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Levels of detail (LOD) engineering of VR objects

Jinseok Seo, Gerard Jounghyun Kim, Kyo Chul Kang
1999 Proceedings of the ACM symposium on Virtual reality software and technology - VRST '99  
One of the most popular methods is the use of levels of detail (LOD).  ...  and behavior for modeling VR objects.  ...  LOD Engineering In this section, we outline the overall process of LOD engineering of VR objects using ASADAL/PROTO, a hierarchical VR object prototyping tool.  ... 
doi:10.1145/323663.323680 dblp:conf/vrst/SeoKK99 fatcat:k5z6caag6vgahfa7ikjmk7gayy

Gaze-Contingent Level Of Detail Rendering [article]

Hunter Murphy, Andrew T. Duchowski
2001 Eurographics State of the Art Reports  
The contributions of this paper are the development and evaluation of a nonisotropic model-based Level Of Detail (LOD) rendering technique for gaze-contingent viewing of multiresolution meshes.  ...  Unlike previous LOD approaches, our resolution degradation method is based on the measurement of visual angle in world coordinates and is applied directly to object geometries prior to rendering.  ...  Section 5 gives details of the nonisotropic LOD technique developed for gazecontingent viewing in VR, and Section 6 gives the spatial acuity degradation function obtained from human subject trials.  ... 
doi:10.2312/egs.20011004 fatcat:nccjccdtynbs5dxuzpf72wkmf4

From BIM to VR: defining a level of detail to guide virtual reality narratives

Katie Graham, Lara Chow, Stephen Fai
2019 Journal of Information Technology in Construction  
In the process of planning the model, CIMS developed a unique Level of Detail (LOD) specification for heritage buildings that, in addition to standard specifications, considered cultural heritage value  ...  as part of the LOD.  ...  The three-tier, five category system borrows from the architecture, engineering, construction and operations (AECO) industry standards and guidelines and indexes level of detail (LOD), level of information  ... 
doi:10.36680/j.itcon.2019.031 fatcat:7ngmdmoc4rerzitdptuk4o2b3y

Parallel View-Dependent Level-of-Detail Control

Liang Hu, Pedro V Sander, Hugues Hoppe
2010 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics  
We present a scheme for view-dependent level-of-detail control that is implemented entirely on programmable graphics hardware.  ...  We demonstrate real-time exploration of complex models with normals and textures, as well as shadowing and semitransparent surface rendering applications that make direct use of the resulting dynamic index  ...  INTRODUCTION E FFICIENT rendering of complex geometric models has been an active research area for over a decade, with many level-of-detail (LOD) representations offering tradeoffs in fidelity and speed  ... 
doi:10.1109/tvcg.2009.101 pmid:20616388 fatcat:r3fibo3lhzcgbggm4un3heve3y

A Multiple Level-of-Detail 3D Data Transmission Approach for Low-Latency Remote Visualisation in Teleoperation Tasks

Salvador Pacheco-Gutierrez, Hanlin Niu, Ipek Caliskanelli, Robert Skilton
2021 Robotics  
The level of compression (resolution) of objects is prioritised based on: (i) placement on the scene; and (ii) the type of object.  ...  This paper presents a multiple level-of-detail (LoD) compression strategy for 3D data based on tree-like codification structures capable of compressing a single data frame at multiple resolutions using  ...  In the case of multiple LoD, this also includes the clustering time. Compression ratio comparison for (a) single and (b) multiple level-of-detail.  ... 
doi:10.3390/robotics10030089 fatcat:uuyk6wm5kzam3ns42qenjofcwm

BIM LOD + Virtual Reality – Using Game Engine for Visualization in Architectural Construction Education [article]

Hassan Anifowose, Wei Yan, Manish Dixit
2022 arXiv   pre-print
difficulty which correspond with varying BIM levels of development (LODs).  ...  We explored this hypothesis in a step-by-step game design demonstration in VR, by showcasing the exploration of the Farnsworth House and reproducing assemblage of the same with different game levels of  ...  A new VR object-snapping feature developed for the game allowed both players to complete the tasks with the same levels of difficulty.  ... 
arXiv:2201.09954v1 fatcat:7imr2xaqlbbixnzylhipccnpre

Virtual Fort San Domingo in Taiwan: A Study on Accurate and High Level of Detail 3D Modelling [chapter]

Shih-Yuan Lin, Sheng-Chih Chen
2011 Geospatial Techniques in Urban Planning  
The geomatics models emphasize geometric accuracy, while the models produced in virtual reality focus on the level of detail (LOD) of the buildings and scenes.  ...  Then the geomatics models were updated using VR models, thereby providing a virtual scene with high geometric accuracy and high level of details.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge Strong Engineering Consulting Co., Ltd. (Taiwan) for providing the terrestrial laser scanned data.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13559-0_8 fatcat:ilvkamheevc6ncbpvrqn7snweq

Real-time display of virtual humans: levels of details and impostors

A. Aubel, R. Boulic, D. Thalmann
2000 IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology (Print)  
Up to now little research has been conducted to tackle the issue of real-time rendering of numerous virtual humans.  ...  We introduce concrete case studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. Finally, we tackle the visibility issue.  ...  Geometric level of detail (LOD) attempts to reduce the number of rendered polygons by using several representations of decreasing complexity of an object.  ... 
doi:10.1109/76.825720 fatcat:qpqg5gp32zdalfyhq27jctudfm

