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Low Latency Anonymity with Mix Rings [chapter]

Matthew Burnside, Angelos D. Keromytis
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We introduce mix rings, a novel peer-to-peer mixnet architecture for anonymity that yields low-latency networking compared to existing mixnet architectures.  ...  A mix ring is a cycle of continuous-time mixes that uses carefully coordinated cover traffic and a simple fan-out mechanism to protect the initiator from timing analysis attacks.  ...  Mix rings are a compromise between the weaker anonymity/low latency of onion routing and the strong anonymity/high latency of mixnets.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11836810_3 fatcat:4x2vu7uo5vfhxlvlmc45wwjxhy

An Efficient Overlay Infrastructure for Privacy-Preserving Communication on the Internet

Jalal Al-Muhtadi
2007 Journal of King Saud University: Computer and Information Sciences  
Nodes are arranged in concentric rings, which reduce average overlay hop latencies.  ...  Protocol messages are mixed in randomly with dummy packets to keep a constant flow of traffic in and out of the routers.  ...  The average per-hop latency is low since packets are routed between adjacent rings.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1319-1578(07)80003-6 fatcat:brerlu7ezbaprbrt3hukco326y

Introducing Tarzan, a Peer-to-Peer Anonymizing Network Layer [chapter]

Michael J. Freedman, Emil Sit, Josh Cates, Robert Morris
2002 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We introduce Tarzan, a peer-to-peer anonymous network layer that provides generic IP forwarding. Unlike prior anonymizing layers, Tarzan is flexible, transparent, decentralized, and highly scalable.  ...  Tarzan achieves these properties by building anonymous IP tunnels between an open-ended set of peers.  ...  Few systems attempt anonymity for low-level, real-time communication. The Onion Routing system [9] creates a mix-net over TCP connections.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-45748-8_12 fatcat:znmuls2eivhkbagmrse3qhxzc4

A Survey on Routing in Anonymous Communication Protocols [article]

Fatemeh Shirazi, Milivoj Simeonovski, Muhammad Rizwan Asghar, Michael Backes, Claudia Diaz
2016 arXiv   pre-print
messages can be anonymously routed to their destination.  ...  structure of the underlying network; the routing information that has to be made available to the initiator of the conversation; the underlying communication model; and performance-related indicators such as latency  ...  In order to anonymize ISDN telephone communication with its intrinsic requirements on low-latency, Pfitzmann et al. [31] introduced the concept of ISDN mixes.  ... 
arXiv:1608.05538v1 fatcat:arxwswqhl5e7pfhvngni5k3bby

Traffic Analysis Attacks and Trade-Offs in Anonymity Providing Systems [chapter]

Adam Back, Ulf Möller, Anton Stiglic
2001 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We discuss problems and trade-offs with systems providing anonymity for web browsing (or more generally any communication system that requires low latency interaction).  ...  In light of these observations, we discuss the trade-offs that one faces when trying to construct an efficient low latency communication system that protects users anonymity.  ...  We also thank Andreas Pfitzmann and the anonymous referees for valuable comments and Bill Heelan for advice on the presentation.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-45496-9_18 fatcat:abj476orfzaizoazg4mmrapwb4

DAENet: Making Strong Anonymity Scale in a Fully Decentralized Network

Tianxiang Shen, Jianyu Jiang, Yunpeng Jiang, Xusheng Chen, Ji Qi, Shixiong Zhao, Fengwei Zhang, Xiapu Luo, Heming Cui
2021 IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing  
., circuit) to hide message senders and satisfy the low-latency requirement as users can communicate through a small number of relays (e.g., three relays are usually used in Tor).  ...  In this paper, we present DAENet, an efficient mix network that resists both targeted DoS attacks and traffic analysis attacks with a new abstraction called Stealthy Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Network.  ...  However, Riposte assumes that users can tolerate its hours of latency to achieve strong anonymity, violating the low-latency requirement.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tdsc.2021.3052831 fatcat:dggaab67nnaadddrtvegsdvlse

Survey on anonymous communications in computer networks

Jian Ren, Jie Wu
2010 Computer Communications  
We start with the basic definitions of anonymous communications. We then describe the cryptographic primitives, the network protocols, and some of the representative anonymous communication systems.  ...  Finally, we briefly cite some other anonymous systems.  ...  The simplest low-latency designs are trusted single-hop proxies such as the Anonymizer [55] and Web MIXes (known as cascades) [56] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.comcom.2009.11.009 fatcat:4ux4n767pvaujpnsnkgiytqikq

