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In this paper we delineate five potentially useful levels of relational granularity and propose the use of aggregatable substance identifiers to help reduce lexical ambiguity. ... An aggregatable substance identifier applies to a gene and its products. We merged 4 extensive lexicons and compared the extracted strings to the text of five million MEDLINE abstracts. ... To implement our five level aggregation strategy, we need to identify multiple references to the same aggregatable substances and establish a method of linking those aggregatable substance references to ...doi:10.1142/9789812702456_0016 fatcat:w2ow6nb2xvag7evp6fdwalj27q
We demonstrate the application of the proposed framework using a testbed of P53-related PubMed abstracts, which shows that literature-based P53 networks exhibit small-world and scale-free properties. ... Recent advances in text mining tools have made it possible to automatically extract such documented interactions from free-text literature. ... Existing gene and protein nomenclature and ontology sources, including RefSeq, Locuslink, HUGO, SGD, and Gene Ontology, are employed to create an Aggregatable Substance Lexicon and a Feature Lexicon. ...doi:10.1016/j.jbi.2007.01.001 pmid:17317333 pmcid:PMC2047827 fatcat:wl3xjzdf4vcqfpwnk473q5lts4
These are explored through two conceptions of alterity which have operated in Western thought and their connections to questions of comparison. An analysis is made of the relations [...] ... The work of three late twentieth-century social scientists (Shils, Gellner and Fukuyama) is examined and their concept of civil society and use of non-Western Others is contrasted with those of the prior ... resource used by Locke or Hobbes. ...doi:10.14288/1.0088078 fatcat:cl3u5awoybd3leel4jzzmgo7vy
a product for immediate extraction. ... Ernst Mach is also closely associated with theorizing the transition of substance to function, specifically in relation to the problem of causality. ...doi:10.7916/d8-2jgr-ec38 fatcat:d6lvfbaltnaqdd2al2voolf4ui
All granular materials are both fully recyclable and reconfigurable due to the fact that the individual particles are in no way bound to each other. ... Consequently, the overall granular material can have characteristics which are novel in comparison to non-designed granular materials. ... "Metamaterials" relate primarily to periodically organized units in or on a substrate, which designed granular materials are not (see section 184.108.40.206). ...doi:10.18419/opus-10765 fatcat:u3fbqbxjtbcxnji7iulxx5cf74
The determination of the organic acids could be used to identify the processed cultivar and to exclude adulteration. ... For assessing the influence of feed supplements on the tetracycline resistance transfer, the test substances (phytogenic substances and organic acids) were added to the agar for subsequent direct plate ... Using optimized RT-PCR-systems, chance is given to investigate the distribution of these viruses or virus-complexes in birch. ...fatcat:cr6uv66cqjezxabymv4tdxu7xy