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Forest ecosystems provide critical ecosystem goods and services, and any disturbance-induced changes can have cascading impacts on natural processes and human socioeconomic systems. Forest disturbance frequency, intensity, and spatial and temporal scale can be altered by changes in climate and human activity, but without baseline forest disturbance data, it is impossible to quantify the magnitude and extent of these changes. Methodologies for quantifying forest cover change have been developeddoi:10.3390/rs11050477 fatcat:tgmcf5t5nff33of5wmgm473qqi
more »... t the regional-to-global scale via several approaches that utilize data from high (e.g., IKONOS, Quickbird), moderate (e.g., Landsat) and coarse (e.g., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) spatial resolution satellite imagery. While detection and quantification of forest cover change is an important first step, attribution of disturbance type is critical missing information for establishing baseline data and effective land management policy. The objective here was to prototype and test a semi-automated methodology for characterizing high-magnitude (>50% forest cover loss) forest disturbance agents (stress, fire, stem removal) across the conterminous United States (CONUS) from 2003–2011 using the existing University of Maryland Landsat-based Global Forest Change Product and Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD). The Forest Cover Change maps were segmented into objects based on temporal and spatial adjacency, and object-level spectral metrics were calculated based on WELD reflectance time series. A training set of objects with known disturbance type was developed via high-resolution imagery and expert interpretation, ingested into a Random Forest classifier, which was then used to attribute disturbance type to all 15,179,430 forest loss objects across CONUS. Accuracy assessments of the resulting classification was conducted with an independent dataset consisting of 4156 forest loss objects. Overall accuracy was 88.1%, with the highest omission and commission errors observed for fire (32.8%) and stress (31.9%) disturbances, respectively. Of the total 172,686 km2 of forest loss, 83.75% was attributed to stem removal, 10.92% to fire and 5.33% to stress. The semi-automated approach described in this paper provides a promising framework for the systematic characterization and monitoring of forest disturbance regimes.
A semisupervised kernel deformation function including spatial similarity is proposed for the classification of remote sensing images. The method exploits the characteristic of these images, in which spatially nearby points are likely to belong to the same class. To fulfill this assumption, a kernel encoding both spatial and spectral proximity using unlabeled samples is proposed. In this letter, two similarity functions for constructing a spatial kernel are proposed. Experimental tests aredoi:10.1109/lgrs.2014.2329713 fatcat:r7tm3swno5a7vhho5erfyrvxva
more »... rmed on very high resolution multispectral and hyperspectral data. With respect to state-of-the-art semisupervised methods for remote sensing images, the proposed method incorporating spatial similarity obtains higher classification accuracies and smoother classification maps.
A novel and convenient synthetic route for constructing a diversity of MsF derivatives with significant anti-proliferative activity.doi:10.1039/c7ra00090a fatcat:egltmehgjbbbvj46ompagv2564
Bare soil is a critical element in the urban landscape and plays an essential role in urban environments. Yet, the separation of bare soil and other land cover types using remote sensing techniques remains a significant challenge. There are several remote sensing-based spectral indices for barren detection, but their effectiveness varies depending on land cover patterns and climate conditions. Within this research, we introduced a modified bare soil index (MBI) using shortwave infrared (SWIR)doi:10.3390/land10030231 fatcat:yepfuy5rvfbmzdnnpvbkftfkyi
more »... d near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths derived from Landsat 8 (OLI – Operational Land Imager). The proposed bare soil index was tested in two different bare soil patterns in Thailand and Vietnam, where there are large areas of bare soil during the agricultural fallow period, obstructing the separation between bare soil and urban areas. Bare soil extracted from the MBI achieved higher overall accuracy of about 98% and a kappa coefficient over 0.96, compared to bare soil index (BSI), normalized different bare soil index (NDBaI), and dry bare soil index (DBSI). The results also revealed that MBI considerably contributes to the accuracy of land cover classification. We suggest using the MBI for bare soil detection in tropical climatic regions.
