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Low doses of alcohol substantially decrease glucose metabolism in the human brain

Nora D. Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang, Dinko Franceschi, Joanna S. Fowler, Panayotis (Peter) K. Thanos, Laurence Maynard, S. John Gatley, Christopher Wong, Richard L. Veech, George Kunos, Ting Kai Li
2006 NeuroImage  
Moderate doses of alcohol decrease glucose metabolism in the human brain, which has been interpreted to reflect alcohol-induced decreases in brain activity.  ...  Here, we measure the effects of two relatively low doses of alcohol (0.25 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg, or 5 to 10 mM in total body H 2 O) on glucose metabolism in the human brain.  ...  This research was also supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.07.004 pmid:16085426 fatcat:uay35gncvnfdpgiqlq6fxcxtgq

Ethanol impairs glucose uptake by human astrocytes and neurons: protective effects of acetyl-L-carnitine

P M Abdul Muneer, Saleena Alikunju, Adam M Szlachetka, Aaron J Mercer, James Haorah
2011 International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology  
Our results indicate that ethanol exposure decreases the uptake of D-(2-(3)H)-glucose by human astrocytes and neurons.  ...  These findings suggest that deprivation of glucose in brain cells contributes to neurotoxicity in alcohol abusers, and highlights ALC as a potential therapeutic agent to prevent the deleterious health  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by NIH/NIAAA grant AA016403-01A2 (to JH) and by UNMC Faculty Retention Fund.  ... 
pmid:21258656 pmcid:PMC3023411 fatcat:w6zqpirqzrepjdohxmsljor6re

Positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography in substance abuse research

Nora D. Volkow, Joanna S. Fowler, Gene-Jack Wang
2003 Seminars in nuclear medicine  
Many advances in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain have come from the application of imaging technologies directly in the human drug abuser.  ...  This article highlights recent advances in the use of PET and SPECT imaging to measure the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of drugs of abuse on the human brain.  ...  Similar to the effects of an acute dose of cocaine on brain metabolism in the cocaine abuser, 88 an acute dose of morphine in the opiate user results in an overall decrease in brain glucose metabolism.  ... 
doi:10.1053/snuc.2003.127300 pmid:12756644 fatcat:zmmfvghehvfidgsihdplag7tri

Nutritional Ketosis as a Potential Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder

Vikrant R. Mahajan, Sophie K. Elvig, Leandro F. Vendruscolo, George F. Koob, Valerie L. Darcey, M. Todd King, Henry R. Kranzler, Nora D. Volkow, Corinde E. Wiers
2021 Frontiers in Psychiatry  
Several findings suggest that during alcohol intoxication there is a shift from glucose to acetate metabolism that is enhanced in individuals with AUD.  ...  Here, we review evidence for nutritional ketosis as a potential means to reduce withdrawal and alcohol craving. We also review the underlying mechanisms of action of ketosis.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank the late Dr. Richard Veech for his lasting contributions to the field of nutritional ketosis.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.781668 pmid:34916977 pmcid:PMC8670944 fatcat:4abl26f64zavljycsgun2ay6aa

Uncoventional Views on Certain Aspects of Toxin-Induced Metabolic Acidosis

Man S. Oh
2010 Electrolytes & Blood Pressure  
In the presence of a modest increase in serum osmolal gap (<30 mOsm/L), the starting dose of ethanol should be far less than the usual recommended dose.  ...  Impaired production of ammonia by the proximal tubule of the kidney plays a major role in the development of metabolic acidosis in pyroglutamic acidosis.  ...  Hypoglycemia is common in salicylate poisoning 33) , and sometimes brain glucose is low while plasma glucose is normal because of increased utilization of glucose due to uncoupling that is most pronounced  ... 
doi:10.5049/ebp.2010.8.1.32 pmid:21468195 pmcid:PMC3041497 fatcat:7vihxue5mjevbduyptbp2c5bay

Influence of Alcohol on Mortality in Traumatic Brain Injury

Razvan C. Opreanu, Donald Kuhn, Marc D. Basson
2010 Journal of the American College of Surgeons  
Low dose alcohol was associated with marked attenuation of immediate post-injury hyperglycolysis in rats, with more normal glucose metabolism and less reduction of the cerebral blood flow in the injury  ...  Plurad et al. found decreased mortality in victims of motor vehicle crashes with high dose compared to low dose alcohol 89.  ...  Table 1 Experimental Studies of the Impact of Alcohol Intoxication (Low to Moderate Doses) on Outcomes of Subsequent Traumatic Brain Injury First author Year Animal model Main findings Dash 28 2004  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2010.01.036 pmid:20510810 pmcid:PMC3837571 fatcat:psh3n3z4ovd5tgof35itckwxrq

The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging

James M. Bjork, Jodi M. Gilman
2014 Neuropharmacology  
Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development  ...  In this review, we will summarize recent findings about acute human brain responses to alcohol using neuroimaging techniques, and how they might explain behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication.  ...  Cited original research performed by the authors was funded by intramural funding of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.07.039 pmid:23978384 pmcid:PMC3971012 fatcat:ibcxzzx6ijgzfbs4dmgoflpmeq

Antidiabetic claims of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers: critical appraisal and role in therapy

