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Levels of Detail for Crowds and Groups

C. O'Sullivan, J. Cassell, H. Vilhjalmsson, J. Dingliana, S. Dobbyn, B. McNamee, C. Peters, T. Giang
2002 Computer graphics forum (Print)  
In this paper, we describe ongoing development of a framework for Adaptive Level Of Detail for Human Animation (ALOHA), which incorporates levels of detail for not only geometry and motion, but also includes  ...  Work on levels of detail for human simulation has occurred mainly on a geometrical level, either by reducing the numbers of polygons representing a virtual human, or replacing them with a two-dimensional  ...  Acknowledgements This work has been supported by Enterprise Ireland and the Higher Education Authority of Ireland.  ... 
doi:10.1111/1467-8659.00631 fatcat:ol7jyf67pvdwril5bxsrhkebay

Every last detail

Micheal Larkin, Sebastian Paris, Simon Dobbyn, Carol O'Sullivan
2010 Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games - I3D 10  
Figure 1: Representations used: Geometrical level of detail, point based meshes, point cloud representation  ...  We propose that instead of achieving real time frame rates by managing the level of detail of each character individually, high framerates may be guaranteed if detail is managed for crowds as a whole.  ...  Method To render our low level of detail crowd representation, we must first determine the appropriate level of detail at which to render agents.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1730804.1730974 dblp:conf/si3d/LarkinPDO10 fatcat:j3jsz52tkjbbxdbp3o6kssqdem

Crowd modelling in collaborative virtual environments

Soraia R. Musse, Christian Babski, Tolga Capin, Daniel Thalmann
1998 Proceedings of the ACM symposium on Virtual reality software and technology 1998 - VRST '98  
This paper presents a crowd modelling method in Collaborative Virtual Environment (CVE) which aims to create a sense of group presence to provide a more realistic virtual world.  ...  This system has been integrated in the several CVE platforms which will be presented at the end of this paper.  ...  The research was sponsored by the Swiss National Research Foundation, the Federal Office of Education and Science in the framework of the European project eRENA [8], FUNDEPE and CAPES -Fundação Coordenação  ... 
doi:10.1145/293701.293716 dblp:conf/vrst/MusseBCT98 fatcat:q26vm4wvljesfoig6orok4h4hq

Altered neural oscillations and connectivity in the beta band underlie detail-oriented visual processing in autism

Luca Ronconi, Andrea Vitale, Alessandra Federici, Elisa Pini, Massimo Molteni, Luca Casartelli
2020 NeuroImage: Clinical  
The present study employed electroencephalography (EEG) to test whether detail-oriented visual perception, a recognized hallmark of ASD, is associated with altered neural oscillations and functional connectivity  ...  Using a visual crowding task, where participants had to discriminate a peripheral target letter surrounded by flankers at different distances, we found that detail-oriented processing in children with  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by the "5per1000" funds for biomedical research (Scientific Institute IRCCS Medea; 2016, 2017 to LC), and by the Italian Ministry of Health (RC 2016-2018 to LC).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102484 pmid:33395975 pmcid:PMC7663221 fatcat:vkuyxnptiffbthfodyzlmhq2vy

Altered beta-band oscillations and connectivity underlie detail-oriented visual processing in autism [article]

Luca Ronconi, Andrea Vitale, Alessandra Federici, Elisa Pini, Massimo Molteni, Luca Casartelli
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
In TD participants the amplitude of the target-locked N1 component and its cortical sources was significantly modulated as a function of visual crowding, whereas such modulation was absent in the ASD group  ...  The comparison between groups showed a decreased activity in the ASD group in occipital, infero-temporal and inferior/middle frontal regions in conditions requiring detail-oriented perception as opposed  ...  and the mid crowding condition (for details see Ronconi et al., 2016a) .  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.01.30.926261 fatcat:ll6wakt6l5eejeezaob74kq4w4

Vision: Seeing through the Gaps in the Crowd

David Whitney
2009 Current Biology  
Recent results on this 'crowding' phenomenon are starting to bridge the gap between the striking limits of perception and the subjective impression of a rich visual world.  ...  Much of our visual experience is an 'illusion of completeness', without true conscious access to the details of objects in a typically cluttered natural scene.  ...  There is no shortage of models for crowding, ranging from over-integration or pooling of low level features, to attentional resolution (for reviews, see [2, 3, 5] ).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.038 pmid:20064406 pmcid:PMC2857404 fatcat:uq56fwtefjagrbab4prtmfqyjy

Toward a Hybrid Approach for Crowd Simulation

Chighoub Rabiaa, Cherif Foudil
2016 International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications  
In order to achieve the strengths of the two classes of crowd modeling, we propose a hybrid architecture for defining the complex behaviors of crowd at two levels, the individual behaviors, and the aggregate  ...  To date, two approaches can be used in modeling and simulation of crowd behaviors, i.e. macroscopic and microscopic models.  ...  Hence the flexibility of combining two models of different level of detail is examined to capture and characterize the almost aspects of the crowd dynamic.  ... 
doi:10.14569/ijacsa.2016.070108 fatcat:6je5r2yskzaobauyn75jcgspr4

Moving crowds

M. Prazak, L. Kavan, R. McDonnell, S. Dobbyn, C. O'Sullivan
2010 Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games - I3D 10  
Our middle level-of-detail animation system significantly relieves the computational cost of animation generation for large crowds of characters while avoiding animation artifacts.  ...  be animated with a highly accurate animation model), middle level-of-detail characters (targeted by our system) and the largest group of very distant characters (which are far enough away to allow extremely  ...  Our middle level-of-detail animation system significantly relieves the computational cost of animation generation for large crowds of characters while avoiding animation artifacts.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1730804.1730981 dblp:conf/si3d/PrazakKMDO10 fatcat:znbgx42u2jhdpnq7lpp6lxxnum