Haze removal is still an essential prerequisite for image processing and computer vision tasks, and joint inference and refinement of transmission maps remain challenging in the physical scattering model-based haze removal methods. In this article, we propose an end-to-end learnable dehazing network, which is referred to as Guided-Pix2Pix, to jointly estimate and refine the transmission map and further dehaze images by the physical scattering equation. Instead of a two-stage model of predictingdoi:10.1109/jstars.2021.3061460 fatcat:oij5uc4bvrdazdycmsw45cbgai
more »... and postprocessing the transmission, Guided-Pix2Pix concatenates the trainable Pix2Pix backbone and differentiable guided filter as an embedded layer, which enables generating refined transmission maps in one feed-forward step, and then it substitutes these potential refinements into the physical scattering equation to restore dehazed images. To verify that our Guided-Pix2Pix can be embedded in both training and inference, we demonstrate that the guided filter layer is differentiable and capable of propagating both features forward and gradients backward. Furthermore, explicit derivatives with respect to the input of the guided filter are given, and the relationship between our derivation and that in the guided filter is also explored. Experiments show that our network is effective and robust in image dehazing, can alleviate the halo artifacts along edges, and has great generalization capability. Index Terms-Differentiable guided filter, end-to-end refinement of transmission map, image dehazing. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. For more information, see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ Libin Jiao received the B.S. degree in computer science and technology and the Ph.D. degree in computer software and theory from Beijing Normal University,
Accurate prediction of future observations based on past data is the key to near real-time disturbance detection using satellite image time series (SITS). To overcome the limitations of existing methods, we present an attention-based long-short-term memory (LSTM) encoder-decoder model in which the historical time series of a pixel is encoded with a bidirectional LSTM encoder while the future time series is produced by another LSTM decoder. An attention mechanism is integrated into thedoi:10.1109/jstars.2020.2988324 fatcat:uwvt4d74hjacbfdkbzfebouxd4
more »... coder model to align the input time series with the output time series and to dynamically choose the most relevant contextual information while forecasting. Based on the proposed model, we develop a framework for near real-time disturbance detection and verify its effectiveness in the case of burned area mapping. The prediction accuracy of the proposed model is evaluated using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series and compared with state-of-the-art models. Experimental results show that our model achieves the best results in terms of lower prediction error and higher model fitness. We also evaluate the disturbance detection ability of the proposed framework. The proposed approach improves the detection rate of disturbances while suppressing false alarms, and increases the temporal accuracy. We suggest that the proposed methods provide new tools for enhancing current early warning systems in real time.
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition causes hy-perphosphorylation of tau and APP in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying the downregulation of PP2A activity in AD brain remain unclear. We demonstrate that Cancerous Inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), an endogenous PP2A inhibitor, is overexpressed in AD brain. CIP2A-mediated PP2A inhibition drives tau/APP hyperphosphorylation and increases APP β-cleavage and Aβ production. Increase in CIP2A expression also leads to taudoi:10.1016/j.celrep.2018.06.009 pmid:30021167 pmcid:PMC6095478 fatcat:br5dpwent5hp5nkljsxjz752fu
more »... ization to dendrites and spines and synaptic degeneration. In mice, injection of AAV-CIP2A to hippocampus induced AD-like cognitive deficits and impairments in long-term potentiation (LTP) and exacerbated AD pathologies in neurons. Indicative of disease exacerbating the feedback loop, we found that increased CIP2A expression and PP2A inhibition in AD brains result from increased Aβ production. In summary, we show that CIP2A overexpression causes PP2A inhibition and AD-related cellular pathology and cognitive deficits, pointing to CIP2A as a potential target for AD therapy. Open AccessThis is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
A group of mesh-based and age-dependent family phantoms for Chinese populations were developed in this study. We implemented a method for deforming original RPI-AM and RPI-AF models into phantoms of different ages: 5, 10 ,15 and adult. More than 120 organs for each model were processed to match with the values of the Chinese reference parameters within 0.5%. All of these phantoms were then converted to voxel format for Monte Carlo simulations. Dose coefficients for adult models were counted todoi:10.1051/epjconf/201715304014 fatcat:kjdtqsho3zc2xk63yubphly23q
more »... ompare with those of RPI-AM and RPI-AF. The results show that there are significant differences between absorbed doses of RPI phantoms and these of our adult phantoms at low energies. Comparisons for the dose coefficients among different ages and genders were also made. it was found that teenagers receive more radiation doses than adults under the same irradiation condition. This set of phantoms can be utilized to estimate dosimetry for Chinese population for radiation protection, medical imaging, and radiotherapy.
Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (SFGR) can cause mild to fatal illness. The early interaction between the host and rickettsia in skin is largely unknown and the pathogenesis of severe rickettsiosis remains an important topic. A surveillance of SFGR infection by PCR of blood and skin biopsies followed by sequencing and immunohistochemical detection was performed on patients with a recent tick bite between 2013 and 2016. Humoral and cutaneous immunoprofiles were evaluated in different SFGR casesdoi:10.1128/iai.00686-19 pmid:31907196 pmcid:PMC7093127 fatcat:v644y3csxzh6lpzcsg6t6emuay
more »... y serum cytokine and chemokine detection, skin immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 111 SFGR cases were identified, including 79 Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae (CRT), 22 R. raoultii, 8 R. sibirica, and 2 R. heilongjiangensis. The sensitivity to detect SFGR in skin biopsies (9/24, 37.5 %) was significantly higher than in blood samples (105/2671, 3.9 %) (p<0.05). As early as one day after the tick bite, rickettsia could be detected in the skin. R. sibirica infection was more severe than CRT and R. raoultii. Increased levels of serum IL18, IP10, MIG and decreased IL2 were observed in R. sibirica febrile patients compared to CRT febrile patients. RNA-seq and IHC staining could not discriminate between SFGR-infected and uninfected tick-bite skin lesions. However, the type I interferon (IFN) response was differently expressed between R. sibirica and R. raoultii infection at the cutaneous interface. It is concluded that skin biopsies were more reliable for the detection of SFGR Rickettsiae in human patients, although the immunoprofile may be complicated by immunomodulators induced by the tick bite.
Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. Further, we present RNAi-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by IAPV to subvert host defenses. Our study shows that IAPV is established as a persistent infection in honey bee populations, likely enabled by both horizontaldoi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004261 pmid:25079600 pmcid:PMC4117608 fatcat:7nefxfqiifazxlc5s7xy2g2kqy
more »... and vertical transmission pathways. The phenotypic differences in pathology among different strains of IAPV found globally may be due to high levels of standing genetic variation. Microarray profiles of host responses to IAPV infection revealed that mitochondrial function is the most significantly affected biological process, suggesting that viral infection causes significant disturbance in energy-related host processes. The expression of genes involved in immune pathways in adult bees indicates that IAPV infection triggers active immune responses. The evidence that silencing an IAPV-encoded putative suppressor of RNAi reduces IAPV replication suggests a functional assignment for a particular genomic region of IAPV and closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae, and indicates a novel therapeutic strategy for limiting multiple honey bee viruses simultaneously and reducing colony losses due to viral diseases. We believe that the knowledge and insights gained from this study will provide a new platform for continuing studies of the IAPV-host interactions and have positive implications for disease management that will lead to mitigation of escalating honey bee colony losses worldwide.
Ma-huang, xing-ren, shi-gao, gan-cao Xuan-bai-cheng-qi decoction Shi-gao, da-huang, xing-ren, gua-lou-pi Huang-lian-jie-du decoction Huang-lian, huang-qin, huang-bai, zhi-zi Jie-du-huo-xue decoction Lian-qiao ... Qing-wen-bai-du decoction Shi-gao, di-huang, xi-jiao # , huang-lian, zhi-zi, jie-geng, huang-qin, zhi-mu, chi-shao, xuan-shen, lian-qiao, zhu-ye, mu-dan-pi, gan-cao Bai-hu decoction Zhi-mu, shi-gao, gan-cao ...doi:10.1142/s0192415x20500378 pmid:32164424 fatcat:jjql6f6mkfcc5e6aujnc3xmjju
The emergency treatment of thoracic injuries varies of general conditions and modern warfare. However, there are no unified battlefield treatment guidelines for thoracic injuries in the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA). An expert consensus has been reached based on the epidemiology of thoracic injuries and the concept of battlefield treatment combined with the existing levels of military medical care in modern warfare. Since there are no differences in the specialized treatment fordoi:10.1186/s40779-018-0181-6 fatcat:itcen7gfqbbuboljzwqeuobcfm
more »... c injuries between general conditions and modern warfare, first aid, emergency treatment, and early treatment of thoracic injuries are introduced separately in three levels in this consensus. At Level I facilities, tension pneumothorax and open pneumothorax are recommended for initial assessment during the first aid stage. Re-evaluation and further treatment for hemothorax, flail chest, and pericardial tamponade are recommended at Level II facilities. At Level III facilities, simple surgical operations such as emergency thoracotomy and debridement surgery for open pneumothorax are recommended. The grading standard for evidence evaluation and recommendation was used to reach this expert consensus.
46.4 0.28 Yin yang huo MOL001677 Asperglaucide 58 0.52 Zhi mu MOL001944 Marmesin 50.3 0.18 Zhi mu MOL003773 Mangiferolic acid 36.2 0.84 Zhi mu MOL000422 Kaempferol 41.9 0.24 Zhi mu ... (Huang lian). ...doi:10.1155/2021/1860508 pmid:34594388 pmcid:PMC8478564 fatcat:k34cd7zdb5f6lktyory6dk4sxy
After Chinese medicine treatment with the well-known anticancer Chinese herbs, Jen-Ren-Hwo-Minq-Saan, and decoction of Ban-Zhi-Lian (Scutellaria barbata) with Bai-Hua-She-She-Cao (Hedyotis diffusa Willd ... We prescribed to her concentrated scientific herbal medicine of Jen-Ren-Hwo-Minq-Saan and Chinese herb decoction of Ban-Zhi-Lian with Bai-Hua-She-She-Cao. ... Therefore, she continued taking the concentration scientific herbal medicine of Jen-Ren-Hwo-Minq-Saan and decoction of Ban-Zhi-Lian and Bai-Hua-She-She-Cao. ...doi:10.1155/2017/7327359 pmid:28948057 pmcid:PMC5602615 fatcat:rz22u2mjn5bufmt33bbnnqtwwe
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