more than two  ... 
arXiv:1605.05901v1 fatcat:olxmy7vgbrgmpbmq3cqdpv7qi4

On Fast-Decodable Space-Time Block Codes

Ezio Biglieri, Yi Hong, Emanuele Viterbo
2008 2008 IEEE International Zurich Seminar on Communications  
Index Terms-Alamouti code, decoding complexity, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), quasi-orthogonal space-time block codes (STBCs), sphere decoder.  ...  We focus on full-rate, fast-decodable space-time block codes (STBCs) for 2 2 2 and 4 2 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are grateful for the constructive comments of the anonymous reviewers.  ... 
doi:10.1109/izs.2008.4497289 fatcat:djfhfr64xngjzncalsoreamufq

On Fast-Decodable Space–Time Block Codes

Ezio Biglieri, Yi Hong, Emanuele Viterbo
2009 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory  
Index Terms-Alamouti code, decoding complexity, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), quasi-orthogonal space-time block codes (STBCs), sphere decoder.  ...  We focus on full-rate, fast-decodable space-time block codes (STBCs) for 2 2 2 and 4 2 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are grateful for the constructive comments of the anonymous reviewers.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tit.2008.2009817 fatcat:s7tph4xutjdrfmiqtulf3chsji

Lattice code decoder for space-time codes

O. Damen, A. Chkeif, J.-C. Belfiore
2000 IEEE Communications Letters  
We apply the sphere decoding (SD) algorithm to the resulted lattice code.  ...  We explore in this letter the lattice sphere packing representation of a multi-antenna system and the algebraic space-time (ST) codes.  ...  Sphere Decoding of Algebraic Space-Time Codes We have introduced in [10], a new class of ST codes constructed from algebraic number constellations which transform the inherent transmit diversity of a multi-antenna  ... 
doi:10.1109/4234.846498 fatcat:jzt6apojirgxvponu2k6wlggiq

Reduction of ML decoding complexity for MIMO Sphere Decoding, QOSTBC, and OSTBC

Luay Azzam, Ender Ayanoglu
2008 2008 Information Theory and Applications Workshop  
In the second application, we propose a low complexity Maximum Likelihood Decoding (MLD) algorithm for quasiorthogonal space-time block codes (QOSTBCs).  ...  In the third application, we propose a low complexity Maximum Likelihood Decoding (MLD) algorithm for orthogonal spacetime block codes (OSTBCs) based on the real-valued lattice representation and QR decomposition  ...  Among these codes we focus on orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBCs) [6] and quasi-orthogonal space-time block codes (QOSTBCs) [7] - [9] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/ita.2008.4601014 fatcat:wvtnhkau7vc4dpnorcrsirjd44

Fast Maximum-Likelihood Decoder for 4*4 Quasi-Orthogonal Space-Time Block Code [article]

Adel Ahmadi, Siamak Talebi
2017 arXiv   pre-print
This letter introduces two fast maximum-likelihood (ML) detection methods for 4*4 quasi-orthogonal space-time block code (QOSTBC).  ...  Both decoders utilize a novel decomposition technique for ML metric which divides the metric into independent positive parts and a positive interference part.  ...  QUASI-ORTHOGONAL SPACE TIME BLOCK CODE where , and the data symbols , , belong to constellation .  ... 
arXiv:1706.03833v1 fatcat:jazhpkhlyva6jc7z6zcv3ji4ci

Blind ML detection of orthogonal space-time block codes: efficient high-performance implementations

Wing-Kin Ma, Ba-Ngu Vo, T.N. Davidson, Pak-Chung Ching
2006 IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing  
Orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBCs) have attracted much attention owing to their simple code construction, maximal diversity gain, and low maximum-likelihood (ML) detection complexity when channel  ...  Index Terms-Blind and semiblind detection, decoding, lattice decoding, maximum likelihood (ML) detection, relaxation methods, semidefinite programming, space-time block code (STBC), sphere decoding.  ...  Jaldén of the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, who showed us how to improve the computational efficiency of an SDR interior-point optimization code by exploiting symmetric positive  ... 
doi:10.1109/tsp.2005.861885 fatcat:wujioxlu5recvl4yyasijtbeoi

A fast-decodable code structure for linear dispersion codes

X. Dai, S. Cheung, T. Yuk
2009 IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications  
Index Terms-Linear dispersion code, complexity of sphere decoding, MIMO system, fast-decodable code.  ...  We show that, with the proposed code, the number of levels in the tree search and hence the complexity of the sphere decoder (SD) at the receiver can be substantially reduced.  ...  Subsequently, orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBCs) which allow the use of low-complexity ML decoders were introduced [2] , but such OSTBCs cannot achieve the full transmission rates for MIMO systems  ... 
doi:10.1109/twc.2009.080841 fatcat:a4qw4tk3hbajbiw2fjje4orcta

Achieving Low-Complexity Maximum-Likelihood Detection for the 3D MIMO Code [article]

Ming Liu, Maryline Hélard
2014 arXiv   pre-print
The 3D MIMO code is a robust and efficient space-time block code (STBC) for the distributed MIMO broadcasting but suffers from high maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding complexity.  ...  Simulation results show that the proposed simplified ML decoder can achieve much lower processing time latency compared to the classical sphere decoder with Schnorr-Euchner enumeration.  ...  In combination with space-time block code (STBC), it provides higher spectrum efficiency with better communication reliability [1] .  ... 
arXiv:1401.3112v1 fatcat:jcqkdqy6ybcnrh7nyfxczxitpy
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