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Annotating Underquantification

Aurélie Herbelot, Ann A. Copestake
2010 Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
We attempt to validate the underquantification hypothesis by producing and testing an annotation scheme for quantification resolution, the aim of which is to associate a single quantifier with each noun  ...  Another type of annotation concerns tasks where the linguistic categories at play are not fixed.  ...  Motivation Linguistic motivation It is usual to talk of 'annotation' generically, to cover any process that involves humans using a set of guidelines to mark some specific linguistic phenomenon in some  ... 
dblp:conf/acllaw/HerbelotC10 fatcat:akbgx4r2zvarhlz6jfyfca5msy

Towards Adaptation of Linguistic Annotations to Scholarly Annotation Formalisms on the Semantic Web

Karin Verspoor, Kevin M. Livingston
2012 Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
This paper explores how and why the Linguistic Annotation Framework might be adapted for compatibility with recent more general proposals for the representation of annotations in the Semantic Web, referred  ...  to here as the Open Annotation models.  ...  These developments make possible the integration of linguistic annotation with the scholarly annotation models. 5 Adapting LAF to Open Annotation The Linguistic Annotation Framework, or LAF, (ISO 2008  ... 
dblp:conf/acllaw/VerspoorL12 fatcat:lf57ktfb5bfcnik7dt3mla3ceq

Increasing Informativeness in Temporal Annotation

James Pustejovsky, Amber Stubbs
2011 Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
In particular, we discuss some issues with TimeML motivated by error analysis on annotated TLINKs in Time-Bank.  ...  In this paper, we discuss some of the challenges of adequately applying a specification language to an annotation task, as embodied in a specific guideline.  ...  Many thanks to Chiara Graf, Zac Pustejovsky, and Virginia Partridge for their help creating the annotations, and to BJ Harshfield for his R expertise.  ... 
dblp:conf/acllaw/PustejovskyS11 fatcat:6lo4sg4zsrh3rdbtdlbgdcvyie

From Descriptive Annotation to Grammar Specification

Lars Hellan
2010 Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
The paper presents an architecture for connecting annotated linguistic data with a computational grammar system.  ...  Underlying the architecture is a research program of enhancing the interconnectivity between linguistic analytic subsystems such as grammar formalisms and text annotation systems.  ...  Terms and symbols used for linguistic annotation are central in this enterprise, and the paper describes an algorithm by which a code suitable for sentence level annotation can be aligned with a system  ... 
dblp:conf/acllaw/Hellan10 fatcat:4zposzlvkfhvzkcpsz42a6hwui

Situation Entity Annotation

Annemarie Friedrich, Alexis Palmer
2014 Proceedings of LAW VIII - The 8th Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
In this paper we present the annotation scheme, statistics of the corpus in its current version, and analyses of both inter-annotator agreement and intra-annotator consistency.  ...  This annotation is performed (so far) on three sections of the MASC corpus, with each clause labeled by at least two annotators.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank the anonymous reviewers, Bonnie Webber and Andreas Peldszus for helpful comments, and our annotators Ambika Kirkland, Ruth Kühn and Fernando Ardente.  ... 
doi:10.3115/v1/w14-4921 dblp:conf/acllaw/FriedrichP14 fatcat:oumtto4oe5ehxk4tu65fbouxq4

Reducing the Need for Double Annotation

Dmitriy Dligach, Martha Palmer
2011 Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
The quality of annotated data is crucial for supervised learning. To eliminate errors in single annotated data, a second round of annotation is often used.  ...  However, is it absolutely necessary to double annotate every example?  ...  Resolution of lexical ambiguities has for a long time been viewed as an important problem in natural language processing that tests our ability to capture and represent semantic knowledge and and learn from linguistic  ... 
dblp:conf/acllaw/DligachP11 fatcat:jsqgcj27vbgxtoycgds6lmm6em

MAE and MAI: Lightweight Annotation and Adjudication Tools

Amber Stubbs
2011 Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
MAE and MAI are lightweight annotation and adjudication tools for corpus creation.  ...  DTDs are used to define the annotation tags and attributes, including extent tags, link tags, and non-consuming tags.  ...  Acknowledgments Funding for this project development was provided by NIH grant NIHR21LM009633-02, PI: James Pustejovsky Many thanks to the annotators who helped me identify bugs in the software, particularly  ... 
dblp:conf/acllaw/Stubbs11 fatcat:bvsofhu46vd2vplgrfentk6y4u

Multiple views as aid to linguistic annotation error analysis

Marilena Di Bari, Serge Sharoff, Martin Thomas
2014 Proceedings of LAW VIII - The 8th Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
We tested the methodology against an English corpus annotated according to a fine-grained sentiment analysis annotation schema (SentiML).  ...  This paper describes a methodology for supporting the task of annotating sentiment in natural language by detecting borderline cases and inconsistencies.  ...  Methodology To test our methodology we selected a corpus for which various types of linguistic information related to appraisal groups were annotated.  ... 
doi:10.3115/v1/w14-4912 dblp:conf/acllaw/BariST14 fatcat:er3jbpkynnbvnbtuazghsyhqwy

