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Fair Classification and Social Welfare [article]

Lily Hu, Yiling Chen
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Now that machine learning algorithms lie at the center of many resource allocation pipelines, computer scientists have been unwittingly cast as partial social planners. Given this state of affairs, important questions follow. What is the relationship between fairness as defined by computer scientists and notions of social welfare? In this paper, we present a welfare-based analysis of classification and fairness regimes. We translate a loss minimization program into a social welfare maximization
more » ... problem with a set of implied welfare weights on individuals and groups--weights that can be analyzed from a distribution justice lens. In the converse direction, we ask what the space of possible labelings is for a given dataset and hypothesis class. We provide an algorithm that answers this question with respect to linear hyperplanes in R^d that runs in O(n^dd). Our main findings on the relationship between fairness criteria and welfare center on sensitivity analyses of fairness-constrained empirical risk minimization programs. We characterize the ranges of Δϵ perturbations to a fairness parameter ϵ that yield better, worse, and neutral outcomes in utility for individuals and by extension, groups. We show that applying more strict fairness criteria that are codified as parity constraints, can worsen welfare outcomes for both groups. More generally, always preferring "more fair" classifiers does not abide by the Pareto Principle---a fundamental axiom of social choice theory and welfare economics. Recent work in machine learning has rallied around these notions of fairness as critical to ensuring that algorithmic systems do not have disparate negative impact on disadvantaged social groups. By showing that these constraints often fail to translate into improved outcomes for these groups, we cast doubt on their effectiveness as a means to ensure justice.
arXiv:1905.00147v1 fatcat:2mcemfwdk5d3xapb3dndeui6ha

Experimental investigation on laser-induced surface damage threshold of Nd-doped phosphate glass

Junjiang Hu Junjiang Hu, Lei Zhang Lei Zhang, Wei Chen Wei Chen, Changhe Zhou Changhe Zhou, Lili Hu Lili Hu
2012 Chinese Optics Letters (COL)  
Nd-doped phosphate glass is the dominant amplifier material used in solid state high average power laser systems. Surface imperfection and subsurface damage (SSD) of the glass, resulting from the optical fabrication process, limit the increment of laser system energy output. Thus, it is important to enhance the surface damage threshold of Nd-doped phosphate glass surface. The influence of abrasive size, polishing powder, grinding mode, and chemical treatment on the laser-induced damage
more » ... (LIDT) of Nd-doped phosphate glass surface is investigated. Results show that the LIDT is affected little by different polishing powders and grinding modes. The LIDT correlates with the abrasive size, which produced different depths of SSD. A suitable acid etching treatment can remove the imperfection and the SSD for improving the LIDT of Nd-doped phosphate glass surface. The combination of several effective techniques and methods, which are low-cost and practical, should be useful to enhance the LIDT of Nd-doped phosphate glass surface.
doi:10.3788/col201210.041403 fatcat:hfkjr6wntffhjl5d4y4rarkjmi

On Potentially (K_5-C_4)-graphic Sequences [article]

Lili Hu, Chunhui Lai
2006 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we characterize the potentially (K_5-C_4)-graphic sequences where K_5-C_4 is the graph obtained from K_5 by removing four edges of a 4 cycle C_4. This characterization implies a theorem due to Lai [6].
arXiv:math/0701023v1 fatcat:v33k2ss62zbfbawsajzutzn3xq

Phosphate Glasses [chapter]

Francisco Muñoz, Jean Rocherullé, Ifty Ahmed, Lili Hu
2019 Springer Handbooks  
D., Hu, J., Calvez, L..  ...  , F., Rocherullé, J., Ahmed, I., Hu, L. (2019). Phosphate Glasses. En Musgraves, J. D., Hu, J., Calvez, L..  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-93728-1_16 fatcat:ovmfkobtwzcufbn6blfdnedgfu

Welfare and Distributional Impacts of Fair Classification [article]

Lily Hu, Yiling Chen
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Correspondence to: Lily Hu <lilyhu@g.harvard.edu>.  ... 
arXiv:1807.01134v1 fatcat:ymjjoza2o5gnba5mplexk54qcu

On Potentially (K_5-H)-graphic Sequences [article]

Lili Hu, Chunhui Lai, Ping Wang
2007 arXiv   pre-print
Let K_m-H be the graph obtained from K_m by removing the edges set E(H) of H where H is a subgraph of K_m. In this paper, we characterize the potentially K_5-P_4 and K_5-Y_4-graphic sequences where Y_4 is a tree on 5 vertices and 3 leaves.
arXiv:math/0702166v1 fatcat:cej76zd4znghtfbq4lo767tchu