Rohit Sharma, Hetal Amin, Galib, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
2015 Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine  
The formulation induces a dose related decrease in hyperglycemia and augments islet SOD activity [53] .  ...  Root extract is reported to normalize the antioxidant status of heart, brain, liver and kidney at a dose of in alloxan-rats and the effect is more prominent than glibenclamide and insulin.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s2221-1691(15)30173-8 fatcat:c722etgl4rd4vartrohumjrwgm

Precision Nutrition for Alzheimer's Prevention in ApoE4 Carriers

Nicholas G. Norwitz, Nabeel Saif, Ingrid Estrada Ariza, Richard S. Isaacson
2021 Nutrients  
resistance and glucose metabolism.  ...  However, no long-term human studies have been conducted to determine effective nutritional protocols for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease in ApoE4 carriers.  ...  Acknowledgments: The authors would like to recognize patients and their care partners. It is you Acknowledgments: The authors would like to recognize patients and their care partners. It is you  ... 
doi:10.3390/nu13041362 pmid:33921683 fatcat:emrnw6d335a67ftl2ltilqxzuu

Thirst sensation and oral dryness following alcohol intake

Kiyotoshi Inenaga, Kentaro Ono, Suzuro Hitomi, Ayu Kuroki, Izumi Ujihara
2017 Japanese Dental Science Review  
The sensation of thirst experienced after heavy-alcohol drinking is widely regarded as a consequence of EtOH-induced diuresis; however, EtOH in high doses induces anti-diuresis.  ...  , and by a decrease in salivary secretion, respectively.  ...  Acknowledgment This research was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (JSPS KAKENHI 26462819 (K.I.)).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jdsr.2016.12.001 pmid:28725298 pmcid:PMC5501731 fatcat:iyb7nwyqrfh53c2sloaxcbxp3i

Suitability of Sugar Alcohols as Antidiabetic Supplements: A Review

Nontokozo Z. Msomi, Ochuko L Erukainure, Md. Shahidul Islam
2021 Journal of Food and Drug Analysis  
Secondly, in ex vivo condition, xylitol dose-dependently decreased intestinal glucose absorption and increased muscle glucose uptake.  ...  In a previous study, the supplementation of erythritol in doses of 100, 200, or 400 mg (kg body weight) À1 day À1 for ten days in diabetic rats induced with streptozotocin, decreased serum glucose levels  ...  Conflict of interest The authors declare no conflict of interests.  ... 
doi:10.38212/2224-6614.3107 fatcat:ucbqifoig5gd3k6iix24mrin44

Sugar addiction: is it real? A narrative review

James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe, William L Wilson
2017 British Journal of Sports Medicine  
Contributors JJD performed the literature search and wrote the initial manuscript. JHO'K and WLW reviewed, edited and wrote sections of the final manuscript.  ...  Competing interests JJD is the author of The Salt Fix and operates the website thesaltfix. com WLW sells a supplement that contains both L-glutamine and chromium picolinate.  ...  In both animals and humans, the evidence in the literature shows substantial parallels and overlap between drugs of abuse and sugar, from the standpoint of brain neurochemistry as well as behaviour.  ... 
doi:10.1136/bjsports-2017-097971 pmid:28835408 fatcat:7pvrueo46jc5lntbdpzov6vo3m

Contribution of Red Wine Consumption to Human Health Protection

Lukas Snopek, Jiri Mlcek, Lenka Sochorova, Mojmir Baron, Irena Hlavacova, Tunde Jurikova, Rene Kizek, Eva Sedlackova, Jiri Sochor
2018 Molecules  
Its cardioprotective effects include improving endothelial function and glucose metabolism, reducing inflammation, and regulating blood lipids.  ...  Resveratrol is active in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by neutralizing free oxygen radicals and reactive nitrogenous radicals; it penetrates the blood-brain barrier and, thus, protects the  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/molecules23071684 pmid:29997312 fatcat:jj2x3mds5vdnxihrt7z76xcb4y

Causes and consequences of low grade endotoxemia and inflammatory diseases

Trevor G Glaros
2013 Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition)  
CAUSES OF LOW DOSE ENDOTOXEMIA Chronic consumption of alcohol The consumption of alcohol in humans is associated with the onset of many human diseases including alcoholic liver disease, cardiomyopathy  ...  Despite these advances, future studies are warranted to further examine the scopes, consequences, and mechanisms of low dose endotoxemia in humans.  ... 
doi:10.2741/s405 pmid:23277084 fatcat:cgy363jb7fbdbepbtamygiyqvq

Dexfenfluramine lacks amphetamine-like abuse potential

Kenneth W. Locke, Tamara R. Levesque, Katherine L. Nicholson, Robert L. Balster
1996 Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry  
Absorption and Metabolism The absorption half-life of fenfluramine after oral administration to humans is about 1 h, much less than its plasma half-life of 24 h.  ...  of this compound from the U.S. market in 1997.  ...  The half-life of fenfluramine in rat brain is about 4 h after high doses, but may be shorter after low doses. The half-life of norfenfluramine in brain is at least 24 h.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0278-5846(96)00081-4 pmid:8888108 fatcat:73bqhqzswfgafdkxgwzfatpte4
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