Aging and Visual Crowding

C. T. Scialfa, S. Cordazzo, K. Bubric, J. Lyon
2012 The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences  
Acknowledgments We would like to offer special thanks to David Stewart for assistance with data aggregation and analysis.  ...  Thresholds were determined using the method of constant stimuli with 20 trials for both the uncrowded and crowded conditions at each of 12 levels of target size, and therefore, gap size in the Landolt  ...  Mean proportion correct for the crowded and uncrowded conditions is plotted as a function of stimulus size, eccentricity, and group in Figure 1 .  ... 
doi:10.1093/geronb/gbs086 pmid:23009956 fatcat:nszwigaycbbs3dno7bcytcx4gu

Crowd Rendering Optimization for Virtual Heritage System

Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Mohamed Adi Bin Mohamed Azahar, Mohd Khalid Mokhtar, Daut Daman
2009 International Journal of Virtual Reality  
By inserting crowd into simulation of virtual heritage, it will give more impact and achieve higher realism level to the reconstructed site.  ...  Before inserting the crowd into virtual environment, a research needs to be done to manage the complex environment of virtual heritage and the crowd itself.  ...  Most used techniques in crowd rendering is level-of-detail (LOD) and image-based impostor. II.  ... 
doi:10.20870/ijvr.2009.8.3.2743 fatcat:lh2qyllwgzgozi5w4qfgrssgwe

Crowd modeling and simulation technologies

Suiping Zhou, Dan Chen, Wentong Cai, Linbo Luo, Malcolm Yoke Hean Low, Feng Tian, Victor Su-Han Tay, Darren Wee Sze Ong, Benjamin D. Hamilton
2010 ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation  
This paper assesses the major existing technologies for crowd modeling and simulation.  ...  Technical Support Working Group, USA As a collective and highly dynamic social group, human crowd is a fascinating phenomenon which has been constantly concerned by experts from various areas.  ...  Then, for different regions, different levels of details are used for path planning and rendering.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1842722.1842725 fatcat:lhy74f24mvcnxhpxodsiph2yvi

Investigation of pedestrian evacuation scenarios through congestion level and crowd dang

Claudio Feliciani, Katsuhiro Nishinari
2020 Collective Dynamics  
In this paper, we present two quantities aimed at numerically describing the level of congestion and the intrinsic risk of pedestrian crowds.  ...  Results for small room sizes and limited number of pedestrians show that the crowd danger distribution over the space in front of the exit door has similar patterns to typical quantities used in the frame  ...  Acknowledgements This work was financially supported by JST-Mirai Program Grant Number JPMJMI17D4, the Doctoral Student Special Incentives Program (SEUT RA) and the Foundation for Supporting International  ... 
doi:10.17815/cd.2020.45 fatcat:7ing6tiamfgzhif4brkapb6fb4

Measures of sociality: two different views of group size

Jenő Reiczigel, Zsolt Lang, Lajos Rózsa, Béla Tóthmérész
2008 Animal Behaviour  
In a comparison across several bird and mammal species, mean group size correlates positively with mean crowding (empirical data, see Table 1 for details).  ...  It equals to 1 for a solitary individual and 2 for both individuals in a group of two, etc. Thus, mean crowding equals Jarman's 'Typical Group Size'.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.05.020 fatcat:udducbyhszdnhpnzdudd2njf2m

PANDA: A Gigapixel-Level Human-Centric Video Dataset

Xueyang Wang, Xiya Zhang, Yinheng Zhu, Yuchen Guo, Xiaoyun Yuan, Liuyu Xiang, Zerun Wang, Guiguang Ding, David Brady, Qionghai Dai, Lu Fang
2020 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)  
A representative video Marathon of PANDA dataset. The characteristic of joint wide field-of-view and high spatial resolution empowers the large-scale, long-term, and multi-object visual analysis.  ...  For group annotation, the advance of PANDA with wide-FoV global information, high-resolution local details and temporal activities ensures more reliable annotations for group detection.  ...  Complete and accurate annotations of location, trajectory, attribute, group and intra-group interaction information of crowd are provided. • We benchmark several state-of-the-art algorithms on PANDA for  ... 
doi:10.1109/cvpr42600.2020.00333 dblp:conf/cvpr/WangZZGYXWDBDF20 fatcat:sahedsewqjc5zfg3sfshvzseh4

The relationship between the severity of malposition of the frontal teeth and periodontal health in age 15-21 and 35-44

Jolanta Pugaca, Ilga Urtane, Andra Liepa, Zane Laurina
2007 Stomatologija, Baltic Dental and Maxillofacial Journal  
For assessment of malocclusion 2 components of ICON index were used: upper arch crowding and incisor overbite.  ...  The data were analyzed from a detailed crossectional study in Latvian population. Selected samples consisted of two age groups: 15-21 (n=323) and 35-44 (n=286) years old.  ...  Higher proportion of individuals with level 1 (2.1-5 mm) severity of upper arch crowding was observed in age group 15-21. Level 2 severity (5.1-9 mm) was more prevalent in older age group.  ... 
pmid:17993741 fatcat:3bsfwzpulzhohlp5uxynr2situ
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