Fairness at Equilibrium in the Labor Market [article]

Lily Hu, Yiling Chen
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Recent literature on computational notions of fairness has been broadly divided into two distinct camps, supporting interventions that address either individual-based or group-based fairness. Rather than privilege a single definition, we seek to resolve both within the particular domain of employment discrimination. To this end, we construct a dual labor market model composed of a Temporary Labor Market, in which firm strategies are constrained to ensure group-level fairness, and a Permanent
more » ... or Market, in which individual worker fairness is guaranteed. We show that such restrictions on hiring practices induces an equilibrium that Pareto-dominates those arising from strategies that employ statistical discrimination or a "group-blind" criterion. Individual worker reputations produce externalities for collective reputation, generating a feedback loop termed a "self-fulfilling prophecy." Our model produces its own feedback loop, raising the collective reputation of an initially disadvantaged group via a fairness intervention that need not be permanent. Moreover, we show that, contrary to popular assumption, the asymmetric equilibria resulting from hiring practices that disregard group-fairness may be immovable without targeted intervention. The enduring nature of such equilibria that are both inequitable and Pareto inefficient suggest that fairness interventions are of critical importance in moving the labor market to be more socially just and efficient.
arXiv:1707.01590v1 fatcat:3dtjfyhgtbgillrymrl5e6wagq

A Characterization On Potentially K_6-C_4-graphic Sequences [article]

Lili Hu, Chunhui Lai
2009 arXiv   pre-print
This characterization implies a theorem due to Hu and Lai [7].  ...  Note that the value of σ(K 6 − C 4 , n) was determined by Hu and Lai in [7] so a much simpler proof is given here. Theorem (Hu and Lai [7] ) If n ≥ 6, then σ(K 6 − C 4 , n) = 6n − 10.  ...  Hu and Lai [8, 11] characterized the potentially K 5 − C 4 and K 5 − E 3 -graphic sequences where E 3 denotes graphs with 5 vertices and 3 edges.  ... 
arXiv:0901.1356v1 fatcat:ccxsfqnxajapnmngsawliz6bzu

Anti-periodic Solutions of Impulsive Cohen-Grossberg SICNNs on Time Scales

Meng Hu, Lili Wang, Lili Wang
2011 Journal of Mathematics Research  
By using the method of coincidence degree and constructing suitable Lyapunov functional, some sufficient conditions are established for the existence and global exponential stability of anti-periodic solutions for a kind of impulsive Cohen-Grossberg shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks (CGSICNNs) on time scales. An example is given to illustrate our results. (a) e 0 (t, s) ≡ 1 and e p (t, t) ≡ 1; (b) e p (σ(t), s) = (1 + μ(t)p(t))e p (t, s);
doi:10.5539/jmr.v3n1p131 fatcat:tobmjellz5h4xahqvb5636f6ye

Spectroscopic properties of thulium ions in bismuth silicate glass

Xin Wang Xin Wang, Lili Hu Lili Hu, Kefeng Li Kefeng Li, Ying Tian Ying Tian, Sijun Fan Sijun Fan
2012 Chinese Optics Letters (COL)  
A new type of bismuth silicate glass (Bi2O3-SiO2-ZnO-Al2O3-La2O3) doped with Tm2O3 is prepared by melt-quenching method. The thermal stability of the glass is examined by differential scanning calorimetry. No crystallization peak is found. Using the absorption and emission spectra, the absorption and emission cross-sections are calculated. Their maximum data are 2.9×10 −21 cm 2 at 1 663 nm and 4.7×10 −21 cm 2 at 1 826 nm, respectively. Using the Judd-Ofelt theory, the radiation transition
more » ... ilities and radiative lifetimes are obtained. The extended overlap integral method is applied to analyze energy transfer process among the Tm 3+ ions. The transfer constants of cross-relaxation and energy migration among the Tm 3+ ions at the 3 H4 level are 7.60×10 −40 and 14.98×10 −40 cm 6 /s, respectively. The critical transfer radius for cross-relaxation is 0.99 nm. The cross relaxation process is easy to realize and is favorable for obtaining ∼2-µm laser.
doi:10.3788/col201210.101601 fatcat:4twwj3o4sraxhlgtunjl3sfxu4