Hiding in Plain Sight: Exploiting Broadcast for Practical Host Anonymity

Craig A. Shue, Minaxi Gupta
2010 2010 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences  
While many existing schemes provide strong anonymity, they are inappropriate when high bandwidth and low latency are required.  ...  In this work, we explore an anonymity scheme for end hosts whose performance makes it possible to have it always on.  ...  Due to the high latency, these approaches cannot be used for some interactive applications. Low latency approaches have also been explored.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hicss.2010.219 dblp:conf/hicss/ShueG10 fatcat:bdczpjeo7zfbblmweyj4aixvhi

Möbius: Trustless Tumbling for Transaction Privacy

Sarah Meiklejohn, Rebekah Mercer
2018 Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies  
In this paper, we present Möbius, an Ethereum-based tumbler or mixing service.  ...  Möbius achieves strong notions of anonymity, as even malicious senders cannot identify which pseudonyms belong to the recipients to whom they sent money, and is able to resist denial-of-service attacks  ...  On the other hand, they can achieve low latency, as participants do not need to rely on others to mix.  ... 
doi:10.1515/popets-2018-0015 dblp:journals/popets/MeiklejohnM18 fatcat:hwfuirb655bvzjkxkpihqwnv2a

RAD: Recipient-anonymous data delivery based on public routing proxies

Hyoungshick Kim, Jaehoon Jeong
2011 Computer Networks  
In this paper we realize this idea with an efficient multicast protocol by introducing the concept of a public routing proxy.  ...  This paper presents a Recipient-Anonymous Data Delivery (RAD), tailored and optimized for stable-topology networks. There is one simplistic approach for achieving recipient anonymity.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors thank Jon Crowcroft and the anonymous referees for their careful attention and insightful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2011.07.009 fatcat:t6bnseem6vfazmgjmscsoc3sva

Secure and Privacy-Aware Blockchain Design: Requirements, Challenges and Solutions

Sidra Aslam, Aleksandar Tošić, Michael Mrissa
2021 Journal of Cybersecurity and Privacy  
We provide a taxonomy of current attacks together with related countermeasures.  ...  In some cases, addressing these issues requires blockchain data to be secured with mechanisms that allow on-demand (as opposed to full) disclosure.  ...  The tables show that ring signature [37] , is relatively efficient and works with very low latency.  ... 
doi:10.3390/jcp1010009 fatcat:narc2lqitbb75py56gg7equ36e

Privacy in VoIP Networks: Flow Analysis Attacks and Defense

Mudhakar Srivatsa, Arun Iyengar, Ling Liu, Hongbo Jiang
2011 IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems  
This paper proposes practical solutions to address these challenges using a quantifiable k-anonymity metric and a privacy-aware VoIP route setup and route maintenance protocols.  ...  A large number of low latency anonymizing networks have been built using the concept of a mix network [9] [25] .  ...  Mix network provides good anonymity for high latency communications by routing network traffic through a number of nodes with random delay and random routes.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tpds.2010.122 fatcat:dt4eiu373fhotnhudr7lnejpsm

The predecessor attack

Matthew K. Wright, Micah Adler, Brian Neil Levine, Clay Shields
2004 ACM Transactions on Privacy and Security  
We use this result to place an upper bound on how long existing protocols, including Crowds, Onion Routing, Hordes, Web Mixes, and DC-Net, can maintain anonymity in the face of the attacks described.  ...  We prove that when a particular initiator continues communication with a particular responder across path reformations, existing protocols are subject to the attack.  ...  Mix-Nets face increased work and latency costs due to the costs of effective mixing.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1042031.1042032 fatcat:tr7fge4o5jcrtag3trxh5tixz4

On anonymity in an electronic society

Matthew Edman, Bülent Yener
2009 ACM Computing Surveys  
We identify and describe the major concepts and technologies in the field, including mixes and mix networks, onion routing, and Dining Cryptographers networks.  ...  The past two decades have seen a growing interest in methods for anonymous communication on the Internet, both from the academic community and the general public.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions. We also thank Paul Syverson and Aaron Johnson for helpful discussions while preparing this survey.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1592451.1592456 fatcat:qg2d52dvhfhk7dqrhulbabehue

A Hierarchical Anonymous Communication Protocol for Sensor Networks [chapter]

Arjan Durresi, Vamsi Paruchuri, Mimoza Durresi, Leonard Barolli
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first protocol that deals with providing complete anonymity in sensor networks.  ...  We use token ring approach for achieving anonymity of communication between cluster heads. Routes are chosen and frames are scheduled to traverse these routes.  ...  For time sensitive data which require low latencies, rings with less number of nodes have to be formed which in turn results in less communication overhead but at the same time in less anonymity.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11596356_111 fatcat:nc5yo7i2bfgn5ndwz55k5pjjo4
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