Analyzing the Level of Detail of Construction Schedule for Enabling Site Logistics Planning (SLP) in the Building Information Modeling (BIM) Environment

Sonja Kolarić, Mladen Vukomanović, Antonio Ramljak
2022 Sustainability  
Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies and research on level of detail of construction schedules, which makes SLP hard to implement in a BIM environment.  ...  The results show that the following input data for SLP in the BIM environment is needed: hierarchically structured 3D BIM model, Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), detail schedule, resources constraints,  ...  detail (LOD 300/350), and an element sheet for the draft level of detail (LOD 200).  ... 
doi:10.3390/su14116701 fatcat:lkaac272mbhznlhnt77lewenl4


L. Zhang, P. van Oosterom, H. Liu
2020 The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences  
Our method uses a cLoD model that has an ideal distribution over LoDs, with which can remove unnecessary points without sudden changes in density as present in the commonly used discrete level-of-detail  ...  In our paper, a cLoD (continuous level-of-detail) method is introduced to filter the number of points to be rendered considerably, together with an adaptive point size rendering strategy, thus improve  ...  Compared with state-of-art dLoD (discrete level-of-detail) methods, our cLoD model has an ideal distribution over LoDs, which means we can realize a smooth transition in density, avoid density shocks as  ... 
doi:10.5194/isprs-archives-xliv-4-w1-2020-167-2020 fatcat:r6mutuj7trev5ejimittzdxog4

Real-Time Tracking of Visually Attended Objects in Virtual Environments and Its Application to LOD

Sungkil Lee, G.J. Kim, Seungmoon Choi
2009 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics  
Index Terms-Visual attention, saliency map, bottom-up feature, top-down context, virtual environment, level of detail.  ...  Finally, we demonstrate how the visual attention tracking framework can be applied to managing the level of details in VEs, without any hardware for head or eye tracking.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank the four reviewers for their insightful comments and Toru Miyazawa at Toucan Co. for granting use of the fish models.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tvcg.2008.82 pmid:19008552 fatcat:3tsfzjsndjdplcrhgkimqvaqmm

Foveated gaze-contingent displays for peripheral LOD management, 3D visualization, and stereo imaging

Andrew T. Duchowski, Arzu Çöltekin
2007 ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP)  
The goal is to provide the vision sciences and perceptual graphics communities techniques for the investigation of fundamental processes of visual perception.  ...  The pixel shader advances current state-of-the-art by allowing real-time processing of still or streamed images, obviating the need for preprocessing or storage.  ...  For screen-based VR rendering, Watson et al.'s [1997] work is particularly relevant. Watson et al. studied the effects of level-of-detail (LOD) peripheral degradation on visual search performance.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1314303.1314309 fatcat:mec6ie6dyzaohffgrzmvel6mna

Creating Immersive Virtual Environments Based on Open Geospatial Data and Game Engines

Julian Keil, Dennis Edler, Thomas Schmitt, Frank Dickmann
2021 KN - Journal of Cartography and Geographic Information  
In addition, recent advances of game engine capabilities enable effortless implementation of virtual reality (VR) compatibility. 3D environments created with VR compatibility can be experienced from an  ...  AbstractModern game engines like Unity allow users to create realistic 3D environments containing terrains as well as natural and artificial objects easily and swiftly.  ...  The most relevant quality criteria of a 3D city model are the completeness of the model, the spatial accuracy of object locations and the level of detail (LOD).  ... 
doi:10.1007/s42489-020-00069-6 fatcat:npphrkeidbgapacxsvxytodlxi

Virtual Reality in Cartography: Immersive 3D Visualization of the Arctic Clyde Inlet (Canada) Using Digital Elevation Models and Bathymetric Data

Mona Lütjens, Thomas Kersten, Boris Dorschel, Felix Tschirschwitz
2019 Multimodal Technologies and Interaction  
Techniques, such as level of detail algorithms, tiling, and level streaming, were applied to run the more than one gigabyte large dataset at an acceptable frame rate.  ...  The potential of VR was assessed in a user survey of persons from six different professions.  ...  Acknowledgments: The authors express their gratitude to all interviewees whose passionate participation and input contributed to the successful validation of the VR application.  ... 
doi:10.3390/mti3010009 fatcat:hy6wumigc5cktgkkbdjll3pfgq

Interactive dense point clouds in a game engine

Juho-Pekka Virtanen, Sylvie Daniel, Tuomas Turppa, Lingli Zhu, Arttu Julin, Hannu Hyyppä, Juha Hyyppä
2020 ISPRS journal of photogrammetry and remote sensing (Print)  
In this paper, we present the development and architecture of a game engine extension facilitating the interactive visualization of dense point clouds.  ...  The extension allows the development of game engine applications where users edit and interact with point clouds.  ...  Acknowledgement This research project was supported by the Academy of Finland, the Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research (CoE-LaSR) (No. 272195, 307362).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2020.03.007 fatcat:dhyf2pirkzbpdk3ofz7w26rc34
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