Environmental considerations of low-temperature drilling fluids

Pavel Talalay, Zhengyi Hu, Huiwen Xu, Dahui Yu, Lili Han, Junjie Han, Lili Wang
2014 Annals of Glaciology  
The introduction of low-temperature fluid into boreholes drilled in ice sheets helps to remove drilling cuttings and to prevent borehole closure through visco-plastic deformation. Only special fluids, or mixtures of fluids, can satisfy the very strict criteria for deep drilling in cold ice. The effects of drilling fluid on the natural environment are analyzed from the following points of view: (1) occupational safety and health; (2) ozone depletion and global warming; (3) chemical pollution;
more » ... (4) biological pollution. Traditional low-temperature drilling fluids (kerosene-based fluids with density additives, ethanol and n-butyl acetate) cannot be qualified as intelligent choices from the safety, environmental and technological standpoints. This paper introduces a new type of low-temperature drilling fluid composed of synthetic ESTISOLTM esters, which are non-hazardous substances. ESTISOLTM 140 mixtures with ESTISOLTM 165 or ESTISOLTM F2887 have an acceptable density and viscosity at low temperature. To avoid the potential for biological contamination of the subglacial environment, the borehole drilling fluid should be treated carefully on the surface.
doi:10.3189/2014aog65a226 fatcat:5bpoumsy7fganbx5rsrtt5re2i

C23 promotes tumorigenesis via suppressing p53 activity

Qun Li, Yan Zhu, Lili Hou, Juan Wang, Guilin Hu, Xing Fang, Yamin Hu, Tingting Tao, Xin Wei, Haitao Tang, Baojun Huang, Wanglai Hu
2016 OncoTarget  
C23 is an abundant and multi-functional protein, which plays an important role in various biological processes, including ribosome biogenesis and maturation, cell cycle checkpoints and transcriptional regulation [1, 2]. However, the role of C23 in controlling tumorigenesis has not been well defined. Here we report that C23 is highly expressed in cancer cells and the elevated expression of C23 facilitates cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Notably, C23 binds
more » ... p53 through its GAR domain and suppresses the transcriptional activity of p53 under DNA damage and hypoxia. Moreover, the GAR domain is critical for C23-mediated tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings reveal a novel role of C23 in tumorigenesis and suggest that C23 may represent a potential therapeutic target for treating malignancy.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.11071 pmid:27506938 pmcid:PMC5295430 fatcat:shssggdzkzdela2sst6mhldbnq

Monoculture or Mixed Culture? Relevance of Fine Root Dynamics to Carbon Sequestration Oriented Mangrove Afforestation and Restoration

Ziying He, Ziying He, Ziying He, Huaye Sun, Xiaoli Yu, Xiaoli Yu, Xiaoli Yu, Zhushi Yin, Zhushi Yin, Zhushi Yin, Mengxing Wu, Mengxing Wu (+10 others)
2021 Frontiers in Marine Science  
Copyright © 2021 He, Sun, Yu, Yin, Wu, Zhao, Hu, Peng and Lee. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fmars.2021.763922 doaj:fb6d775ced2a48f6a994d513103d4d0b fatcat:2nmk7fxzt5bclpkgxntujuqp3m

On Potentially K_5-E_3-graphic Sequences [article]

Lili Hu, Chunhui Lai
2007 arXiv   pre-print
Hu and Lai [7] [8] characterized the potentially K 5 − C 4 and K 5 − Z 4 -graphic sequences.  ...  Lai and Hu [16] determined σ(K r+1 − H, n) for n ≥ 4r + 10, r ≥ 3, r + 1 ≥ k ≥ 4 and H be a graph on k vertices which containing a tree on 4 vertices but not contain a cycle on 3 vertices and σ(K r+1  ... 
arXiv:math/0702245v2 fatcat:rqbx26o7pjd6tiglkdppbyccja

Some Metric Problems on the Global Grid Systems

HU Hai, YOU Lian, SONG Lili, HU Peng
2016 Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica  
HU P e n g , HU Y u j u , YANG C h u a n y o n g , e ta l . D e s i g n a ym o r ea t t e n t i o nb yp e o p l e.  ...  F u n d a m e n t a l s o f G e o d e t i c S u r v e y i n g [ M ] .2 n d e d.Wu h a n : Wu h F i r s ta u t h o r : HU H a i ( 1 9 7 7 -) , ma l e , P h D , a s s o c i a t e p r o f e s s o r , ma  ... 
doi:10.11947/j.agcs.2016.f007 doaj:65d3fa24413d45f88e42634eb079db83 fatcat:dpqxfjyej5grbccbzc24stipym
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