Characteristics of High Agreement Affect Annotation in Text

Cecilia Ovesdotter Alm
2010 Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
It describes a corpus of fairy tales from three sources that have been annotated for affect at the sentence level. Special attention is given to data marked by high annotator agreement.  ...  But even with full annotator agreement it is not sure that the task captures what was originally intended" (577); this should not be confused with understanding a linguistic issue.  ...  But, the relevance of that for study of linguistic behavior is less clear. Zaenen (2006) noted that "[f]or interannotator agreement, it suffices that all annotators do the same thing.  ... 
dblp:conf/acllaw/Alm10 fatcat:tbeutkirvff2phxan5yl4g5qa4

Annotating the Implicit Content of Sluices

Pranav Anand, Jim McCloskey
2015 Proceedings of The 9th Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
This paper reports on an effort to develop a linguistically-informed annotation scheme for sluicing (Ross, 1969) , ellipsis that leaves behind a wh-phrase.  ...  We describe a scheme for annotating the elided content, both in terms of a free text representation and its degree of correspondence with its antecedent.  ...  For the remaining rounds, we recruited six annotators: five advanced undergraduate linguistics students (all with at least two courses in syntax and semantics) and one graduate linguistics student.  ... 
doi:10.3115/v1/w15-1621 dblp:conf/acllaw/AnandM15 fatcat:wwfo6ad7xrcilp6wpkdaqrwxje

Crowdsourcing Word Sense Definition

Anna Rumshisky
2011 Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
In this paper, we propose a crowdsourcing methodology for a single-step construction of both an empirically-derived sense inventory and the corresponding sense-annotated corpus.  ...  used successfully for a number of NLP tasks, including robust evaluation of machine translation systems by reading comprehension (Callison-Burch, 2009) , and other tasks explored in the recent NAACL workshop  ...  Inventories derived from WordNet by using small-scale corpus analysis and by automatic mapping to top entries in Oxford Dictionary of English were used in the recent workshops on semantic evaluation, including  ... 
dblp:conf/acllaw/Rumshisky11 fatcat:hesdfx3d7fed7aafjrqif2alxm

Annotating omission in statement pairs

Héctor Martínez Alonso, Amaury Delamaire, Benoît Sagot
2017 Proceedings of the 11th Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
We use a dedicated classifier to assess whether the annotators' behaviour can be explained by straightforward linguistic features.  ...  We compare three annotation schemes, namely two crowdsourcing schemes and an expert annotation.  ...  We aimed at measuring whether the annotators' behavior can be explained by simple proxy linguistic properties like word overlap or length of the statements and/or lexical properties.  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/w17-0805 dblp:conf/acllaw/AlonsoDS17 fatcat:yq2vsdzuevginowcemlq4pb23a

Annotating Discourse Connectives in Spoken Turkish

Isin Demirsahin, Deniz Zeyrek
2014 Proceedings of LAW VIII - The 8th Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
In an attempt to extend Penn Discourse Tree Bank (PDTB) / Turkish Discourse Bank (TDB) style annotations to spoken Turkish, this paper presents the first attempt at annotating the explicit discourse connectives  ...  We present the data and the method for the annotation. Then we reflect on the issues and challenges of transitioning from written to spoken language.  ...  Nevertheless, we kept the annotations as shown in the example, because (a) it was the most intuitive annotation according to the annotators and (b) the DATT does not allow annotation of ellipsis as arguments  ... 
doi:10.3115/v1/w14-4916 dblp:conf/acllaw/DemirsahinZ14 fatcat:3v77o6d6v5hjheumzedp3r5nfq

Ranking the annotators: An agreement study on argumentation structure

Andreas Peldszus, Manfred Stede
2013 Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
Our task is to annotate the argumentative structure of short texts.  ...  We show that it is possible to isolate a reliable subgroup of annotators, so that aspects of the difficulty of the underlying task can be studied.  ...  of every annotator (or at least the same number of annotators) on each item.  ... 
dblp:conf/acllaw/PeldszusS13 fatcat:w2v64a4wbngbjisqdvw66goznq

POS error detection in automatically annotated corpora

Ines Rehbein
2014 Proceedings of LAW VIII - The 8th Linguistic Annotation Workshop  
This paper targets the detection of POS errors in automatically annotated corpora, so-called silver standards, showing that by combining different measures sensitive to annotation quality we can identify  ...  These methods, however, can not be used for automatically annotated corpora where errors are systematic and cannot easily be identified by looking at the variance in the data.  ...  Introduction Today, linguistically annotated corpora are an indispensable resource for many areas of linguistic research.  ... 
doi:10.3115/v1/w14-4903 dblp:conf/acllaw/Rehbein14 fatcat:y73djp7e6ff2rcn7zh4g4i4u3m
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